5th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

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5th Division
Hiroshima Chindai Headquarters.JPG
5th Division HQ, Hiroshima
Active 1888–1945
Country Empire of Japan
Branch Imperial Japanese Army
Type Infantry
Garrison/HQ Hiroshima City, Japan
Nickname(s) "Carp Division"
Engagements First Sino-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
World War II
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Ōshima Yoshimasa

The 5th Division (第5師団 Daigo shidan?) was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army. Its call-sign was the Carp Division (鯉兵団 Koihei-dan?). The 5th Division was formed in Hiroshima in January 1871 as the Hiroshima Garrison (広島鎮台 Hiroshima chindai?), one of six regional commands created in the fledgling Imperial Japanese Army, and was destroyed in battle of Okinawa in June 1945. Its men were drafted from Hiroshima, Yamaguchi and Shimane.

Action[edit]

The Hiroshima Garrison had responsibility for western region of Honshū (Chugoku district), ranging from Hyōgo Prefecture to Yamaguchi Prefecture. The six regional commands were transformed into divisions under the army reorganization of 14 May 1888.

First Sino-Japanese War to Siberian Intervention[edit]

The 5th Division has actually started the First Sino-Japanese War with battle of Seonghwan 28 July 1894. It also participated in battle of Pyongyang 15 September 1894, securing a Japanese control over Korea. 24 October 1894, the 5th division has crossed unopposed the Yalu river into the Chinese territory, encountering only token rearguard resistance and thus ending the Battle of Jiuliancheng 24 October 1894. It then proceed inland to Mukden (now Shenyang) in December 1894. The 5th division last action of the war was the Battle of Yingkou 4 March 1895, resulting in the peace negotiations and the treaty of Shimonoseki 17 April 1895.

27 January 1900, the 5th division has started participating in the Eight-Nation Alliance (of which only Japanese were non-European) action against Boxer Rebellion, with divisional detachment becoming the core of the Gaselee Expedition. Other parts of the division have garrisoned Tianjing city and Tanggu District. The Japanese soldiers won 5 August 1900 the Battle of Beicang single-handedly. 14–16 August 1900, the same Japanese detachment has participated in the Battle of Peking. The division has received praise from foreign observers for its bravery, professionalism and discipline.

In the Russo-Japanese War, under the command of General Nozu Michitsura, it saw combat at the Battle of Shaho, Battle of Sandepu and Battle of Mukden.

The division was assigned to Liaoyang, Manchuria from 30 April 1911. 19 april 1913 the divisional headquarters has returned to Hiroshima.

24 August 1919, the 5th division was assigned to Siberian Intervention, on the request of United States government. This mission has ended 24 June 1922 with the unilateral Japanese withdrawal.

Second Sino-Japanese War[edit]

After the Second Sino-Japanese War erupted 7 July 1937, the 5th division was subordinated to Japanese China Garrison Army 27 July 1937. It participated in the Operation Chahar 14–27 August 1937. Soon afterwards, the division was re-routed to newly formed Japanese Northern China Area Army 31 August 1937, immediately starting participating in Battle of Taiyuan. 30 March 1938, the division was assigned to 2nd army for the Battle of Xuzhou.

19 September 1938, the 5th division was subordinated to 21st army and sent to South China, participating in Guangdong province offensive capturing Nanning in November 1938, and was subordinated to 12th army and ordered to return to North China 29 November 1938. Plans went awry because the 21st infantry brigade was surrounded by Chinese in the Battle of Kunlun Pass in December 1938. As a consequence, these troops suffered large casualties and were delayed until late January 1939. The division has returned to 21st army on the south China 16 October 1939. The 21st army was reformed to 22nd army 9 February 1940. As part of newly formed army, the 5th division has become the core of the forces alloted for Japanese invasion of French Indochina 22 September 1940. Immediately, the division was used as garrison force of the northern part of the French Indochina.

