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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|58 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||58 BC
|Ab urbe condita||696|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXXIII dynasty, 266|
|- Pharaoh||Ptolemy XII Auletes, 23|
|Ancient Greek era||180th Olympiad, year 3|
|Chinese calendar||壬戌年 (Water Dog)
2639 or 2579
— to —
癸亥年 (Water Pig)
2640 or 2580
|Coptic calendar||−341 – −340|
|Ethiopian calendar||−65 – −64|
|- Vikram Samvat||−1 – 0|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||3043–3044|
|Iranian calendar||679 BP – 678 BP|
|Islamic calendar||700 BH – 699 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1969 before ROC
|Seleucid era||254/255 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||485–486|
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Year 58 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Piso and Gabinius (or, less frequently, year 696 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 58 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Consuls: Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus and Aulus Gabinius.
- Publius Clodius Pulcher, Roman tribune, institutes a monthly corn dole for poor Romans, and exiles Cicero from the city.
- Cyprus becomes a Roman province.
- First year of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars:
- Caesar becomes a provincial governor (Proconsul) and leads a Roman army (4 Roman legion; Legio VII, Legio VIII, Legio IX and the famous Legio X) into Gaul. For auxiliaries he organised ± 3,000 Balearic slingers and Cretan archers into cohorts.
- Caesar builds a 19-mile earthwork, complete with fortifications and watchtowers, between Lake Geneva and the Jura Mountains.
- June – Caesar defeats the migrating Helvetii in the Battle of the Arar.
- July – Caesar decisively defeats the Helvetii in the Battle of Bibracte.
- September – Caesar decisively defeats the Suebi led by Ariovistus in the Battle of Vosges.
- Base year of the Vikrama Era, founded by Vikrama, king of Ujjain in India.
- Jumong becomes the 7th ruler of Buyeo.