82nd Airborne Division

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82nd Division
82nd Infantry Division
82nd Airborne Division
82 Airborne Patch.svg
Insignia of the 82nd Airborne Division
Active 1917–19
1921–present
Country  United States of America
Branch United States Army
Role Airborne
Size Division
Part of XVIII Airborne Corps
Garrison/HQ Fort Bragg, North Carolina, U.S.
Nickname(s) "All American Division"
Motto "All the way!"
March "The All-American Soldier"
Engagements

World War I

World War II

Cold War

Global War on Terrorism

Website Homepage
Commanders
Commander MG Richard Clarke
Deputy Commander – Operations BG Brian Winski
Deputy Commander – Support BG Ronald Clark
Deputy Commander – Interoperability Brigadier (UK) James Learmont
Command Sergeant Major Command Sergeant Major Michael Green
Notable
commanders
Complete list of commanders
Insignia
Combat service identification badge 82nd Airborne Division CSIB.png
Shoulder sleeve insignia (UCP ACU) 82 Airborne Patch ACU.svg
US infantry divisions (1939–present)
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81st Infantry Division 83rd Infantry Division

The 82nd Airborne Division is an active duty airborne infantry division of the United States Army, specializing in parachute assault operations into denied areas. Based at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, the 82nd Airborne Division is part of the XVIII Airborne Corps.

The 82nd Division was constituted in the National Army on 5 August 1917, shortly after the American entry into World War I, and was organized on 25 August 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. Since its initial members came from all 48 states, the unit acquired the nickname All-American, which is the basis for its famed "AA" shoulder patch. Famous soldiers of the division include Sergeant Alvin C. York, General James M. Gavin, Senator Strom Thurmond (325th Glider Infantry Regiment in World War II), Senator Jack Reed, R&B singer Lou Rawls, actor William Windom, country music singer Craig Morgan, former Syracuse University football coach Ben Schwartzwalder, fashion critic/choreographer Bruce Darnell, Congressman Patrick Murphy (the first Iraq War veteran elected to Congress) and General "Henry" Hugh Shelton (Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1997 to 2001).

Origins[edit]

The 82nd Division was first constituted on 5 August 1917 during World War I in the National Army. It was organized and formally activated on 25 August 1917 at Camp Gordon, Georgia.[1] The division consisted entirely of newly conscripted soldiers.[2] The citizens of Atlanta held a contest to give a nickname to the new division. Major General Eben Swift, the commanding general, chose “All American” to reflect the unique composition of the 82d—it had soldiers from all 48 states.[3] The bulk of the division was two infantry brigades, each commanding two regiments. The 163rd Infantry Brigade commanded the 325th Infantry Regiment and the 326th Infantry Regiment. The 164th Infantry Brigade commanded the 327th Infantry Regiment and the 328th Infantry Regiment.[4] Also in the division were the 157th Field Artillery Brigade, composed of the 319th, 320th and 321st Field Artillery Regiments and the 307th Trench Mortar Battery; a divisional troops contingent, and a division train. It sailed to Europe to join the American Expeditionary Force in fighting World War I.[5]

World War I[edit]

William P. Burnham, who had previously commanded the 164th Brigade, led the division during most of its training and its movement to Europe. In early April, the division embarked from the ports in Boston, New York and Brooklyn to Liverpool, England, where the division fully assembled by mid-May 1918.[6] From there, the division moved to mainland Europe, leaving Southampton and arriving at Le Havre, France,[6] and then moved to the British-held region of Somme on the front lines, where it began sending small numbers of troops and officers to the front lines to gain combat experience. On 16 June it moved by rail to Toul, France to take position on the front lines in the French sector. Its soldiers were issued French weapons and equipment to simplify resupply.[2] The division was briefly assigned to I Corps before falling under the command of IV Corps until late August. It was then moved to the Woëvre front, in the Lagney sector, where it operated with the French 154th Infantry Division.[6]

St. Mihiel[edit]

