From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- 1 Events
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- 2 Births
- 3 Deaths
- 4 References
- Frankish King Pepin III ("the Short") begins his expedition to Septimania and Aquitaine. He conquers the cities of Carcassone, Toulouse, Rodez and Albi. Duke Waifer of Aquitaine confiscates the Church lands, and plunders Burgundy. Pepin invades Aquitanian-held Berry and the Auvergne, capturing the fortresses of Bourbon and Clermont. Waifer's Basque troops are defeated by the Franks, and deported into northern France with their children and wives.
- Battle of Hereford: The Welsh kingdoms of Brycheiniog, Gwent and Powys defeat the Mercians under King Offa at Hereford. They free themselves from the influence of the Anglo-Saxons.
- Offa's Dyke is constructed, a 150-mile-long (240 km) earthwork which marks the current border with the Welsh kingdoms, between England and Wales (approximate date).
- Former emperor Xuanzong is placed under house arrest by the eunuch official Li Fuguo, with the support of his son, Suzong. Li Fuguo is appointed commander of the Imperial Guards, possessing nearly absolute power during Suzong's reign.
- The Kingdom of Nanzhao (Nanchao) in modern-day southern China expands into the Irrawaddy River region, first into Burma, then down into northern Laos and Thailand (approximate date).
- Lu Yu begins writing The Classic of Tea.
- The Maya city of Dos Pilas (modern Guatemala) is abandoned, after the Tamarindito and Petexbatún centres revolt against their Dos Pilas overlord.
- The Church of Santa Sophia is founded by the Lombard duke Arechis II in Benevento (approximate date).
- The Kailasa Temple is built on the orders of King Krishna I, of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty (modern India).
- Battle of Eildon: King Æthelwald of Northumbria faces a rebellion, under a rival claimant to the throne named Oswine. The latter is killed after a three-day battle against the forces of Æthelwald, in the Eildon Hills.
- Bridei V succeeds his brother Óengus I as king of the Picts (modern Scotland).
- The city of Oviedo (Northern Spain) is founded by the monks Nolan and John (approximate date).
- Construction is completed on the 108-room Castello di Lunghezza outside of Rome, Italy.
- An Abbasid Caliphate army reconquers the city of Kairouan (in modern-day Tunisia), from 'Abd al-Rahmān ibn Rustam of the Rustamid dynasty. The latter is forced to flee west, where he creates an autonomous state around Tihert (Tiaret).
- Khurshid II, the last ruler (spāhbed) of Tabaristan, poisons himself when he learns that his family has been captured by the Abbasids.
- The Japanese priest Dōkyō "cures" Empress Kōken by using prayers and potions. He may have become her lover and certainly becomes her court favorite, arousing the jealousy of Emperor Junnin.
- A great Chinese famine in the Huai-Yangtze area, late in the year, drives many people to cannibalism (approximate date).
- Vinekh, ruler (khagan) of the Bulgarian Empire, dies after a six-year reign. He is succeeded by Telets, ending the rule of the Vokil clan, and beginning the reign of the Ugain clan.
- Al-Ala ibn Mugith, supporter of the Abbasid cause, is defeated by the Umayyad emir of al-Andalus, Abd al-Rahman I, at Beja (modern-day Portugal).
- King Æthelbert II of Kent dies, and is succeeded by his nephew Eadberht II. He possibly rules all Kent for a time. Sigered, probably an East Saxon, succeeds in West Kent. Eadberht dies after a short reign, followed by Ealhmund as ruler of Kent.
- King Æthelwald of Northumbria marries his queen, Æthelthryth, at Catterick (North Yorkshire).
- July 30 – Caliph al-Mansur moves the seat of the Abbasid Caliphate from Kufa to the new capital of Baghdad.
- September 25 – The Alid Revolt begins: Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya raises the banner against the Abbasids at Medina, followed by his brother Ibrahim ibn Abdallah at Basra in early 763. Muhammad's rebellion is suppressed, and he is killed by Abbasid troops under Isa ibn Musa.
