|Centuries:||7th century – 8th century – 9th century|
|Decades:||700s 710s 720s – 730s – 740s 750s 760s|
|Years:||727 728 729 – 730 – 731 732 733|
|730 by topic|
|State leaders – Sovereign states|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishment and disestablishment categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||1483|
|Chinese calendar||己巳年 (Earth Snake)
3426 or 3366
— to —
庚午年 (Metal Horse)
3427 or 3367
|- Vikram Samvat||786–787|
|- Shaka Samvat||652–653|
|- Kali Yuga||3831–3832|
|Japanese calendar||Tenpyō 2
|Minguo calendar||1182 before ROC
|Seleucid era||1041/1042 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1272–1273|
Year 730 (DCCXXX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 730 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- King Liutprand contracts an alliance with Eutychius, exarch of Ravenna, and agrees to support him in his attack on Rome while subjugating the independent southern Lombard duchies of Benevento and Spoleto.
- Tiberius Petasius proclaims himself emperor in Tuscia. Eutychius defeats him with support of Pope Gregory II and is killed in Monterano, with his head sent to the Byzantine emperor Leo III as a gift.
- Charles Martel defeats the last independent dukedom of Alamannia and are incorporated in the Frankish Empire. He launches also raids on the Saxons beyond the Rhine.
- September/October – Umayyad forces sack the Byzantine fortress of Charsianon in central Anatolia (modern Turkey) which remains a contested stronghold during the next century of Byzantine–Arab warfare.
- December 9 – Battle of Marj Ardabil: The Khazars under Barjik invade the provinces of Jibal and Adharybaydjian. He defeats an Umayyad army (25,000 men) at Ardabil (Iran), killing al-Jarrah ibn Abdallah.
- Emperor Xuan Zong has four palace walls in the northeast sector of the capital city Chang'an dismantled and reassembled to construct a new Daoist abbey, the grounds of which are formally a large garden for the Bureau of Agriculture.
- Leo III of the Byzantine Empire orders the destruction of all icons, beginning the First Iconoclastic Period. Many monks flee to Greece and Italy – taking smaller icons with them, hidden in their clothing – others flee to the caves of the Cappadocian desert.
- Al-Rabi' ibn Yunus, Arab minister (approximate date)
- Autpert Ambrose, Frankish Benedictine monk (d. 784)
- Beatus of Liébana, monk and theologian (approximate date)
- Jia Dan, general of the Tang Dynasty (d. 805)
- Offa, king of Mercia (approximate date)
- Tarasios, patriarch of Constantinople (approximate date)
- Zhang Xiaozhong, general of the Tang Dynasty (d. 791)
- December 9 – Al-Jarrah ibn Abdallah, Arab general
- Corbinian, Frankish bishop (approximate date)
- Hugh of Champagne, grandson of Pepin of Herstal
- K'inich Ahkal Mo' Naab III, Maya ruler of Palenque
- Lantfrid, duke of Alamannia
- Peter, duke of Cantabria
- Selbach mac Ferchair, king of Dál Riata
- Tiberius Petasius, Byzantine usurper
- Yuwen Rong, chancellor of the Tang Dynasty (or 731)
- Zhang Yue, chancellor of the Tang Dynasty (b. 663)