The division relieved the 26th Division on 25 June. Though Lagney was considered a defensive sector, the 82nd Division actively patrolled and raided in the region for several weeks, before being relieved by the 89th Division.[2] From there it moved to the Marbache sector in mid-August, where it relieved the 2nd Division under the command of the newly formed First United States Army.[6] There it trained until 12 September, when the division joined the St. Mihiel offensive.[2]

Once the First Army jumped off on the offensive, the 82nd Division engaged in a holding mission to prevent German forces from attacking the right flank of the First Army. On 13 September, the 163rd Infantry Brigade and 327th Infantry Regiment raided and patrolled to the northeast of Port-sur-Seille, toward Eply, in the Bois de Cheminot, Bois de la Voivrotte, Bois de la Tête-d'Or, and Bois Fréhaut. Meanwhile, the 328th Infantry Regiment, in connection with the attack of the 90th Division against the Bois-le-Prêtre, advanced on the west of the Moselle River, and, in contact with the 90th Division, entered Norroy, advancing to the heights just north of that town where it consolidated its position. On 15 September, the 328th Infantry, in order to protect the 90th Division's flank, resumed the advance, and reached Vandières, but withdrew on the following day to the high ground north of Norroy.[6]

On 17 September, the St-Mihiel Operation stabilized, and the 90th Division relieved the 82nd's troops west of the Moselle River. On 20 September, the 82nd was relieved by the French 69th Infantry Division, and moved to the vicinity of Marbache and Belleville, then to stations near Triaucourt and Rarécourt in the area of the First Army.[6] During this operation, the division suffered heavy casualties from enemy artillery. The operation cost the division over 800 men. Among them was Colonel Emory Pike, the first member of the 82nd to be awarded the Medal of Honor.[2] The division was then moved into reserve until 3 October, when it assembled near Varennes-en-Argonne prior to returning to the line.[6] During this time, the division trained and prepared for the war's final major offensive at Meuse-Argonne.[2]

Meuse-Argonne[edit]

328th Infantry Regiment of 82nd Division advances in preparation to capture Hill 223 on 7 October 1918.

The division was next moved to the Clermont area, located west of Verdun on September 24. They were stationed there to act as a reserve for the US First Army.[7] George B. Duncan, former commander of the 77th Division, relieved Burnham on 3 October, and Burnham subsequently served as military attaché in Athens, Greece. On the night of 6/7 October 1918, the 164th Infantry Brigade relieved troops of the 28th Division, which were holding the front line from south of Fléville to La Forge, along the eastern bank of the Aire River. The 163rd Infantry Brigade remained in reserve. On 7 October, the division, minus the 163rd Infantry Brigade, attacked the northeastern edge of the Argonne Forest, making some progress toward Cornay, and occupied Hill 180 and Hill 223. The next day it resumed the attack. Elements of the division's right flank entered Cornay, but later withdrew to the east and south. The division's left flank reached the southeastern slope of the high ground northwest of Châtel-Chéhéry. On 9 October, the division continued its attack, and advanced its left flank to a line from south of Pylône to the Rau de la Louvière.[6]

For the rest of the month, the division turned to the north and advanced astride the Aire River to the region east of St-Juvin. On 10 October, it relieved troops of the 1st on the right, north of Fléville, as far as a new boundary extending north and south through Sommerance. It then attacked and captured Cornay and Marcq, and established the front just to their south. On 11 October, the right flank of the division occupied Sommerance and the high ground north of la Rance Rau while the left advanced to the railroad south of the Aire. The next day, the 42nd relieved the 82nd's troops in and near Sommerance, allowing it to resume the attack. The 82nd passed through part of the Hindenburg defensive position, and reached a line just north of the road from St-Georges to St-Juvin.[6]