- The Chinese official Li Fuguo murders Empress Zhang, wife of Emperor Su Zong. Shortly afterward Su Zong dies of a heart attack; he is succeeded by his son Dai Zong, who kills Li by sending assassins.
- Schäftlarn Abbey (Bavaria) is founded by Waltrich, a Benedictine monk of noble family, south of modern-day Munich, Germany.
- June – Battle of Anchialus: Emperor Constantine V sends a Byzantine expeditionary force (800 ships and 9,600 cavalry) to Thrace, to defend the fortress city of Anchialus on the Black Sea Coast. Meanwhile, Telets, ruler (khagan) of the Bulgarian Empire, blocks the mountain passes and takes positions on the heights near Anchialus. During a desperate cavalry charge ,the Bulgars are defeated and many are captured; Telets manages to escape. Constantine enters Constantinople in triumph, and kills all the prisoners.
- August – Byzantine troops invade the Papal States, in alliance with King Desiderius of the Lombards. King Pepin III ("the Short") intervenes, and begins negotiations between the Lombards and Pope Paul I. Desiderius promises to end the hostilities, but on condition that Pepin sends back Lombard hostages held by the Franks.
- January 21 – Battle of Bakhamra: The Abbasid army under Isa ibn Musa defeats the Alids, and puts an end to their rebellion. The power of the Abbasid Dynasty is consolidated.
- February 17 – An Lushan Rebellion: Emperor Shi Chaoyi hangs himself to avoid being captured by Tang troops sent by the renegade Li Huaixian, ending the 7-year rebellion against the Tang Dynasty in China.
- November 18 – Forces of the Tibetan Empire, under Trisong Detsen, occupy the Tang capital of Chang'an (modern Xi'an) for 15 days, and install a puppet emperor. Tibetans take over the horse pastures.
- Domenico Monegario is deposed, after Pope Paul I has demanded donations from Venice. Monegario is blinded and exiled, and succeeded by Maurizio Galbaio as the 7th doge of Venice. During his reign, Venetian wealth is increased via trade.
- King Offa of Mercia conquers Kent, and brings an end to the rule of kings Ealhmund and Sigered in West Kent. He imposes Mercian overlordship on the kingdom, but allows a local king, Heaberht, to rule there.
- October 14–21 – Fujiwara no Nakamaro Rebellion: A short-lived revolt led by Fujiwara no Nakamaro is suppressed. Emperor Junnin is deposed after a 6-year reign, and forced into exile. Former empress Kōken reassumes the imperial throne of Japan, and takes the name Shōtoku. She appoints her close associate, the priest Dōkyō, prime minister (taishi), running the government with him. Nakamaro is captured and killed with his wife and children.
- According to the historian Theophanes the Confessor, ice bergs float past Constantinople from the Black Sea (approximate date).
- King Pepin III ("the Short") restores the papal privileges (see Donation of Pepin) in Benevento and Tuscany territory (and partially in Spoleto).
- The Annals of Tigernach tell of a shortage of bread in Ireland.
- King Æthelwald of Northumbria is deposed at Pincanheale, possibly at a gathering of his own magnates. He is succeeded by Alhred, a distant cousin of the late king Oswulf.
- The Zenata Berber tribe of Banu Ifran rebels against the Abbasid Caliphate, and creates an independent state centered around Tlemcen (modern Algeria). Their tribal chief Abu Qurra rebuilds the city (formerly, the Roman colonia Pomaria).
- European writings make the first known mention of a three-field system in use in medieval Europe. The crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of different types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons. Under this system, the land of an estate or village is divided into three large fields, and makes a given section of land productive 2 years out of 3, instead of every other year (approximate date).
- August 25 – Emperor Constantine V publicly humiliates 19 high-ranking officials in the Hippodrome of Constantinople, after discovering a plot against him. He executes the leaders, Constantine Podopagouros and his brother Strategios, and blinds and exiles the rest.
