This article may be too technical for most readers to understand.(August 2023)
|Wi-Fi 7||802.11be||(2024)||1376 to 46120||2.4/5/6|
|Wi-Fi 6E||802.11ax||2020||574 to 9608||6[a]|
|Wi-Fi 5||802.11ac||2014||433 to 6933||5[b]|
|Wi-Fi 4||802.11n||2008||72 to 600||2.4/5|
|(Wi-Fi 3)*||802.11g||2003||6 to 54||2.4|
|(Wi-Fi 2)*||802.11b||1999||1 to 11||2.4|
|(Wi-Fi 1)*||802.11||1997||1 to 2||2.4|
|*(Wi-Fi 1, 2, and 3 are by retroactive inference) |
IEEE 802.11ax, officially marketed by the Wi-Fi Alliance as Wi-Fi 6 (2.4 GHz and 5 GHz) and Wi-Fi 6E (6 GHz), is an IEEE standard for wireless local-area networks (WLANs) and the successor of Wi-Fi 5 (802.11ac). It is also known as High Efficiency Wi-Fi, for the overall improvements to Wi-Fi 6 clients in dense environments. It is designed to operate in license-exempt bands between 1 and 7.125 GHz, including the 2.4 and 5 GHz bands already in common use as well as the much wider 6 GHz band (e.g. 5.925–7.125 GHz in the US, a band 1.200 GHz wide).
The main goal of this standard is enhancing throughput-per-area[c] in high-density scenarios, such as corporate offices, shopping malls and dense residential apartments. While the nominal data rate improvement against 802.11ac is only 37%,: the overall throughput increase (over an entire network) is 300% (hence High Efficiency).: This also translates to 75% lower latency.
The quadrupling of overall throughput is made possible by a higher spectral efficiency. The key feature underpinning 802.11ax is orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA), which is equivalent to cellular technology applied into Wi-Fi.: Other improvements on spectrum utilization are better power-control methods to avoid interference with neighboring networks, higher order 1024‑QAM, up-link direction added with the down-link of MIMO and MU-MIMO to further increase throughput, as well as dependability improvements of power consumption and security protocols such as Target Wake Time and WPA3.
The IEEE 802.11ax standard was finalised on September 1, 2020 when Draft 8 received 95% approval in the sponsor ballot and received final approval from the IEEE Standards Board on February 1, 2021.
|Data rate (Mbit/s)[ii]|
|20 MHz channels||40 MHz channels||80 MHz channels||160 MHz channels|
|1600 ns GI[iii]||800 ns GI||1600 ns GI||800 ns GI||1600 ns GI||800 ns GI||1600 ns GI||800 ns GI|
- MCS 9 is not applicable to all combinations of channel width and spatial stream count.
- Per spatial stream.
- GI stands for guard interval.
In 802.11ac (802.11's previous amendment), multi-user MIMO was introduced, which is a spatial multiplexing technique. MU-MIMO allows the access point to form beams towards each client, while transmitting information simultaneously. By doing so, the interference between clients is reduced, and the overall throughput is increased, since multiple clients can receive data simultaneously.
With 802.11ax, a similar multiplexing is introduced in the frequency domain: OFDMA. With OFDMA, multiple clients are assigned to different Resource Units in the available spectrum. By doing so, an 80 MHz channel can be split into multiple Resource Units, so that multiple clients receive different types of data over the same spectrum, simultaneously.
To support OFDMA, 802.11ax needs four times as many subcarriers as 802.11ac. Specifically, for 20, 40, 80, and 160 MHz channels, the 802.11ac standard has, respectively, 64, 128, 256 and 512 subcarriers while the 802.11ax standard has 256, 512, 1,024, and 2,048 subcarriers. Since the available bandwidths have not changed and the number of subcarriers increases by a factor of four, the subcarrier spacing is reduced by the same factor. This introduces OFDM symbols that are four times longer: in 802.11ac, an OFDM symbol takes 3.2 microseconds to transmit. In 802.11ax, it takes 12.8 microseconds (both without guard intervals).
