589 Croatia

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589 Croatia
Discovery [1]
Discovered byA. Kopff
Discovery siteHeidelberg Obs.
Discovery date3 March 1906
(589) Croatia
Named after
(part of Austria-Hungary)
1906 TM · 1936 WM
1947 RA · 1953 RF1
1953 VR1 · 1953 VU
A912 HH
main-belt · (outer)[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc111.34 yr (40,666 d)
Aphelion3.2583 AU
Perihelion3.0205 AU
3.1394 AU
5.56 yr (2,032 days)
0° 10m 37.92s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions84.44±22.49 km[6]
87.54±2.5 km[7]
87.66 km (derived)[3]
91.75±1.30 km[8]
93.617±1.015 km[9]
96.491±2.300 km[10]
11.7±0.1 h[11][a]
16.385±0.0931 h[12]
24.821±0.002 h[13]
0.0577 (derived)[3]
Tholen = CX[1][3] · P[10]
B–V = 0.73[1]
U–B = 0.368[1]
8.938±0.004 (R)[12] · 8.99±0.26[15] · 9.00[3][9] · 9.1[1] · 9.14[7][8][10] · 9.18[6]

Croatia (minor planet designation: 589 Croatia), provisional designation 1906 TM, is a dark asteroid and parent body of the Croatia family, located in the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 88 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered in 1906, by astronomer August Kopff at Heidelberg Observatory, and later named for the independent country of Croatia, then part of Austria-Hungary.[2][16]


The asteroid was discovered on 3 March 1906, by German astronomer August Kopff at the Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory in southwest Germany,[16] with the use of the photographic method. In the moment of the discovery, the asteroid was 12.5mv and was in the constellation of Virgo. The discovery was published in the Astronomische Nachrichten magazine, in the article wrote by Professor Wolf. Later, some astronomers (Johann Palisa, Karl Lohnert and some others) were making measurements for the purpose of determining the orbital elements. From these measurements P. V. Neugebauer from Berlin and M.S. Mello and Simas from Trafaria (Lisbon) had independently determined the first orbital elements. Observations had continued, and among observers there were A. Kopff, E. Bianchi, A. Abetti, G. Zappa, P. Chafardet, E. Millosevich, J. Palisa, and some others. Observations were made from Berlin, Copenhagen, Rome, Arcetra and some other Italian cities.[17][18]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Croatia is the parent body of the Croatia family (638), a small asteroid family of less than 100 known members.[4][19]:23 It orbits the Sun in the outer main belt at a distance of 3.0–3.3 AU once every 5 years and 7 months (2,032 days; semi-major axis of 3.14 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.04 and an inclination of 11° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The body's observation arc begins at Heidelberg, sixteen days after its official discovery observation.[16]

Physical characteristics[edit]

In the Tholen classification, Croatia is ambiguous, closest to a carbonaceous C-type and somewhat similar to that of an X-type asteroid,[1][3] while the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) characterized it as a primitive P-type asteroid.[10] Nesvorný determined the overall spectral type for the Croatia family to be that of an X-type.[19]:23

Rotation period[edit]

In July 2013, the so-far best-rated rotational lightcurve of Croatia was obtained by astronomers Romain Montaigut, Arnaud Leroy, Raoul Behrend, René Roy, Donn Starkey, Maurice Audejean, Roberto Crippa and Federico Manzini. Lightcurve analysis gave a longer-than average rotation period of 24.821 hours with a brightness variation of 0.25 magnitude (U=2+).[13] The result supersedes photometric observations by Brian Warner and by astronomers at the Palomar Transient Factory, which measured a shorter period of 11.7 and 16.385 hours with an amplitude of 0.16 and 0.32, respectively (U=2/2).[11][12][a]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's WISE telescope, Croatia measures between 84.44 and 96.491 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.041 and 0.06.[6][7][8][9][10][14]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0577 and a diameter of 87.66 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 9.0.[3] The radius of (probably) 28.452 km (and, consequently, the superficial area of 2543.2 km2, and equatorial circumference of 89.385 km) were determined by use of Argelander's Method.[18]


This minor planet was named for the country of Croatia, then part of Austria-Hungary, after the suggestion made by astronomer Max Wolf. It also honors the foundation of the Astronomical Observatory of the Croatian Natural Sciences Society (Zagreb Observatory) in Zagreb.[2][17]


  1. ^ a b Lightcurve plot of 589 Croatia, Palmer Divide Observatory, B. D. Warner (2007). Summary figures at the LCDB


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 589 Croatia (1906 TM)" (2017-07-05 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(589) Croatia". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (589) Croatia. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 61. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_590. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "LCDB Data for (589) Croatia". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Asteroid 589 Croatia – Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0". Small Bodies Data Ferret. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  5. ^ Noah Webster (1884) A Practical Dictionary of the English Language
  6. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. 12: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  8. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 17 October 2019. (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  9. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  11. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (June 2008). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory - June - October 2007". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 35 (2): 56–60. Bibcode:2008MPBu...35...56W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  12. ^ a b c Waszczak, Adam; Chang, Chan-Kao; Ofek, Eran O.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Levitan, David; et al. (September 2015). "Asteroid Light Curves from the Palomar Transient Factory Survey: Rotation Periods and Phase Functions from Sparse Photometry". The Astronomical Journal. 150 (3): 35. arXiv:1504.04041. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...75W. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/75. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  13. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (589) Croatia". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  14. ^ a b Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121.
  15. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  16. ^ a b c "589 Croatia (1906 TM)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  17. ^ a b Kučera, Oton (1910). "Planet Croatia 589" . Glasnik Hrvatskoga Prirodoslovnoga Društva (XXII - prva polovina).
  18. ^ a b Tadej, Ivan (1973). "Efemeride planetoida 589 Croatia" . Almanah Bošković 1974 (26): 77–80.
  19. ^ a b Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families. Asteroids IV. pp. 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. ISBN 9780816532131.

External links[edit]