- Autumn – Siege of Kamacha: Abbasid forces under al-Hasan ibn Qahtaba are defeated at the fortress city of Kamacha, in eastern Cappadocia (modern Turkey). A Byzantine relief army (12,000 men) forces the Abbasids to retreat into Armenia.
- Sabin, ruler (khagan) of Bulgaria, flees to the Byzantine fortress city of Mesembria, from where he escapes to Constantinople. Constantine V arranges for the transfer of Sabin's family from Bulgaria.
- Baghdad nears completion as 100,000 laborers create a circular city about 2 km in diameter, the "Round City". In the center is a palace built for Caliph al-Mansur. The capital is ringed by three lines of walls (approximate date).
- The Karluks defeat the Turgesh Khaganate in Central Asia. Most of Turkestan (former Onoq territory) falls under Karluk rule, except west of Lake Aral, where the loose confederation of the Oghuz Turks is about to emerge.
- Summer – Patriarch Constantine II is deposed and jailed, after the discovery of Constantine Podopagouros' plot against Constantine V. Nicetas I is appointed patriarch of Constantinople.
- Metten Abbey, near the town of Deggendorf (Bavaria), is founded by Gamelbert of Michaelsbuch.
- Byzantine–Bulgarian War: Emperor Constantine V invades Bulgaria across the Balkan Mountains, setting afire some settlements around the Bulgarian capital of Pliska. Constantine accepts a peace agreement with Pagan, the Bulgar ruler (khagan), whose land is in anarchy.
- The Franks, under King Pepin III ("the Short"), destroy resistance in central Aquitaine. He conquers the capital of Bordeaux, and devastates the whole region.
- Pepin III receives a Byzantine delegation at his court in Gentilly (southern suburbs of Paris). They discuss foreign policy regarding Italy, and Byzantine Iconoclasm.
- The Kharijite Berbers of Tlemcen and Tiaret try to conquer Ifriqiya from the Abbasid Caliphate, but fail to capture the capital of Kairouan (modern Tunisia).
- June 28 – Pope Paul I dies at Rome after a 10-year reign, in which he has protested against Constantine V's revival of Iconoclasm at Constantinople. He gives refuge to Greek monks who were expelled from the Byzantine Empire, and moves the relics of many saints from the catacombs to Roman churches. Duke Toto of Nepi has his layman brother elected to succeed Paul, under the name Constantine II.
- September 24 – King Pepin III (the Short) dies at Saint-Denis, Neustria. The Frankish Kingdom is divided between his two sons: Charlemagne and Carloman I. According to Salic law Charlemagne receives the outer parts of the kingdom bordering on the sea, namely Neustria, western Aquitaine, and the northern parts of Austrasia; while Carloman is awarded his uncle's former share, the inner parts: southern Austrasia, Septimania, eastern Aquitaine, Burgundy, Provence, Swabia, and the lands bordering Italy.
- Waiofar, duke of Aquitaine, and his family are captured and executed by the Franks in the forest of Périgord. Waiofar's kinsman Hunald succeeds to his claims and continues to fight against Charlemagne.
- Fruela I (the Cruel), the King of Asturias, is assassinated in Cangas, his capital, after he murders his brother Vimerano. Fruela is succeeded by his cousin Aurelius, who is chosen by the nobility.
- In al-Andalus, the Berber tribal chieftain Saqiya ibn Abd al Wahid al-Miknasi leads a rebellion against the Emirate of Córdoba, in the present-day Spanish province of Extremadura.
- King Alhred of Northumbria marries Princess Osgifu, possibly daughter of the late king Oswulf (approximate date).
- The Kasuga Shrine is erected at Nara (Japan), by the Fujiwara family. The interior is famous for its many bronze lanterns, as well as the stone lanterns that lead up to the shrine.
