6th Infantry Division (United States)
|6th Infantry Division|
6th Infantry Division shoulder sleeve insignia
|Branch||United States Army|
|Role||Light infantry (1986–1994)|
|Size||Division (Next 7th Infantry Division)|
"Sight Seein' Sixth",
"Commie-Jew Division" (pejorative)
|Motto(s)||Sight Seein' Sixth|
|Engagements||World War I|
|Edwin D. Patrick|
Robert T. Frederick
|Distinctive Unit Insignia|
The 6th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the United States Army active in World War I, World War II, and the last years of the Cold War. Known as "Red Star", and formerly called the "Sight Seein' Sixth".
World War I
Activated: November 1917
- Headquarters, 6th Division
- 11th Infantry Brigade
- 12th Infantry Brigade
- 6th Field Artillery Brigade
- 16th Machine Gun Battalion
- 318th Engineer Regiment
- 6th Field Signal Battalion
- Headquarters Troop, 6th Division
- 6th Train Headquarters and Military Police
- 6th Ammunition Train
- 6th Supply Train
- 6th Engineer Train
- 6th Sanitary Train
- 20th, 37th, 38th, and 40th Ambulance Companies and Field Hospitals
The division went overseas in June 1918, and saw 43 days of combat. Casualties totalled 386 (KIA: 38; WIA: 348).
The 6th Division saw combat in the Geradmer sector, Vosges, France, 3 September – 18 October 1918, and during the Meuse-Argonne offensive 1–11 November 1918. Separately the 11th Field Artillery Battalion became engaged earlier in the Meuse-Argonne offensive and fought from 19 October to the Armistice.
|Col. Charles E. Tayman||26 November 1917 – 28 December 1917|
|Brig. Gen. James Brailsford Erwin||29 December 1917 – 27 August 1918|
|Maj. Gen. Walter H. Gordon||28 August 1918 – 1 June 1919|
The division returned to U.S. in June 1919. Deactivated: 30 September 1921 at Camp Grant, Illinois. During the interwar period, it was initially located within the Sixth Corps Area as part of the VI Army Corps.
World War II
Activated: 12 October 1939 at Fort Lewis, Washington State
- Overseas: 21 July 1943
- Campaigns: Luzon, New Guinea
- Days of combat: 306
- Distinguished Unit Citations: 7
- Awards: MH: 2, DSC: 10, DSM: 3, SS: 697, LM: 18, DFC: 3, SM: 94, BSM: 3,797, AM: 45.
- Subordinate Units:
Order of battle
- Headquarters, 6th Infantry Division
- 1st Infantry Regiment
- 20th Infantry Regiment
- 63rd Infantry Regiment
- Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 6th Infantry Division Artillery
- 1st Field Artillery Battalion
- 51st Field Artillery Battalion
- 53rd Field Artillery Battalion
- 80th Field Artillery Battalion
- 6th Engineer Combat Battalion
- 6th Medical Battalion
- 6th Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop (Mechanized)
- Headquarters, Special Troops, 6th Infantry Division
- Headquarters Company, 6th Infantry Division
- 706th Ordnance Light Maintenance Company
- 6th Quartermaster Company
- 6th Signal Company
- Military Police Platoon
- 6th Counterintelligence Corps Detachment
- Nickname: "Sightseeing Sixth"
Inactivated: 10 January 1949 in Korea
World War II combat chronicle
The division moved to Hawaii in July and August 1943 to assume defensive positions on Oahu, training meanwhile in jungle warfare. It moved to Milne Bay, New Guinea, 31 January 1944, and trained until early June 1944. The division first saw combat in the Toem-Wakde area of Dutch New Guinea, engaging in active patrolling 14–18 June, after taking up positions 6–14 June. Moving west of Toem, it fought the bloody Battle of Lone Tree Hill, 21–30 June, and secured the Maffin Bay area by 12 July.
After a brief rest, the division made an assault landing at Sansapor, 30 July, on the Vogelkop Peninsula. The 6th secured the coast from Cape Waimak to the Mega River and garrisoned the area until December 1944.
The division landed at Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, in the Philippines on D-day, 9 January 1945, and pursued the Japanese into the Cabanatuan hills, 17–21 January, capturing Muñoz on 7 February. On 27 January, Special Operations units also attached to the Sixth United States Army took part in the Raid at Cabanatuan. The division then drove northeast to Dingalan Bay and Baler Bay, 13 February, isolating enemy forces in southern Luzon. The U.S. 1st Infantry Regiment operated on Bataan together with the Philippine Commonwealth forces, 14–21 February, cutting the peninsula from Abucay to Bagac.
The division then took part in the Battle of Manila, shifting to the Shimbu Line northeast of Manila, 24 February, took Mount Mataba, 17 April, Mount Pacawagan, 29 April, Bolog, 29 June, Lane's Ridge of Mount Santo Domingo, 10 July, and Kiangan, 12 July. The 6th remained with the Philippine Military forces in the Cagayan Valley and the Cordilleras Mountains until VJ-day.