On 18 October, the division relieved elements of the 78th as far to the left as Marcq and Champigneulle. Three days later it advanced to the Ravin aux Pierres. On 31 October, the 82nd, except the artillery, was relieved by the 77th Division and the 80th Division, and assembled in the Argonne Forest near Champ-Mahaut. On 2 November, the division concentrated near La Chalade and Les Islettes, and, on 4 November, moved to training areas in Vaucouleurs. On 10 November, it moved again to training areas in Bourmont, where it remained until the 11 November armistice.[6] During this campaign the division suffered another 7,000 killed and wounded. A second 82nd soldier, Alvin C. York, won the Medal of Honor during this campaign.[2]

Post-war[edit]

The division suffered 995 killed and 7,082 wounded, for a total of 8,077 casualties.[8] Following the war's end, the division moved to training areas near Prauthoy, where it remained through February 1919.[6] It returned to the United States in April and May, and was demobilized and deactivated at Camp Mills, New York on 27 May.[1]

For the next 20 years the 82nd Division existed only as a unit of the Organized Reserve.[9] It was reconstituted on 24 June 1921 establishing headquarters at Columbia, South Carolina, in January 1922. The 82nd formed part of the Organized Reserves, and elements of the division were located in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida.[2]

World War II[edit]

Louisiana to Italy[edit]

The 82nd Division was redesignated on 13 February 1942 as Division Headquarters, 82nd Division. It was recalled to active service on 25 March 1942, and reorganized at Camp Claiborne, Louisiana, under the command of Major General Omar N. Bradley.

505th DUI

During this training period, the division brought together four officers who would ultimately steer the US Army during the following two decades: Matthew B. Ridgway, Matthew D. Query, James M. Gavin, and Maxwell D. Taylor who became the commander of the 101st Airborne Division in 1944. This was following Bill Lee's heart attack.[10] Under General Bradley, the 82nd Division's Chief of Staff was George Van Pope. The Allied invasion of Sicily was originally to be kept a secret.[11]

On 15 August 1942, the 82nd Infantry Division became the United States Army's first airborne division, and was redesignated the 82nd Airborne Division. In April 1943, its paratroopers deployed to North Africa under the command of Major General Matthew B. Ridgway to take part in the campaign to invade Italy. The division's first two combat operations were parachute assaults into Sicily on 9 July and Salerno on 13 September. The initial assault on Sicily, by the 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment, was the first regimental-sized combat parachute assault conducted by the United States Army. The first glider assault did not occur until Operation Neptune as part of D-Day. Glider troopers of the 319th and 320th Glider Field Artillery and the 325th Glider Infantry instead arrived in Italy by landing craft at Maiori (319th) and Salerno (320th, 325th).

In January 1944, the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment, which was temporarily detached to fight at Anzio, adopted the nickname "Devils in Baggy Pants", taken from an entry in a German officer's diary. While the 504th was detached, the remainder of the 82nd moved to the United Kingdom in November 1943 to prepare for the liberation of Europe. See RAF North Witham and RAF Folkingham.

Normandy[edit]

With two combat assaults under its belt, the 82nd Airborne Division was now ready for the most ambitious airborne operation of the war so far, as part of Operation Neptune, the invasion of Normandy. The division conducted Operation Boston, part of the airborne assault phase of the Operation Overlord plan.

In preparation for the operation, the division was reorganized. To ease the integration of replacement troops, rest, and refitting following the fighting in Italy, the 504th PIR did not rejoin the division for the invasion. Two new parachute infantry regiments (PIRs), the 507th and the 508th, provided it, along with the 505th, a three-parachute infantry regiment punch. On 5 and 6 June, these paratroopers, parachute artillery elements, and the 319th and 320th, boarded hundreds of transport planes and gliders to begin history's largest airborne assault at the time (only Operation Market Garden later that year would be larger). During the June 6th assault, a 508th platoon leader, Lieutenant Robert P. Mathias, would be the first American officer killed by German fire on D-Day [12] On June 7, after this first wave of attack, the 325th Glider Infantry Regiment would arrive by glider to provide a division reserve.