Pacific War[edit]

With its combat experience and record in China, the 5th division was considered one of the best divisions in the Imperial Japanese Army, therefore 12 October 1940, the 5th division went under direct control of the Imperial General Headquarters and started an intensive training program, including paratrooper exercises in Kyushu together with the 5th air group. The division was officially committed to the Nanshin-ron 9 November 1941, subordinated to Tomoyuki Yamashita (25th army), subordinated in order to Field Marshal Terauchi Hisaichi of (Southern Expeditionary Army Group) based in Saigon.

Battle of Malaya[edit]

The 5th Division landed on the east coast of Thailand at Singora and Patani on December 8, 1941. The 5th Division fought its way through northern and central Malaya. It was particularly successful at the battle of Jitra 11 December 1941 and battle of Slim River 6 January 1942 where, in both battles, it defeated the Indian 11th Infantry Division. At the Battle of Slim River, the 5th Division's 41st Infantry Regiment, supported by tanks, swept through sixteen miles of British defenses, shattering the exhausted 11th Indian Division and inflicting an estimated 3,000 casualties.

The 5th Division did not have it all its own way during the Battle of Malaya, suffering heavy casualties during the Battle of Kampar from 30 December 1941. Nonetheless, the division was able to capture Kuala Lumpur 11 January 1942. After overcoming the stiff resistance of the 8th Australian Division during the Battle of Muar at Gemensah Bridge, the 5th division has opened the way to Singapore 22 January 1942.

Battle of Singapore[edit]

Lieutenant General Matsui Takuro during the battle of Singapore.
Japanese victorious troops march after the battle of Singapore through the city centre.

On the night of 8 February 1942, six battalions of the 5th Division, under command of Lieutenant General Matsui Takuro as part of Lieutenant General Yamashita Tomoyuki's 25th Army along with the IJA 18th Division crossed the Johor Strait using landing craft.

On the Singapore side, Sarimbun beach was heavily defended by 2 companies, one each from the 2/20th and 2/18th battalions of the 22nd Australian Brigade, supported by a machine gun company, three artillery batteries and an anti-tank battery. However, the Japanese troops managed to penetrate the British defense perimeter, and the Australian troops retrograded after midnight allowing the 5th Division, to move on to Ama Keng village and established a beachhead, where they fired a red starshell over the straits to indicate the their success to General Yamashita.

Immediately after this important victory, the 5th Division moved inwards into Singapore to capture more strategic areas such as Tengah Airfield on 9 February 1942. The unit fought against the 2/29th, 2/20th, 2/18th battalions of the 22nd Australian Brigade and the Jind Indian Infantry Battalion, the airfield garrison. On 11 February 1942, Bukit Timah Road was captured by the 5th Division after fierce fighting. Singapore surrendered 4 days later.

Philippines Campaign (1941–42)[edit]

The 41st infantry regiment was detached from the division in March 1942, therefore the 5th division has become triangular division. The Kawamura detachment (comprising an elite part of 41st infantry regiment of 5th division) have landed on Panay island 16–18 April 1942, resulting in 7000-strong US-Filipino forces retreating from the coast 20 April 1942. Kawamura detachment then proceed to land on north coast of Mindanao 3 May 1942, forcing surrender of the local US-Filipino forces 10 May 1942, after heavy fighting.[1]

New Guinea campaign[edit]