The 802.11ax amendment brings several key improvements over 802.11ac. 802.11ax addresses frequency bands between 1 GHz and 6 GHz. Therefore, unlike 802.11ac, 802.11ax also operates in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz band. To meet the goal of supporting dense 802.11 deployments, the following features have been approved.
|OFDMA||Not available||Centrally controlled medium access with dynamic assignment of 26, 52, 106, 242(?), 484(?), or 996(?) tones per station. Each tone consists of a single subcarrier of 78.125 kHz bandwidth. Therefore, bandwidth occupied by a single OFDMA transmission is between 2.03125 MHz and ca. 80 MHz bandwidth.||OFDMA segregates the spectrum in time-frequency resource units (RUs). A central coordinating entity (the AP in 802.11ax) assigns RUs for reception or transmission to associated stations. Through the central scheduling of the RUs, contention overhead can be avoided, which increases efficiency in scenarios of dense deployments.|
|Multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO)||Available in Downlink direction||Available in Downlink and Uplink direction||With downlink MU-MIMO an AP may transmit concurrently to multiple stations and with uplink MU-MIMO an AP may simultaneously receive from multiple stations. Whereas OFDMA separates receivers to different RUs, with MU-MIMO the devices are separated to different spatial streams. In 802.11ax, MU-MIMO and OFDMA technologies can be used simultaneously. To enable uplink MU transmissions, the AP transmits a new control frame (Trigger) which contains scheduling information (RUs allocations for stations, modulation and coding scheme (MCS) that shall be used for each station). Furthermore, Trigger also provides synchronization for an uplink transmission, since the transmission starts SIFS after the end of Trigger.|
|Trigger-based Random Access||Not available||Allows performing UL OFDMA transmissions by stations which are not allocated RUs directly.||In Trigger frame, the AP specifies scheduling information about subsequent UL MU transmission. However, several RUs can be assigned for random access. Stations which are not assigned RUs directly can perform transmissions within RUs assigned for random access. To reduce collision probability (i.e. situation when two or more stations select the same RU for transmission), the 802.11ax amendment specifies special OFDMA back-off procedure. Random access is favorable for transmitting buffer status reports when the AP has no information about pending UL traffic at a station.|
|Spatial frequency reuse||Not available||Coloring enables devices to differentiate transmissions in their own network from transmissions in neighboring networks. Adaptive power and sensitivity thresholds allows dynamically adjusting transmit power and signal detection threshold to increase spatial reuse.||Without spatial reuse capabilities devices refuse transmitting concurrently to transmissions ongoing in other, neighboring networks. With basic service set coloring (BSS coloring), a wireless transmission is marked at its very beginning, helping surrounding devices to decide if a simultaneous use of the wireless medium is permissible. A station is allowed to consider the wireless medium as idle and start a new transmission even if the detected signal level from a neighboring network exceeds legacy signal detection threshold, provided that the transmit power for the new transmission is appropriately decreased.|
|NAV||Single NAV||Two NAVs||In dense deployment scenarios, NAV value set by a frame originated from one network may be easily reset by a frame originated from another network, which leads to misbehavior and collisions. To avoid this, each 802.11ax station will maintain two separate NAVs — one NAV is modified by frames originated from a network the station is associated with, the other NAV is modified by frames originated from overlapped networks.|
|Target Wake Time (TWT)||Not available||TWT reduces power consumption and medium access contention.||TWT is a concept developed in 802.11ah. It allows devices to wake up at other periods than the beacon transmission period. Furthermore, the AP may group devices to different TWT periods, thereby reducing the number of devices contending simultaneously for the wireless medium.|
|Fragmentation||Static fragmentation||Dynamic fragmentation||With static fragmentation, all fragments of a data packet are of equal size, except for the last fragment. With dynamic fragmentation, a device may fill available RUs of other opportunities to transmit up to the available maximum duration. Thus, dynamic fragmentation helps reduce overhead.|
|Guard interval duration||0.4 µs or 0.8 µs||0.8 µs, 1.6 µs or 3.2 µs||Extended guard interval durations allow for better protection against signal delay spread as it occurs in outdoor environments.|
|Symbol duration||3.2 µs||12.8 µs||Since the subcarrier spacing is reduced by a factor of four, the OFDM symbol duration is increased by a factor of four as well. Extended symbol durations allow for increased efficiency.|
|Frequency bands||5 GHz only||2.4 GHz and 5 GHz||802.11ac falls back to 802.11n for the 2.4 GHz band.|
- Wi-Fi 6E is the industry name that identifies Wi-Fi devices that operate in 6 GHz. Wi-Fi 6E offers the features and capabilities of Wi-Fi 6 extended into the 6 GHz band.
- 802.11ac only specifies operation in the 5 GHz band. Operation in the 2.4 GHz band is specified by 802.11n.