By the time the All-American Division was pulled back to England, it had seen 33 days of bloody combat and suffered 5,245 troopers killed, wounded, or missing. Ridgway's post-battle report stated in part, "... 33 days of action without relief, without replacements. Every mission accomplished. No ground gained was ever relinquished."[9]

Following Normandy, the 82nd became part of the newly organized XVIII Airborne Corps, which consisted of the U.S. 17th, 82nd, and 101st Airborne Divisions. Ridgway was given command, but was not promoted to lieutenant general until 1945. His recommendation for succession as commander was Brigadier General James M. Gavin. Ridgway's recommendation met with approval, and upon promotion Gavin became the youngest general since the Civil War to command a US Army division.[13]

82nd Airborne Division drop near Grave in the Netherlands during Operation Market Garden.

Market Garden[edit]

On 2 August 1944 the division became part of the First Allied Airborne Army. In September, the 82nd began planning for Operation Market Garden in the Netherlands. The operation called for three-plus airborne divisions to seize and hold key bridges and roads deep behind German lines. The 504th, now back at full strength, was reassigned to the 82nd, while the 507th was assigned to the 17th Airborne. On 17 September, the 82nd conducted its fourth World War II combat assault. Fighting off German counterattacks, the 82nd captured its objectives between Grave, and Nijmegen. In the afternoon of Wednesday 20th September 1944 the 82nd Airborne conducted a successful assault on the river crossing of the Waal river, capturing the north end of the Nijmegen road bridge. War correspondent Bill Downs, who witnessed the assault, described it as "a single, isolated battle that ranks in magnificence and courage with Guam, Tarawa, Omaha Beach. A story that should be told to the blowing of bugles and the beating of drums for the men whose bravery made the capture of this crossing over the Waal possible."[14]

British XXX corps land forces failed to follow up the 82nd's success by advancing across the bridge toward Arnhem, leading to some friction between 82nd's Captain Burriss, Major Cook, Colonel Tucker and General Gavin and the British Grenadier Guards in their Sherman tanks. So the success of 82nd's Nijmegen drop was short-lived, because of other Allied units at the Battle of Arnhem. After a period of duty on the Arnhem front, the 82nd was relieved by Canadian troops, and sent to France.

The Bulge[edit]

On 16 December, the Germans launched a surprise offensive through the Ardennes Forest which became known as the Battle of the Bulge. Two days later the 82nd joined the fighting and blunted General Gerd von Rundstedt's northern penetration of American lines. During this campaign, PFC Martin, 325th Glider Infantry Regiment, told a sergeant in a retreating tank destroyer to, "... pull your vehicle behind me—I'm the 82nd Airborne, and this is as far as the bastards are going!"[15]

504th Regiment, 82nd Airborne troops advancing through snow-covered forest during the Battle of the Bulge

After helping to secure the Ruhr, the division ended the war at Ludwigslust past the Elbe River, accepting the surrender of over 150,000 of Lieutenant General Kurt von Tippelskirch's 21st Army. General Omar Bradley stated in a 1975 interview with Gavin that Montgomery, Commander of the Anglo-Canadian 21st Army Group, had told him German opposition was too great to cross the Elbe. When Gavin's division crossed the river, the division moved 36 miles in one day and captured over 100,000 troops, causing great laughter in Bradley's 12th Army Group headquarters.[16]

Following Germany's surrender, the 82nd entered Berlin for occupation duty, lasting from April until December 1945. In Berlin General George Patton was so impressed with the 82nd's honor guard he said, "In all my years in the Army and all the honor guards I have ever seen, the 82nd's honor guard is undoubtedly the best." Hence the "All-American" became also known as "America's Guard of Honor".[17] The war ended before their scheduled participation in the invasion of Japan. During the invasion of Italy in World War II, Ridgway considered Will Lang Jr. of TIME magazine an honorary member of the division.[citation needed]

  • 82nd Airborne Casualties
    • 1,619 killed in action
    • 6,560 wounded in action
    • 332 died of wounds
555th Association insignia

Cold War[edit]