- August 7 – Pope Stephen III succeeds Paul I as the 94th pope of the Catholic Church. The antipope Constantine II is overthrown at Rome, through intervention by King Desiderius of the Lombards, after a brief reign (see 767).
- Lebuinus, Anglo-Saxon missionary, founds the city of Deventer (modern-day Netherlands), and builds a wooden church on the bank of the River IJssel (approximate date).
- Archbishop Elfodd of Gwynedd persuades the Welsh Church to accept the Roman dating of Easter, as agreed by the British Church at the Synod of Whitby (see 664).
- King Charlemagne (Charles "the Great") begins a military campagne against Aquitaine and Gascony. He leads a Frankish army to the city of Bordeaux, where he sets up a fort at Fronsac. His younger brother Carloman I refuses to participate in the uprising, and returns to Burgundy. Hunald, duke of Aquitaine, is forced to flee to the court of Gascony. Lupus II, fearing Charlemagne, turns Hunald over in exchange for peace, and is put in a monastery. Aquitaine and Gascony are subdued into the Frankish Kingdom.
- April 12–15 – Pope Stephen III summons a Lateran Council: the papal election procedure (abuse of which has led to the election of antipopes) is changed, and the iconoclasm of the Council of Hieria is anathematized.
- The Monastery of Tallaght is founded by Máel Ruain in Ireland. The monastery becomes a centre of learning and piety, particularly associated with the Céli Dé spiritual reform movement.
- Hersfeld Abbey (modern-day Hesse-Nassau), Germany, is founded by Lullus, archbishop of Mainz (approximate date).
- Annales Cambriae.
- O'Mansky & Dunning 2005, p. 94.
- Kirby, p. 151, states that Oswine's origins are unknown. Marsden, pp. 232–233, suggests he was a son of Eadberht. The description of Oswine as an ætheling comes from John of Worcester's chronicle.
- Forsyth, Katherine (2000). "Evidence of a lost Pictish source in the Historia Regum Anglorum". In Taylor, Simon. Kings, clerics and chronicles in Scotland, 500–1297: essays in honour of Marjorie Ogilvie Anderson on the occasion of her ninetieth birthday. Dublin: Four Courts Press. ISBN 1-85182-516-9.
- Meynier, Gilbert (2010). L'Algérie cœur du Maghreb classique: De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518). Paris: La Découverte. p. 25.
- Rekaya, M. (1986). "Khurshīd". The Encyclopedia of Islam. V (New ed.). Leiden; New York: Brill. pp. 68–70. ISBN 90-04-07819-3. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
- Joel Serrão and A. H. de Oliverira Marques (1993). "O Portugal Islâmico". Hova Historia de Portugal. Portugal das Invasões Germânicas à Reconquista. Lisbon: Editorial Presença. p. 124.
- Kirby, p. 156. Symeon of Durham, p. 461
- "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope Paul I".
- Beckwith 1987, p. 146
- Sansom, p. 90; excerpt, "... Nakamaro, better known by his later title as the prime minister Oshikatsu, was in high favour with the emperor Junnin but not with the ex-empress Kōken. In a civil disturbance that took place in 764–765, Oshikatsu was captured and killed, while the young emperor was deposed and exiled in 765 and presumably strangled. Kōken reascended the throne as the empress Shōtoku, and her priest Dōkyō was all powerful until she died withous issue in 770."
- Gilbert Meynier (2010). L'Algérie cœur du Maghreb classique. De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518). Paris: La Découverte; p.27
- Mango & Scott 1997, p. 605.
- Winkelmann et al. 2000, p. 531.
- John V.A. Fine, Jr (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, p. 77. ISBN 978-0-472-08149-3
- Lewis 1965, pp. 27-28.
- Bachrach 1974, p. 13.
- Joel Serrão and A. H. de Oliverira Marques (1993). "O Portugal Islâmico". In Joel Serrão and A. H. de Oliverira Marques. Hova Historia de Portugal. Portugal das Invasões Germânicas à Reconquista. Lisbon: Editorial Presença. p. 124.