- Total battle casualties: 2,370
- Killed in action: 410
- Wounded in action: 1,957
- Missing in action: 3
Medal of Honor recipients
Medal of Honor recipients for the 6th Infantry Division during World War II:
- Corporal Melvin Mayfield of Company D, 20th Infantry Regiment, 6th Infantry Division—Cordillera Mountains, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 29 July 1945
- Second Lieutenant (then T/Sgt.) Donald E. Rudolph of Company E, 2nd Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 6th Infantry Division—Munoz, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 5 February 1945
|Brig. Gen. Clement Augustus Trott||October 1939 – October 1940|
|Brig. Gen. Frederick E. Uhl||October 1940 – December 1940|
|Maj. Gen. Clarence S. Ridley||January 1941 – August 1942|
|Maj. Gen. Durward S. Wilson||September 1942 – October 1942|
|Maj. Gen. Franklin C. Sibert||October 1942 – August 1944|
|Maj. Gen. Edwin Davies Patrick||August 1944 – March 1945|
|Maj. Gen. Charles E. Hurdis||March 1945 – April 1946|
|Col. George M. Williamson, Jr.||April 1946 – June 1946|
|Maj. Gen. Albert E. Brown||June 1946 – September 1946|
|Brig. Gen. John T. Pierce||September 1946 – October 1946|
|Maj. Gen. Orlando Ward||October 1946 – 1 January 1949|
Post World War
Cold War era
The 6th Division was reactivated 4 October 1950 at Fort Ord, California. There the division remained throughout the Korean War, training troops and providing personnel for combat, but was never deployed overseas as an entity itself and was again inactivated on 3 April 1956.
In the American build-up during the Vietnam War the Division was reactivated in 1967 at Fort Campbell, Kentucky, and later a forward brigade was located in Hawaii. There was sentiment against sending the Division to Vietnam because its shoulder sleeve insignia (a red six-pointed star) invited a derisive nickname ("Commie Jew Division") that General Westmoreland, cognizant of troop morale problems, considered too offensive, and the decision was made instead to form the Americal Division (23rd Infantry Division), with less offensive insignia, in Vietnam itself. During June 1968 the US Joint Chiefs of Staff also declared the Division unsuitable for combatant deployment because it failed its readiness report and shortly thereafter the Division was inactivated on 25 July 1968.
The Division never received its full TO&E equipment and most of its personnel were Vietnam returnees. The purpose for activating the division was to obtain military hardware which would eventually be turned over to the South Vietnamese.
The last incarnation of the Division came on 16 April 1986 under the command of Major General Johnnie H. Corns at Fort Richardson, Alaska when the assets of the 172nd Infantry Brigade were used to reactivate the 6th Infantry Division (Light). Over the next seven years the 6th was the U.S. Army's primary Arctic warfare division.
The planned activation of two additional light infantry battalions for the division, one at Fort Richardson in October 1988, and one at Fort Wainwright in May 1989, was cancelled with the Fiscal Year 1988 budget. To round-out the division the 6th Battalion, 297th Infantry, of the Alaska Army National Guard was activated on 1 September 1989.
At the end of the Cold War parts of the division were organized as follows:
- 6th Infantry Division (Light), Fort Richardson, Alaska
- Headquarters & Headquarters Company
- 1st and 2nd Brigades (Alaska, active component)
- 205th Infantry Brigade (Light), Fort Snelling, Minnesota (Army Reserve)
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company
- 3rd Battalion, 3rd Infantry, Saint Paul, Minnesota
- 1st Battalion, 409th Infantry, St. Cloud, Minnesota
- 1st Battalion, 410th Infantry, Iowa City, Iowa
- 3rd Battalion, 14th Field Artillery, Sioux City, Iowa (18 × M101 105mm towed howitzer)
- Support Battalion
- Cavalry Troop
- Engineer Company
- Aviation Brigade, Fort Wainwright
- Division Artillery, Fort Richardson, Alaska
- Headquarters & Headquarters Battery
- 4th Battalion, 11th Field Artillery, Fort Richardson (18 × M101 105mm towed howitzer)
- 5th Battalion, 11th Field Artillery, Fort Wainwright (18 × M101 105mm towed howitzer)
- Battery G, 11th Field Artillery, Mankato, Minnesota (Army Reserve, 8 × M198 155mm towed howitzer)
- 6th Division Support Command
- 1st Battalion, 188th Air Defense Artillery, Grand Forks, North Dakota (North Dakota Army National Guard)
- 6th Engineer Battalion, Fort Wainwright
- 6th Signal Battalion, Fort Richardson
- 106th Military Intelligence Battalion, Fort Richardson
- Military Police Company
- Chemical Company
- 6th Division Band
Notable operational deployments included an eight-month deployment to the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt by 1st Battalion, 17th Infantry Regiment, a subordinate element of 1st Brigade, which included the 4th & 5th Battalions, 9th Infantry Regiment, 6th Infantry Division (Light), in 1990 as part of the Multinational Force and Observers. The deployment began as a six-month rotation but was extended in August 1990 due to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait which precipitated Operation Desert Shield and delayed the arrival of their relieving unit. The division headquarters was moved from Fort Richardson to Fort Wainwright (near Fairbanks) in 1990. Commanders during the Arctic activation included Maj. Gen. David A. Bramlett, Maj. Gen. Samuel E. Ebbessen (a former deputy of General Schwarzkopf during the Persian Gulf War who went on to direct hurricane relief in Florida in 1992, ultimately being relieved from that position), and Maj. Gen. Johnnie H. Corns. The division had two active maneuver brigades and the Army Reserve's 205th Infantry Brigade (Light) was assigned as the division's roundout force. The 1st Battalion, 188th Air Defense Artillery of the North Dakota Army National Guard served as the division's roundout Air Defense Artillery. They were the only National Guard Air Defense battalion to ever roundout an active duty division.