Post–World War II[edit]

The division returned to the United States on 3 January 1946 on the RMS Queen Mary. In New York City it led a big Victory Parade, 12 January 1946. In 1947 the 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion was assigned to the 82nd and was reflagged as the 3rd Battalion, 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment. Instead of being demobilized, the 82nd found a permanent home at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, designated a Regular Army division on 15 November 1948. The 82nd was not sent to the Korean War, as both Presidents Truman and Eisenhower chose to keep it in strategic reserve in the event of a Soviet ground attack anywhere in the world. Life in the 82nd during the 1950s and 1960s consisted of intensive training exercises in all environments and locations, including Alaska, Panama, the Far East and the continental United States.

Pentomic organization[edit]

In 1957, the division implemented the pentomic organization (officially "Reorganization of the Airborne Division (ROTAD)) in order to better prepare for tactical nuclear war in Europe. Five battlegroups (each with a headquarters, headquarters and service company, 5 rifle companies and a mortar battery) replaced the division's 3 regiments of 3 battalions each. The division's five battlegroups were:[18]

  • 1st Airborne Battlegroup (ABG), 504th Infantry (2nd ABG, 504th Infantry after 1958)(1)
  • 2nd ABG, 501st Infantry
  • 1st ABG, 325th Infantry
  • 1st ABG, 505th Infantry (1st ABG, 187th Infantry after 1959)(1)
  • 2nd ABG, 503rd Infantry (1st ABG, 503rd Infantry after 1960)(2)
(1) 1st ABG, 504th Infantry and 1st ABG, 505th Infantry were re-assigned to the 8th Infantry Division in Germany to provide airborne capability in Germany
(2) 2nd ABG, 503rd Infantry was re-assigned to the 25th Infantry Division and stationed in Okinawa to provide airborne capability in the Pacific
  • the Division Artillery consisted of:
    • Battery A, 319th Artillery
    • Battery B, 319th Artillery
    • Battery C, 319th Artillery (Battery C, 320th Artillery after 1960)
    • Battery D, 320th Artillery
    • Battery E, 320th Artillery
    • Battery B, 377th Artillery
  • additional division elements consisted of:
    • 82nd Medical Company
    • 82nd Signal Battalion
    • 82nd Aviation Company
    • Troop A, 17th Cavalry
    • 307th Airborne Engineer Battalion
    • 407th Supply and Transportation Company
    • 782nd Maintenance Battalion
    • 82nd Quartermaster Parachute Support Company

The pentomic organization was unsuccessful, and the division reorganized into 3 brigades of 3 battalions (the Reorganization Objective Army Division (ROAD) organization) in 1964.

Dominican Republic and Vietnam deployments[edit]

In April 1965, the "All-Americans" entered the civil war in the Dominican Republic, in which more than 3,000 Dominicans died. Spearheaded by the 3rd Brigade, the 82nd deployed in Operation Power Pack.

A year later, the 82nd went into action in Vietnam. During the Tet Offensive, which swept across the Vietnam in January 1968, the 3rd Brigade was en route to Chu Lai within 24 hours of receiving its orders. The 3rd Brigade performed combat duties in the HuếPhu Bai area of the I Corps sector. Later the brigade moved south to Saigon, and fought in the Mekong Delta, the Iron Triangle and along the Cambodian border, serving nearly 22 months. While the 3rd Brigade was deployed, the division created a provisional 4th Brigade, consisting of 4th Battalion, 325th Infantry; 3rd Battalion, 504th Infantry; and 3rd Battalion, 505th Infantry. The Division Artillery also created an additional battalion, 3rd Battalion, 320th Artillery, to support the 4th Brigade.[18][19]

Within the United States, in 1967, the 82nd was sent to deal with the massive 1967 Detroit riot. Within two days of their deployment, the riots ended, with 43 people dead.

