5th Battalion, Ulster Defence Regiment

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5th (County Londonderry) Battalion, Ulster Defence Regiment
UDR Insignia
Regimental Insignia
Active 1970–1992
Country  United Kingdom
Branch British Army
Type Infantry battalion
Role Internal Security
Size 750
Motto "Quis Separabit" (Latin)
"Who Shall Separate Us?"
March (Quick) Garryowen & Sprig of Shillelagh.
(Slow) Oft in the Stilly Night
Commanders
Colonel Commandant

First: General Sir John Anderson GBE, KCB, DSO.

Last: General Sir Charles Huxtable, KCB, CBE, DL
Colonel of the Regiment Colonel Sir Dennis Faulkner CBE

5th (County Londonderry) Battalion, Ulster Defence Regiment (5 UDR) was formed in 1970 as part of the 7 original battalions specified in The Ulster Defence Regiment Act 1969, which received Royal Assent on 18 December 1969[1] and was brought into force on 1 January 1970.[2][3] It was, along with the rest of the regiment, amalgamated with the Royal Irish Rangers in 1992 to form the Royal Irish Regiment.

Recruitment[edit]

Recruitment for 5 UDR was initially slow. The battalion began its duties on 1 April 1970 with only 200 men to patrol Derry city and a further 300 to cover the rest of the county as opposed to the USC's figures for the previous day of 600 and 1200 respectively.[4] Catholic recruitment was on a par with Protestant figures however and the two city companies of 5 UDR were 50/50 in makeup, with John Hume known to have signed at least one application and told the recruit to "go out and find all the decent Catholic people he could to enlist".[5]

Sir Robin Chichester-Clark complained asked in parliament why one of his constituents was turned down for the force as he was a churchwarden and a local government official.[6] The reply by Roy Hattersley confirmed that the vetting team had been instructed to err on the side of caution and that two clergymen had also been refused because the new force was to be "isolated from political and sectarian influence".[6]

Intimidation[edit]

Protestant and Catholic soldiers were both intimidated out of the regiment.[7] Following the introduction of internment however more Catholic soldiers found themselves the subject of intimidation from within their own community.[7] One captain in 5 UDR, who had been a member of the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association and had taken part in the Derry march, was intimidated out of the regiment, out of his job and out of Derry.[7]

The OC of the Waterside Company commented that it was "very, very soul destroying" to lose good men this way, especially when they so obviously enjoyed being soldiers in the regiment.[8]

History[edit]

Along with the other 6 original battalions, 5 UDR commenced operational duties on 1 April 1970. Battalion Headquarters was established at the former Anti-submarine warfare school but was later moved to more suitable accommodation in Shackleton Barracks, Ballykelly, County Londonderry[9] which they shared at various times with the Royal Air Force, the Army Air Corps and various units of the army.

The battalion had the largest Tactical Area of Responsibility in the regiment which covered parts of two counties (Londonderry and Antrim) as well as three police divisions. 1600 miles in total.[9]

The first commanding officer of 5 UDR[10] was Lieutenant Colonel Kenneth Bulstrode Lloyd Davidson JP, MID who had seen action in World War 2 as an officer with the 2nd Battalion, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. Appointed Deputy Lord Lieutenant, High Sheriff for County Londonderry and later, Commandant of the City of Derry Ulster Special Constabulary between 1968 and 1970.[11]

Following his retirement after his agreed one year of service he was replaced by the battalion's first regular commanding officer, Lt Col John Lys.[12]

The second in command (2 i/c) of the battalion upon formation was Major George Lapsley, the son of a police inspector, graduate of Magee College, World War 2 veteran of the Royal Navy (Far Eastern campaign), and officer of the Territorial Army. He was responsible for recruitment in the early stages.[13] The job of 2 i/c was usually given to the senior part-time officer of the battalion until 1991 when the post was changed to one for a regular officer.

