589 Croatia is a minor planet orbiting the Sun, discovered by Dr. August Kopff from Königstuhl-Heidelberg Observatory, with the use of the photographic method. In the moment of the discovery, the asteroid was 12.5mv and was in the constellation of Virgo. The object was named Croatia, after the suggestion made by professor Max Wolf, to honor the foundation of the Astronomical Observatory of the Croatian Natural Sciences Society in Zagreb. The discovery was published in the Astronomische Nachrichten magazine, in the article wrote by Professor Wolf. Later, some astronomers (Johann Palisa, K. Lohnert and some others) were making measurements for the purpose of determining the orbital elements. From these measurements Dr. P.V. Neugebauer from Berlin and M.S. Mello and Simas from Trafaria (Lisboa) had independently determined the first orbital elements. Observations had continued, and among observers there were A. Kopff, E. Bianchi, A. Abetti, G. Zappa, P. Chafardet, Elia Millosevich, J. Palisa, and some others. Observations were made from Berlin, Copenhagen, Rome, Arcetra and some other Italian cities. The radius of (probably) 28.452 km (and, consequently, the superficial area of 2543.2 km2, and equatorial circumference of 89.385 km) were determined by use of the Argelander's Method.