The units assigned and attached to the 3d Brigade of the 82nd Airborne Division were as follows:[20]

  • Brigade Infantry:
    • 1st Battalion, 505th Infantry Regiment (Airborne)
    • 2d Battalion, 505th Infantry Regiment (Airborne)
    • 1st Battalion, 508th Infantry Regiment (Airborne)
  • Brigade Artillery:
    • 2d Battalion, 321st Artillery (105mm)(Airborne)
  • Brigade Aviation:
    • A Company, 82d Aviation Battalion
  • Brigade Reconnaissance:
    • B Troop, 1st Squadron, 17th Cavalry (Armored)
    • Company O, 75th Infantry Regiment (Ranger)
  • Brigade Support:
    • 82d Support Battalion
    • 58th Signal Company
    • C Company, 307th Engineer Battalion (Airborne)
    • 408th Army Security Agency Detachment
    • 52d Chemical Detachment
    • 518th Military Intelligence Detachment

Post-Vietnam Operations[edit]

From 1969 into the 1970s, the 82nd deployed paratroopers to South Korea and Vietnam on more than 180DBT (Days Bad Time) for exercises in potential future battlegrounds. The division received three alerts. One was for Black September 1970. Paratroopers were on their way to Amman, Jordan when the mission was aborted. In May 1971 they were used to help national guard and Washington DC police to round up and arrest protestors.[21][22] Nine years later in August 1980, the 1st Battalion (Airborne), 504th PIR was alerted and deployed to conduct civil disturbance duty at Fort Indiantown Gap, Pennsylvania, during the Cuban refugee internment. War in the Middle East in the fall of 1973 brought the 82nd to full alert. In May 1978, the division was alerted to a possible drop into Zaire. In November 1979, the division was alerted for a possible operation to rescue the American hostages in Iran. The division formed the nucleus of the newly created Rapid Deployment Forces (RDF), a mobile force at a permanently high state of readiness.

Invasion of Grenada - Operation Urgent Fury[edit]

Southern Objective: Cuban-built Point Salinas Airport, Grenada, 1983.

On 25 October 1983, elements of the 82nd conducted an Airland Operation to secure Point Salinas Airport following an airborne assault by the 1st and 2nd Ranger Battalions who conducted the airfield seizure just hours prior. The first 82nd unit to deploy was a task force of the 2nd and 3rd Battalions (Airborne), 325th Infantry. On 26 October and 27, the 1st Battalion (Airborne), 505th Infantry, and the 1st Battalion (Airborne), 508th Infantry, deployed to Grenada with support units. 2-505 deployed as well. Military operations ended in early November (Note: that C/2-325 did not deploy due to being a newly formed COHORT unit, in its place A/2-504 deployed, landing at Point Salinas[23]). The 82d expanded its missions from the airhead at Salinas to weed out Cuban and Grenadian soldiers Each proceeding battalion pushed a single company forward with A/2-504 deploying only one company out of the entire brigade. The operation was flawed in several areas and identified areas needing attention to enhance the United States RDF doctrine. Newly issued Battle dress Uniforms (BDUs) were not designed for the tropical environment; communication between Army ground forces and Navy and Air Force aircraft lacked interoperability and even food and other logistic support to ground forces was hampered due to communication issues between the services. The operation proved the division's ability to act as a rapid deployment force. The first aircraft carrying troopers from the 2-325th touched down at Point Salines 17 hours after H-Hour notification.

In March 1988, a brigade task force made up of two battalions from the 504th Infantry and 3rd Battalion (Airborne), 505th Infantry, conducted a parachute insertion and air/land operation into Honduras as part of Operation Golden Pheasant. The deployment was billed as a joint training exercise, but the paratroopers were ready to fight. The deployment caused the Sandinistas to withdraw to Nicaragua. Operation Golden Pheasant prepared the paratroopers for future combat in an increasingly unstable world.

Panama: Operation Just Cause[edit]

Tactical map of Operation Just Cause showing major points of attack.

