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7th century

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 7th century.
Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 7th century.

The 7th century is the period from 601 through 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era.

The spread of Islam and the Muslim conquests began with the unification of Arabia by the Islamic prophet Muhammad starting in 622. After Muhammad's death in 632, Islam expanded beyond the Arabian Peninsula under the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661) and the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750). The Muslim conquest of Persia in the 7th century led to the downfall of the Sasanian Empire. Also conquered during the 7th century were Syria, Palestine, Armenia, Egypt, and North Africa.[1]

The Byzantine Empire suffered setbacks during the rapid expansion of the Caliphate and a mass incursion of Slavs in the Balkans which reduced its territorial limits. The decisive victory at the Siege of Constantinople in the 670s led the empire to retain Asia Minor which assured the existence of the empire.[1]

In the Iberian Peninsula, the 7th century was known as the Siglo de Concilios (century of councils) referring to the Councils of Toledo. Northumbria established dominance in the British Isles from Mercia,[2] while the Lombards maintained its hold in most of Italy.

In China, the Sui dynasty was replaced by the Tang dynasty, which set up its military bases from Korea to Central Asia. China began to reach its height. Silla allied itself with the Tang dynasty, subjugating Baekje and defeating Goguryeo to unite the Korean Peninsula under one ruler. While the Asuka period persisted in Japan throughout the 7th century.

Harsha united Northern India, which had reverted to small republics and states after the fall of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century.


Pages of a late 7th century Quran
An Anglo-Saxon helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to Rædwald of East Anglia circa 625.
Silk cloth with four horsemen hunting lions, 7th century. Horyu-ji temple, Japan.
The Tang dynasty Giant Wild Goose Pagoda of Chang'an, built in 652, in modern-day Xi'an, China.

Inventions, discoveries, introductions





  1. ^ a b Ostrogorsky, George (1959). "The Byzantine Empire in the World of the Seventh Century". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. 13: 3. doi:10.2307/1291126. ISSN 0070-7546. JSTOR 1291126.
  2. ^ "An Introduction to Early Medieval England". English Heritage. Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  3. ^ Jonathan V. Last, Philadelphia Inquirer, The good and bad of a population drop, November 29, 2006. https://web.archive.org/web/20121006203612/http://www.utsandiego.com/uniontrib/20061129/news_lz1e29last.html
  4. ^ a b c d e Roberts, J: History of the World.. Penguin, 1994.
  5. ^ Richards, Jeffrey (January 1, 1979). The Popes and the Papacy in the Early Middle Ages, 476-752. Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 9780710000989 – via Google Books.
  6. ^ Drs. R. Soekmono (1988) [1973]. Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed (5th reprint ed.). Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. p. 37.
  7. ^ Junjiro Takakusu, (1896), A record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago AD 671–695, by I-tsing, Oxford, London.
  8. ^ Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988 p.38
  9. ^ Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988 p.39
  10. ^ "Buddhist Monks Pilgrimage of Tang Dynasty". Archived from the original on 2008-12-31. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  11. ^ Taylor (2003), pp. 22–26; Ricklefs (1991), p. 3.
  12. ^ Taylor (2003), pp. 8–9, 15–18
  13. ^ Boechari (1966). "Preliminary report on the discovery of an Old Malay inscription at Sojomerto". MISI. III: 241–251.
  14. ^ Kamouch, Mohammed (2006). "Jewels of the Muslim Chinese Heritage". Muslim Heritage. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
  15. ^ Kumar, Jayanth V. (2011). "Oral hygiene aids". Textbook of preventive and community dentistry (2nd ed.). Elsevier. pp. 412–413. ISBN 978-81-312-2530-1.
  16. ^ Pryor & Jeffreys 2006, pp. 607–609
  17. ^ Theophanes & Turtledove 1982, p. 52
  18. ^ Roland 1992, p. 657; Pryor & Jeffreys 2006, p. 608
  19. ^ Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais (2006), 156.
  20. ^ Bowman (2000), 105.
  21. ^ Gernet (1962), 80.
  22. ^ Wood (1999), 49.