The division was inactivated most recently on 6 July 1994, and reduced to a single brigade, the 1st Brigade, 6th Infantry Division. In reality, the 6th no longer existed as a division and command of the brigade fell under the 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry) at Fort Drum, NY. In April 1998, 1st Brigade was reflagged back to the separate 172nd Infantry Brigade from which the division had been reestablished in 1986. The 172nd Brigade was then reflagged as the 1st Brigade Combat Team (Stryker), 25th Infantry Division on 16 December 2006.
On 16 October 2008 the division's HHC 6th Engineer Battalion was reactivated as a non-divisional unit in Alaska. In this new role it is configured as an Airborne unit with two subordinate engineer companies: the 23d Engineer Company and the 84th Engineer Company.
- "Special Unit Designations". United States Army Center of Military History. 21 April 2010. Archived from the original on 9 June 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
- George B. Clark, The American Expeditionary Force in World War I: A Statistical History 1917–1919, McFarland, 2012, ISBN 0786472235, ISBN 9780786472239, p. 106
- Gugeler, Russell A. (2008). Major General Orlando Ward: Life of a Leader. Red Anvil Press. p. 404. ISBN 978-1-932762-89-1.
- Army Battle Casualties and Nonbattle Deaths in World War II, Final Report (Statistical and Accounting Branch Office of the Adjutant General, 1 June 1953)
- Stanton, Shelby, Vietnam Order of Battle: A Complete Illustrated Reference to the U.S. Army and Allied Ground Forces in Vietnam, 1961–1973, Stackpole Books, 2006, pp. 340–341 where a divisional order of battle at Fort Campbell and Hawaii can be found.
- Stanton, Shelby, The Rise and Fall of an American Army, Random House 2003, p. 367
- "Department of Defense Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1989". United States Congress. Senate Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Defense. 1988. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
- "Historical Summary: FY 1989". Department of the Army. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
- Captain Dick Gilliam (1985). "Arctic Fighters". Army Reserve Magazine. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
- "The 205th Infantry Brigade". Infantry May-June 1986. 1986. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
- "3rd U.S. Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard)". Charlie Company COMPANY 4th Bn. 3rd Infantry Reg. "The Old Guard". Retrieved 2 July 2020.
- "1st Battalion 409th Infantry Lineage". US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
- "1st Battalion 410th Infantry Lineage". US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
- McKenney, Janice E. "Field Artillery - Army Lineage Series - Part 1" (PDF). US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
- "Field Artillery - February 1987". US Army Field Artillery School. 1987. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
- "Field Artillery - December 1989". US Army Field Artillery School. 1988. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
- "Field Artillery - February 1990". US Army Field Artillery School. 1990. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
- "All about the Army Reserve". Army Reserve Magazine Winter 1985. 1985. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
- "From cold-weather tests to Strykers and helicopters - 70 years of history". www.army.mil. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- Sgt. Gloria F. Burmeister (1991). "North Central Aviators find Alaska warmer than home". Army Reserve Magazine, Volumes 37-38. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
- Captain William C. Quistorf (1989). "Activation of the 4th Battalion, 123rd Aviation". United States Army Aviation Digest, Issue 9. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
- "1st Battalion, 188th Air Defense Artillery Lineage". US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
- "1-188th ADA trains at McGregor". Air Defense Artillery, Issue 5. 1989. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
- "6th Engineer Battalion Lineage". US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
- Raines, Rebecca Robbins. "Signal Corps" (PDF). US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
- John Patrick Finnegan; Romana Danysh. "Military Intelligence" (PDF). US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
- http://www.usarak.army.mil/main/ArmyInAk/armyinalaska.htm Archived 18 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 July 2013. Retrieved 26 April 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- http://www.army.mil/soldiers/july94/p30.html Archived 14 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- "25th Infantry Division Association: The Units". 25thida.org. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/Heraldry/ArmyBFBT/ArmyBFBTUnit.aspx?u=4906[permanent dead link]
- http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/Heraldry/ArmyBFBT/ArmyBFBTUnit.aspx?u=4908[permanent dead link]
- http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/Heraldry/ArmyBFBT/ArmyBFBTUnit.aspx?u=4911[permanent dead link]
- The Army Almanac: A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950 reproduced at CMH.
- The Army in Alaska.
- Northern Edge.
- Brief History of the 6th US Infantry Division By Thomas E. Price
- Unit Histories Site
- Reunion page @ Military.com
- The short film Big Picture: The 6th Infantry Division is available for free download at the Internet Archive