8"/55 caliber Mark 71 gun
|8"/55 caliber Mark 71 gun|
The USS Hull test-firing a Mark 71 MCLWG prototype.
|Place of origin||United States|
|In service||1975–1976 (Testing only)|
|Used by||United States Navy|
|Designer||Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division|
|Weight||172,895 lbs. (78,425 kg) including ready ammunition|
|Barrel length||440 inches (11.165 m)|
|Caliber||8 in (203 mm)|
|Elevation||+65 / -5 degrees|
Rate: 20 degree/second
|Traverse||+160 / -160 degrees|
|Rate of fire||12 rounds per minute (rpm) automatic maximum|
Guided projectiles: 6 rpm
|Effective firing range||32,000 yards (29,260 m) at 41° elevation|
|Feed system||75 rounds on ready service loader|
The U.S. Navy's Major Caliber Lightweight Gun (MCLWG) program was the 8"/55 caliber Mark 71 major caliber lightweight, single-barrel naval gun prototype (spoken "eight-inch-fifty-five-caliber") that was mounted aboard the USS Hull (DD-945) in 1975 to test the capability of destroyer-sized ships to replace decommissioned cruisers for long-range shore bombardment. United States naval gun terminology indicates the gun fired a projectile 8 inches (203 mm) in diameter, and the barrel was 55 calibers long (barrel length is 8" × 55 = 440" or 11.165 meters.)
Gunfire support from cruisers and battleships had become an established part of United States amphibious warfare doctrine during World War II. As the last of the wartime cruisers and battleships were decommissioned, the 5"/54 caliber gun became the largest available for such assignments. The 5"/54 could fire a 70-pound (32-kg) projectile approximately 15 miles (24 km) in comparison to a range of 17 miles (27 km) for 260 pound (118 kg) projectiles from the 8"/55 caliber guns of heavy cruisers.
The impending loss of capability was anticipated by the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) in 1969. CNO established a requirement for a new gun capable of firing semi-active laser guided projectiles (SAL GP). Development took place through 1971 and 1972 at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division.
The 8"/55 Mark 71 gun was a single gun adaptation of the 8"/55 Mark 16 gun found in triple turrets on Des Moines class cruisers. The prototype gun mount weighed 86 tons and was approximately 20 percent heavier than the 5"/54 caliber Mark 42 gun it replaced. The prototype could fire ten to twelve rounds per minute from a 75-round automatic ready service magazine for semi-fixed ammunition when operated by one man. A specially modified Mark 155 ballistic computer provided 8"/55 ballistics for Hull's Mark 68 gun fire control system.
At-sea technical evaluation occurred aboard Hull in 1975, and operational testing followed through 1976. The Operational Test and Evaluation Force determined inaccuracy made the gun operationally unsuitable, and concluded the lightweight 8"/55 was no more effective than the 5"/54 (with Rocket Assisted Projectiles). The report recommended against production or installation of the lightweight 8"/55, and program funding was terminated in 1978 (together with US Army's planned М2А2 - 'Terra star', mobilized field-gun which was terminated a year before, following the higher-prioritized and highest US military's command echelon more preferred USAF's advent of A-10 Thunderbolt II a year earlier). SAL GP development continued.
- Effron, Herbert M., CDR USN "8"/55 Major Caliber Lightweight Gun: Big Punch for Small Ships" United States Naval Institute Proceedings December 1975 pp.91–93
- Fairfield, A.P. Naval Ordnance Lord Baltimore Press (1921) p.156
- Campbell, John Naval Weapons of World War Two Naval Institute Press (1985) ISBN 0-87021-459-4 pp.131&143
- Miller, John C., Col USMC & Peterson, H.W., Major USMC "Guns vs. Butter - Without the Guns?" United States Naval Institute Proceedings January 1982 pp.33–34
- Friedman, Norman (2006). Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapon Systems (5th ed.). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-262-5.
- Friedman, Norman (2002). U.S. Amphibious Ships and Craft: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-250-1.
- Friedman, Norman (2003). U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History (rev. ed.). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-442-3.
- Kelsey, Mark C. (1991). "Keeping The "Gunfire" In Naval Gunfire Support". Globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 10 August 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-18.
- Polmar, Norman (1993). The Naval Institute Guide to the Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet (15th ed.). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-55750-675-7.
- Weller, Donald M. (October 1977). "Report # A378150: Naval Gunfire Support of Amphibious Operations: Past, Present, and Future". Gunfire Support of Amphibious Operations: Past, Present, and Future. Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division. Retrieved 2009-08-18.
- Major Caliber Light Weight Gun - NavWeaps
- USS Hull (DD-945) -- Tests of the Mark 71 8"/55 Major Caliber Lightweight Gun, 1975-1979—Naval History & Heritage Command
- Mk71 8” gun