On 20 December 1989, the "All-American", as part of the United States invasion of Panama, conducted their first combat jump since World War II onto Torrijos International Airport, Panama. The goal of the 1st Brigade task force, which was made up of the 1-504 and 2-504 PIR as well as 4-325 AIR and Company A, 3-505 PIR, and 3-319th AFAR, was to oust Manuel Noriega from power. They were joined on the ground by 3-504 PIR, which was already in Panama. The invasion was initiated with a night combat jump and airfield seizures; the 82nd conducted follow-on combat air assault missions in Panama City and the surrounding areas of the Gatun Locks. The operation continued with an assault of multiple strategic installations, such as the Punta Paitilla Airport in Panama City and a Panamanian Defense Forces (PDF) garrison and airfield at Rio Hato, where Noriega also maintained a residence. The attack on La Comandancia (PDF HQ) touched off several fires, one of which destroyed most of the adjoining and heavily populated El Chorrillo neighborhood in downtown Panama City. The 82d Airborne Division secured several other key objectives such as Madden Dam, El Ranacer Prison, Gatun Locks, Gamboa and Fort Cimarron. Overall, the operation involved 27,684 U.S. troops and over 300 aircraft, including C-130 Hercules, AC-130 Spectre gunship, OA-37B Dragonfly observation and attack aircraft, C-141 and C-5 strategic transports, F-117A Nighthawk stealth aircraft and AH-64 Apache attack helicopters. The invasion of Panama was the first combat deployment for the AH-64, the HMMWV, and the F-117A. In the short six years since the Invasion of Grenada, Operation Just Cause demonstrated how quickly the US Armed Forces could adapt and overcome the mistakes and equipment interoperability issues to conduct a quick and decisive victory. In all, the 82d Airborne Division suffered 6 of the 23 fatalities of the operation. The paratroopers began redeployment to Fort Bragg on 12 January 1990. Operation Just Cause concluded on 31 Jan 1990, just 42 days (D+42) since the invasion started.

Post–Cold War[edit]

Persian Gulf War[edit]

Ground operations during Operation Desert Storm, with the 82nd Airborne Division positioned at the left flank.
82nd US Airborne Division 1989

Seven months later the paratroopers of the 82nd Airborne Division were again called to war. Four days after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990, 4-325th Airborne Infantry Regiment (AIR) was the Division Ready Force 1 (DRF-1) and the initial initial ground force,[24] as President George Bush's "Line in the Sand"[25] speech to Saddam Hussein part of the largest deployment of American troops since Vietnam as part of Operation Desert Shield. The 4-325th AIR immediately deployed to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Their role was to guard the royal family as part of the agreement with King Faud to station troops in the kingdom. The DRF 2 and 3 (1-325 and 2-325 AIR, respectively) began drawing the "line in the sand" near al Jubail by building defenses for possible retrograde operations. Soon after, the rest of the division followed. There, intensive training began in anticipation of desert fighting against the heavily armored Iraqi Army.

On 16 January 1991, Operation Desert Storm began when Allied war planes attacked Iraqi targets. As the air war began, 2d Brigade (325th AIR) of the 82nd initially deployed near an airfield in the vicinity of the ARAMCO oil facilities outside Abqaiq, Saudi Arabia. While 1st Brigade (504th PIR) and 3rd Brigade (505th PIR) consolidated at the Division HQ (CHAMPION Main) near Dhahran in Coinciding with the start of the air war, three National Guard Light-Medium Truck companies, the 253rd (NJARNG), 1122nd (AKARNG), and the 1058th (MAARNG) joined 2d Brigade of the 82d. In the coming weeks using primarily the 5-Ton cargo trucks of these NG truck companies, the 1st Brigade moved north to "tap line road" in the vicinity of Rafha, Saudi Arabia. Eventually, these National Guard truck units effectively "motorized" the 325th AIR, providing the troop ground transportation required for them to keep pace with the 6th French Light Armored Division during the incursion. The ground war began almost six weeks later. The 325th AIR acted as the division's spearhead for the ground war who actually took positions over the Iraqi border 24 hours in advance of coalition forces at 0800hrs on 22 February 1991 on Objectives Tin Man and Rochambeau. On 23 February, 82nd Airborne Division paratroopers protected the XVIII Airborne Corps flank as fast-moving armor and mechanized units moved deep inside south-western Iraq. After the second day, 1st Brigade moved forward to extend the Corps flank along with 3rd Brigade. In the short 100-hour ground war, the 82nd drove deep into Iraq and captured thousands of Iraqi soldiers and tons of equipment, weapons, and ammunition. During that time, the 82nd's band and MP company processed 2,721 prisoners. After the liberation of Kuwait and the surrender of the Iraqi Army, the 82nd redeployed to Fort Bragg between 18 March and 22 April after being deployed for a period of seven months.