The first Training Major (TISO) was Major LSTH Pelham-Burn of the Coldstream Guards.[14] Part of his job was to organise accommodation for all the companies of the new battalion. Where possible accommodation was sought in army bases although the old Ulster Special Constabulary platoon huts were vacant and available. To have used those would have attracted criticism from those who were already claiming that the UDR was the B Specials under a new name.[14]

Companies[edit]

The battalion eventually had seven Rifle Companies which were based at: Ebrington Barracks, Derry, (A, West Bank, Coy and B, Waterside Coy), C Coy in Claudy, D Coy in Shackleton Barracks, Ballykelly, E Coy at Laurel House, Coleraine, F Coy in Magherafelt. and G Coy in Maghera.[15]

G Coy was originally the B Coy of 1 UDR based in Ballymoney. It came under the command of 5 UDR in 1983. A further change in 1992 saw E and G Coys merge to form D Company.[16]

E Company[edit]

Raised in 1971 the first Officer Commanding E Company (E Coy) was Major George Lapsley who transferred in from Battalion Headquarters.[17]

The company was broken down into four platoons. The majority of soldiers in 21 Platoon came from Portrush, Portstewart (the Ports) and the Windyhall area of Coleraine. 22 Platoon's soldiers lived on the east side of the River Bann. 23 Platoon's men and women came from the west side of the Bann, known as "The Heights" whilst 24 Platoon recruited from Garvagh and surrounding areas.[18] The resulting platoon structure had soldiers from each area regular patrolling territory they were familiar with and where they knew most people from the locality. This was a hallmark of the early UDR part-timers: that they were able to tell when something was amiss in the areas they knew when out on patrol.

21 Platoon
The Ports
22 Platoon
East Bann
23 Platoon
West Bann
24 Platoon
Garvagh
No 1 Section No 1 Section No 1 Section No 1 Section
No 2 Section No 2 Section No 2 Section No 2 Section
No 3 Section No 3 Section No 3 Section No 3 Section

Company headquarters was established in the former USC Drill Hall in Macosquin. After discussion with a local property owner "Laurel Hill House", built in 1843, was purchased by the Army Property Services Department for £24,000 but required work in excess of £100,000 to make it fit for purpose.[19] The house had been military accommodation in the past when it was requisitioned for the United States Army in World War 2.[19] It was also reputed to be haunted.

By the time E Company took possession of the house and outbuilding they had been converted into a barracks which contained all the facilities expected to be found in UDR company and battalion locations. A guardroom, armoury, Motor Transport (MT) section, 25 metre indoor rifle range (for .22 Long Rifle .22 calibre only), Officer's Mess, Warrant Officers and Sergeant's Mess, Junior Ranks Bar, snooker reoom, stores, lecture rooms, offices, operations room, sangars and a pipe range.[20] A pipe range consists of a 30 metre section of concrete pipe of 1 metre diameter, set onto the ground and covered substantially with earth. It was used in military bases in Northern Ireland for rifle practice when surrounding buildings made it unsafe to establish an open shooting range.

A helicopter pad was also established in the grounds of the house and a drill hall built close by. The drill hall also doubled as a room for large functions.[21]

The house and 4.5 acres of grounds were placed on the market again in 2012 and sold at auction for an undisclosed sum although the guide price was listed at £190,000.[22]

Uniform, armament & equipment[edit]

Initially arms had to be drawn from the North Irish Horse barracks in Ballymoney which by that time had become B Coy 1 UDR

See also: Ulster Defence Regiment Uniform, armament & equipment

Greenfinches[edit]

See also: Women's UDR

Music[edit]

5 UDR had a number of champion pipers and drummers who, apart from local performances, represented the regiment at Horse Guards Parade the Festival of Remembrance in the Royal Albert Hall, London,[9] the Colchester Tattoo, the Queen's Birthday Celebrations in York, an International Air Show at Aldergove and on a tour of the British Army of the Rhine.[23]

In the World Pipe Band Championships of 1978 the pipes and drums of 5 UDR won the Royal Scottish Pipe Band Association championship against 126 entrants.[24] In the World Pipe Band Championships of 1979 competing against 260 other bands, they won both the "Piping and Marching" and "Discipline" trophies. Improving on their 1978 placings of 2nd and 1st respectively in those categories.[25]

