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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|700 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||700 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||54|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXV dynasty, 53|
|- Pharaoh||Shebitku, 8|
|Ancient Greek era||20th Olympiad (victor)¹|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||庚辰年 (Metal Dragon)|
1997 or 1937
— to —
辛巳年 (Metal Snake)
1998 or 1938
|Coptic calendar||−983 – −982|
|Ethiopian calendar||−707 – −706|
|- Vikram Samvat||−643 – −642|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2401–2402|
|Iranian calendar||1321 BP – 1320 BP|
|Islamic calendar||1362 BH – 1361 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2611 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||−157 – −156|
−573 or −954 or −1726
— to —
−572 or −953 or −1725
- Assyrian king Sennacherib launches another campaign into the Chaldean region, where the Babylonian rebel Merodach-Baladan II has been conspiring against him. Merodach-Baladan takes refuge in Elam, north of the Persian Gulf.
- Babylon's Assyrian-raised puppet king Bel-ibni dies after a 3-year reign. He is replaced by Sennacherib's son, Ashur-nadin-shumi.
- Assyrian king Ashurbanipal founds a library, which includes the earliest known complete copy of the Epic of Gilgamesh.
- China's minister of agriculture teaches the peasants crop rotation. He also teaches them to dig drainage ditches, rents them farm equipment, and stores grain surpluses to provide free food in time of famine (approximate date).
- Phoenician colonists plant olive trees on the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain). They establish trade routes across the Mediterranean.
- Laws against animal slaughter are relaxed in India (approximate date).
- Cities developing in the Near East build aqueducts to keep their residents supplied with water (approximate date).
- Mentuemhat, Egyptian government official
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