- Throughput-per-area, as defined by IEEE, is the ratio of the total network throughput to the network area.
data rate 
||802.11-1997||June 1997||2.4||22||1, 2||—||DSSS,
||20 m (66 ft)||100 m (330 ft)|
|HR/DSSS ||802.11b||September 1999||2.4||22||1, 2, 5.5, 11||—||CCK, DSSS||35 m (115 ft)||140 m (460 ft)|
|OFDM||802.11a||September 1999||5||5/10/20||6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54
(for 20 MHz bandwidth,
divide by 2 and 4 for 10 and 5 MHz)
|—||OFDM||35 m (115 ft)||120 m (390 ft)|
|802.11y||November 2008||3.7 [C]||?||5,000 m (16,000 ft)[C]|
|802.11p||July 2010||5.9||200 m||1,000 m (3,300 ft)|
|802.11bd||December 2022||5.9/60||500 m||1,000 m (3,300 ft)|
|ERP-OFDM||802.11g||June 2003||2.4||38 m (125 ft)||140 m (460 ft)|
|October 2009||2.4/5||20||Up to 288.8[D]||4||MIMO-OFDM
|70 m (230 ft)||250 m (820 ft)|
|40||Up to 600[D]|
|December 2013||5||20||Up to 693[D]||8||DL
|35 m (115 ft)||?|
|40||Up to 1600[D]|
|80||Up to 3467[D]|
|160||Up to 6933[D]|
|May 2021||2.4/5/6||20||Up to 1147[E]||8||UL/DL
|30 m (98 ft)||120 m (390 ft) [F]|
|40||Up to 2294[E]|
|80||Up to 4804[E]|
|80+80||Up to 9608[E]|
|2.4/5/6||80||Up to 11.5 Gbit/s[E]||16||UL/DL
|30 m (98 ft)||120 m (390 ft) [F]|
|Up to 23 Gbit/s[E]|
|Up to 35 Gbit/s[E]|
|Up to 46.1 Gbit/s[E]|
|WUR [G]||802.11ba||October 2021||2.4/5||4/20||0.0625, 0.25
(62.5 kbit/s, 250 kbit/s)
|—||OOK (multi-carrier OOK)||?||?|
|DMG ||802.11ad||December 2012||60||2160
|Up to 8085
|—||3.3 m (11 ft)||?|
|802.11aj||April 2018||60 [H]||1080||Up to 3754
|—||single carrier, low-power single carrier[A]||?||?|
|CMMG||802.11aj||April 2018||45 [H]||540/
|Up to 15015
|4||OFDM, single carrier||?||?|
|EDMG ||802.11ay||July 2021||60||Up to 8640
|Up to 303336
|8||OFDM, single carrier||10 m (33 ft)||100 m (328 ft)|
|Sub 1 GHz (IoT)||TVHT ||802.11af||February 2014||0.054
|6, 7, 8||Up to 568.9||4||MIMO-OFDM||?||?|
|S1G ||802.11ah||May 2017||0.7/0.8
|1–16||Up to 8.67
|800–1000 nm||20||Up to 9.6 Gbit/s||—||O-OFDM||?||?|
|802.11-1997||June 1997||850–900 nm||?||1, 2||—||?||?|
|802.11 Standard rollups|
|802.11-2007 (802.11ma)||March 2007||2.4, 5||Up to 54||DSSS, OFDM|
|802.11-2012 (802.11mb)||March 2012||2.4, 5||Up to 150[D]||DSSS, OFDM|
|802.11-2016 (802.11mc)||December 2016||2.4, 5, 60||Up to 866.7 or 6757[D]||DSSS, OFDM|
|802.11-2020 (802.11md)||December 2020||2.4, 5, 60||Up to 866.7 or 6757[D]||DSSS, OFDM|
|2.4, 5, 6, 60||Up to 9608 or 303336||DSSS, OFDM|
- "MCS table (updated with 80211ax data rates)". semfionetworks.com.
- "Discover Wi-Fi". Wi-Fi Alliance. Retrieved 2023-08-10.
- Kastrenakes, Jacob (2018-10-03). "Wi-Fi Now Has Version Numbers, and Wi-Fi 6 Comes Out Next Year". The Verge. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
- "Wi-Fi Generation Numbering". ElectronicNotes. Retrieved November 10, 2021.
