|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|59 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||59 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||695|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXXIII dynasty, 265|
|- Pharaoh||Ptolemy XII Auletes, 22|
|Ancient Greek era||180th Olympiad, year 2|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||辛酉年 (Metal Rooster)|
2638 or 2578
— to —
壬戌年 (Water Dog)
2639 or 2579
|Coptic calendar||−342 – −341|
|Ethiopian calendar||−66 – −65|
|- Vikram Samvat||−2 – −1|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||3042–3043|
|Iranian calendar||680 BP – 679 BP|
|Islamic calendar||701 BH – 700 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1970 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||253/254 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||484–485|
68 or −313 or −1085
— to —
69 or −312 or −1084
Year 59 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Caesar and Bibulus (or, less frequently, year 695 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 59 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Consuls: Gaius Julius Caesar and Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus (known in jest as "the consulship of Julius and Caesar" due to Bibulus' Social withdrawal from public view to "consult the heavens" in an effort to invalidate Caesar's intended legislation).
- Caesar makes the Acta Diurna (Daily News), the world's first daily newspaper, public. The Acta contains details of official decrees and appointments; births, deaths, and marriages. Even sport results—the outcome of the gladiatorial contests and chariot races at the capital.
- The First Triumvirate: Caesar, Pompey and Crassus form an unofficial alliance (or 60 BC).
- Caesar marries Calpurnia, in Rome.
- The colonia of Florentia, modern Florence, founded.
- Prince He of Changyi, former Emperor of the Han Dynasty of China
- Gaius Octavius, father of Caesar Augustus (b. c. 100 BC)
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