The album 5 UDR Pipes & Drums "Irish & Scottish Pipe Music", which includes recordings of the regimental and battalions marches as well as other popular tunes, was the only recording publicly released by regimental musicians.[26]

Casualties[edit]

28 soldiers from 5 UDR died whilst on active duty during The Troubles, a further 12 were assassinated after completing their service.[27]

The first to die was Captain Marcus McCausland, a Catholic. Captain McCausland had previously served with the Irish Guards. His family owned a large estate outside Limavady. He had served as High sheriff for the county and was also a member of the Urban District Council. The Official Irish Republican Army abducted him and interrogated him for four hours before shooting him and dumping his body in the snow.[28]

Sgt David C. Deacon, Age 38, (HQ Company), 3 March 1973. His hooded body was found near Londonderry, his hands were tied behind his back, and he had been tortured. Sgt Deacon had previous service in the Royal Navy and was married with four children and was off duty at the time of his abduction and death.[29] Eight years after his death his wife and four other UDR and RUC Widows formed The Widow's Mite to tell the world their side of the story and to counter IRA propaganda. She had her gold wedding right melted down and recast as the ancient "mite" bearing the symbol of a lighted candle.[30]

Memorials[edit]

A number of memorials exist to the fallen of the 5th Battalion. The main memorial to the UDR was erected in Lisburn, unveiled on 12 June 2011 by Viscount Brookeborough, one of the trustees of the UDR Memorial Trust.[31] The Memorial is "a 19-foot 'heroic scale' bronze sculpture" featuring "bronze figures of a male UDR soldier and a female ‘Greenfinch’ on operational duty...set upon an equally impressive Mourne granite plinth.".[32]

Notable personnel[edit]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Gamble, Ronnie. My Service Life, 1939–1979: William (Bill) Balmer, 2009, Causeway Museum Service, ISBN 978-0-9552286-4-3
  • McKitterick, David. Lost Lives, Mainstream Publishing, 2004, ISBN 184018504X
  • Potter, John Furniss. A Testimony to Courage – the Regimental History of the Ulster Defence Regiment 1969–1992, Pen & Sword Books Ltd, 2001, ISBN 0-85052-819-4
  • Ryder, Chris. The Ulster Defence Regiment: An Instrument of Peace?, 1991 ISBN 0-413-64800-1

References[edit]

  1. ^ The London Gazette: no. 44996. p. 129747. 29 December 1969. Retrieved 5 March 2009.
  2. ^ Statutory Instrument, 1969 No. 1860 (C. 58), The Ulster Defence Regiment Act 1969 (Commencement) Order 1969
  3. ^ The New Law Journal, Volume 120, Part 1
  4. ^ Potter p28
  5. ^ Potter p29
  6. ^ a b Ryder p39
  7. ^ a b c Potter p58
  8. ^ Potter p59
  9. ^ a b c Ryder p191
  10. ^ Gamble p67
  11. ^ Person Page 37972
  12. ^ Potter p44
  13. ^ Gamble pp58-61
  14. ^ a b Potter p27
  15. ^ Gamble p68
  16. ^ Gamble 2009, pp134-135
  17. ^ Gamble p66
  18. ^ Gamble p70
  19. ^ a b Gamble p75
  20. ^ Gamble pp76-77
  21. ^ Gamble p77
  22. ^ Laurel Hill House and site sold to a ‘private buyer’ - Local - Coleraine Times
  23. ^ Potter p382
  24. ^ Potter pp283-284
  25. ^ Potter p201
  26. ^ Gamble p200
  27. ^ Gamble p228
  28. ^ Potter p72
  29. ^ "Ulster Defence Regiment". Palace Barracks memorial garden. Retrieved 11 October 2014. 
  30. ^ McKitterick p337
  31. ^ "Lisburn Site Approved For Northern Ireland UDR Memorial". Ulster Star. 11 February 2008. Retrieved 25 January 2011. 
  32. ^ ‘Fitting tribute’ to UDR heroes unveiled. News Letter, 13 June 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2012.