- Phillips, Gavin (18 January 2021). "The Most Common Wi-Fi Standards and Types, Explained". MUO - Make Use Of. Archived from the original on 11 November 2021. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
- "Wi-Fi Generation Numbering". ElectronicsNotes. Archived from the original on 11 November 2021. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
- "Generational Wi-Fi® User Guide" (PDF). Wi-Fi Alliance. October 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
- "Wi-Fi 6E expands Wi-Fi® into 6 GHz" (PDF). Wi-Fi Alliance. January 2021. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
- Khorov, Evgeny; Kiryanov, Anton; Lyakhov, Andrey; Bianchi, Giuseppe (2019). "A Tutorial on IEEE 802.11ax High Efficiency WLANs". IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials. 21 (1): 197–216. doi:10.1109/COMST.2018.2871099.
- "FCC Opens 6 GHz Band to Wi-Fi and Other Unlicensed Uses". www.fcc.gov. 24 April 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
- Aboul-Magd, Osama (17 March 2014). "802.11 HEW SG Proposed PAR" (DOCX). www.ieee.org. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
- Goodwins, Rupert (3 October 2018). "Next-generation 802.11ax wi-fi: Dense, fast, delayed". www.zdnet.com. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
- "IEEE 802.11, The Working Group Setting the Standards for Wireless LANs". www.ieee802.org. Retrieved 2022-01-07.
- Aboul-Magd, Osama (2014-01-24). "P802.11ax" (PDF). IEEE-SA. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-10-10. Retrieved 2017-01-14.
2 page PDF download
- Porat, Ron; Fischer, Matthew; Venkateswaran, Sriram; et al. (2015-01-12). "Payload Symbol Size for 11ax". IEEE P802.11. Retrieved 2017-01-14.
- "Official IEEE 802.11 working group project timelines". January 26, 2017. Retrieved 2017-02-12.
- "Wi-Fi CERTIFIED n: Longer-Range, Faster-Throughput, Multimedia-Grade Wi-Fi Networks" (PDF). Wi-Fi Alliance. September 2009.
- Banerji, Sourangsu; Chowdhury, Rahul Singha. "On IEEE 802.11: Wireless LAN Technology". arXiv:1307.2661.
- "The complete family of wireless LAN standards: 802.11 a, b, g, j, n" (PDF).
- The Physical Layer of the IEEE 802.11p WAVE Communication Standard: The Specifications and Challenges (PDF). World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science. 2014.
- "Wi-Fi Capacity Analysis for 802.11ac and 802.11n: Theory & Practice" (PDF).
- Belanger, Phil; Biba, Ken (2007-05-31). "802.11n Delivers Better Range". Wi-Fi Planet. Archived from the original on 2008-11-24.
- "IEEE 802.11ac: What Does it Mean for Test?" (PDF). LitePoint. October 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-16.
- "IEEE Standard for Information Technology". IEEE Std 802.11aj-2018. April 2018. doi:10.1109/IEEESTD.2018.8345727.
- "802.11ad - WLAN at 60 GHz: A Technology Introduction" (PDF). Rohde & Schwarz GmbH. November 21, 2013. p. 14.
- "Connect802 - 802.11ac Discussion". www.connect802.com.
- "Understanding IEEE 802.11ad Physical Layer and Measurement Challenges" (PDF).
- "802.11aj Press Release".
- "An Overview of China Millimeter-Wave Multiple Gigabit Wireless Local Area Network System". IEICE Transactions on Communications. E101.B (2): 262–276. 2018. doi:10.1587/transcom.2017ISI0004.
- "IEEE 802.11ay: 1st real standard for Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) via mmWave – Technology Blog". techblog.comsoc.org.
- "P802.11 Wireless LANs". IEEE. pp. 2, 3. Archived from the original on 2017-12-06. Retrieved Dec 6, 2017.
- "802.11 Alternate PHYs A whitepaper by Ayman Mukaddam" (PDF).
- "TGaf PHY proposal". IEEE P802.11. 2012-07-10. Retrieved 2013-12-29.
- "IEEE 802.11ah: A Long Range 802.11 WLAN at Sub 1 GHz" (PDF). Journal of ICT Standardization. 1 (1): 83–108. July 2013. doi:10.13052/jicts2245-800X.115.
- Evgeny Khorov, Anton Kiryanov, Andrey Lyakhov, Giuseppe Bianchi. 'A Tutorial on IEEE 802.11ax High Efficiency WLANs', IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 197–216, First quarter 2019. doi:10.1109/COMST.2018.2871099
- Bellalta, Boris (2015). "IEEE 802.11ax: High-Efficiency WLANs". IEEE Wireless Communications. 23: 38–46. arXiv:1501.01496. doi:10.1109/MWC.2016.7422404. S2CID 15023432.
- Shein, Esther, Deloitte: Don't rule out Wi-Fi 6 as a next-generation wireless network, TechRepublic, November 30, 2021