The rest of detached 41st infantry regiment has re-formed as Yazawa detachment, initially deployed in Cagayan on north coast of Luzon. It was transferred, landing in Davao City 28 June 1942, and used to reinforce Nankai Shitai (South Seas Detachment) under command of Major-General Tomitara Horii.[2] 18 July 1942, the detachment was reinforced by a company of tanks plus company of close-support artillery, and ordered to join the thrust to Port Moresby 31 July 1942. Initially arriving to Rabaul staging point 16 August 1942,[3] Yazawa detachment have departed 19 August 1942 on board of Kiyokawa Maru and Myoko Maru and landed on Gona Japanese beachhead 21 August 1942.[4] During battle of Isurava the Yazawa detachment was held in reserve.[5] During inland Battle_of_Brigade_Hill, the Yazawa detachment make its way to Girua River mouth (near Buna), where it secured a landing of the supplies and reinforcements, starting from 23 September 1942.[6] 29 October 1942, the bulk of Yazawa detachment took a defensive positions inland near Oivi Creek, to cover a retreat of 144th regiment and other units. The Australians attacked with superior forces 4 November 1942, mauling and routing the Yazawa detachment. About 900 men left of Yazawa detachment narrowly escaped the encirclement and run away to the heavily wooded Ajura Kijala Range to the north-east 10 November 1942. The last rearguard covering the Oivi Creek was wiped out 13 November 1942. Yazawa escapees have reached Kumusi River mouth area north of Gona by 28 November 1942, but was largely not combat-ready because of leaving all heavy equipment behind and of nearly 100% incidence of malaria. Therefore, majority of malaria-weakened soldiers were transported by landing craft to the mouth of Girua river 29 November 1942, losing hundreds men to the Allied air attacks in sea. The more healthy ones joined them after an overland march 2 December 1942.[7] 31 December 1942, the colonel Yazawa was ordered a desperate rescue mission to the Buna with the composite unit gathered from the jumble of shattered Japanese detachments. Fall of Buna 2 January 1943 have aborted the mission, but Yazawa detachment still clashed with Allied patrols and rescued about 190 soldiers escaping from Buna. As the retreat to Gona 20 January 1943 have failed, Yazawa detachment have ceased to exist, with only few survivors reaching Japanese lines.[8]

Subsequent history[edit]

In 1943, the division was subordinated to 19th army. The 5th Division subsequently saw action in Rabaul and Guadalcanal and various islands in the Dutch East Indies. before surrendering to the Allies on Ceram, in the Dutch East Indies.

The division was involved with Tachibana Maru incident, comprising hospital ship been used to transport armaments (up to howitzers) and healthy troops.[9] As result of the incident, about 1500 soldiers of the division were captured by United States 3 August 1945.

Divisional headquarters[edit]

The division's headquarters in the homeland were on the grounds of Hiroshima Castle. The headquarters buildings, like the castle itself were destroyed by the atomic bomb explosion on 6 August 1945.

Some of the division's more noteworthy commanders included Nozu Michitsura, Oku Yasukata, Yamaguchi Motoomi, Ueda Arisawa, and Terauchi Hisaichi.

Orders of battle[edit]

Order of battle (July 1888)[edit]

  • 9th Brigade
    • 11th Infantry Regiment
    • 41st Infantry Regiment
  • 21st Brigade
  • 5th Special Operations Regiment
  • 5th Field Artillery Regiment
  • 5th Construction Regiment
  • 5th Transport Regiment.

Order of battle (July 1937)[edit]

IJA 5th Division (Motorized Square Division) – Lt. General Seishirō Itagaki

  • 9th Infantry Brigade
    • 11th Infantry Regiment
    • 41st Infantry Regiment
  • 21st Infantry Brigade
    • 21st Infantry Regiment
    • 42nd Infantry Regiment
  • 5th Mountain Artillery Regiment
  • 5th Cavalry Regiment
  • 5th Engineer Regiment
  • 5th Transport and Logistics Regiment

The IJA 5th Division was a "motorized" square division, being equipped with 500 trucks. The trucks were for the heavy equipment and the artillery, whereas every soldier not riding in a motor vehicle rode a bicycle.

Order of battle (December 1941)[edit]

  • 11. Infantry regiment
  • 21. Infantry regiment
  • 42. Infantry regiment
  • 5. Field artillery regiment
  • 5. Reconnaissance regiment
  • 5. Engineer regiment
  • 5. Transport and logistics regiment
  • 5. Signals company
  • 5. Ordnance workshop company
  • 5. Sanitation company
  • 5/2. Field hospital
  • 5/4 Field hospital
  • 5. Accounting office

See also[edit]

Reference and further reading[edit]

  • Madej, W. Victor, Japanese Armed Forces Order of Battle, 1937–1945 [2 vols] Allentown, Pennsylvania: 1981

References[edit]

External links[edit]