70/20/10 Model (Learning and Development)
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The 70:20:10 Model for Learning and Development (also written as 70-20-10 or 70/20/10) is a learning and development model that suggests a proportional breakdown of how people learn effectively; based on a survey asking nearly 200 executives to self-report how they believed they learned.
In this survey respondents reported the following learning tendencies:
- 70% from challenging assignments
- 20% from developmental relationships
- 10% from coursework and training
Lombardo and Eichinger expressed their rationale behind the 70:20:10 model this way in The Career Architect Development Planner:
“Development generally begins with a realization of current or future need and the motivation to do something about it. This might come from feedback, a mistake, watching other people’s reactions, failing or not being up to a task – in other words, from experience. The odds are that development will be about 70% from on-the-job experiences - working on tasks and problems; about 20% from feedback and working around good and bad examples of the need; and 10% from courses and reading.”
Training and development involves improving the effectiveness of organizations and the individuals and teams within them. Training may be viewed as related to immediate changes in organizational effectiveness via organized instruction, while development is related to the progress of longer-term organizational and employee goals. While training and development technically have differing definitions, the two are oftentimes used interchangeably and/or together. Training and development has historically been a topic within applied psychology but has within the last two decades become closely associated with human resources management, talent management, human resources development, instructional design, human factors, and knowledge management.== Criticisms ==
Criticisms of the hypothesis include:
- A lack of supporting empirical data 
- The use of perfectly even numbers 
- The nature of the survey (i.e. Asking already successful managers to reflect on their experiences.) 
- The model may not reflect the changes in the market instigated by online technologies. For example, it does not reflect the recent focus on informal learning.
- The 70:20:10 model is not prescriptive. Author and learning & development professional Andy Jefferson asserts it "is neither a scientific fact nor a recipe for how best to develop people." 
- Lombardo, Michael M; Eichinger, Robert W (1996). The Career Architect Development Planner (1st ed.). Minneapolis: Lominger. p. iv. ISBN 0-9655712-1-1.
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- Thalheimer, Will. "People remember 10%, 20%...Oh Really?". Work-Learning Research. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
- Jefferson, Andrew; Roy, Pollock. "70:20:10: Where Is the Evidence?". Association for Talent Development. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- "The 70:20:10 Model for Learning and Development | Training Industry". www.trainingindustry.com. 2017-09-28. Retrieved 2017-09-28.