Hurricane Andrew[edit]

In August 1992, the division deployed a task force to the hurricane-ravaged area of South Florida to provide humanitarian assistance following Hurricane Andrew. For more than 30 days, troopers provided food, shelter and medical attention to the Florida population as part of the U.S. military Domestic Emergency Planning System. The 82nd was part of over 20,000 Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine and an additional 6200 National Guard troops deployed for the disaster.[26]

They also provided security and a sense of safety for the victims of the storm who were without power, doors, windows and in many cases roofs. There were, as with all disasters, criminals trying to take advantage of the situation, in this case looters and thieves. The presence of the 82nd quickly eliminated that factor from the equation.[27]

Operation Restore Democracy: Haïti[edit]

On 16 September 1994, the 82d Airborne Division joined Operation Restore Democracy. The 82nd was scheduled to make combat parachute jumps into Pegasus Drop Zone and PAPIAP Drop Zone (Port-au-Prince Airport), in order to help oust the military dictatorship of Raoul Cédras, and to restore the democratically elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide. At the same time that former U.S. President Jimmy Carter and former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin Powell were negotiating with Cédras to restore Aristide to power, the 82nd's first wave was in the air, with paratroopers waiting at Green Ramp to air land in Haïti once the airfields there had been seized. When the Haïtian military verified from sources outside Pope Air Force Base that the 82nd was on the way, Cédras stepped down, averting the invasion.

Former Vice President Al Gore would later travel to Fort Bragg to personally thank the paratroopers of the 82nd for their actions, noting in a speech on 19 September 1994, that the 82nd's reputation was enough to change Cédras' mind:

But it did get a little close there for a while. As you may know, there were 61 planes in the air headed toward Haïti at the time they finally agreed. And at one point General Biamby came in and told General Cédras that he had just gotten word on his telephone that the airplanes had taken off from Pope Air Force Base, with soldiers from Fort Bragg, and that both disconcerted them and caused them to be suspicious of the intent of the negotiations, but it also created a situation where immediately after that, the key points they had been refusing to agree to were agreed to, a date certain, other matters that I won't go into in detail here.

[citation needed]

Operations Safe Haven and Safe Passage[edit]

In December 1994, the 2-505 Parachute Infantry Regiment, deployed as part of Operations Safe Haven and Safe Passage. The battalion deployed from Fort Bragg while on Division Ready Force 1 to restore order against thousands of Cuban refugees who had attacked and injured a number of Air Force personnel and one marine while protesting their detainment at Empire Range along the Panama Canal. The battalion participated in the safeguarding of the Cuban refugees and the active patrolling in and around the refugee camps near the Panamanian jungle for two months, enjoying a 92-degree Christmas Day and returning to Fort Bragg in February 1995.

Operation Joint Endeavor: Bosnia[edit]

Battalions of the 82nd prepared for a possible parachute jump to support elements of the 1st Armored Division which had been ordered to Bosnia-Herzegovina as part of Operation Joint Endeavor. Only after engineers of the 1st Armored Division bridged the Sava River on 31 December 1995 without hostilities did the 82nd begin to draw down against plans for a possible airborne operation there. The 82d's 49th Public Affairs Detachment (Abn) was deployed in support of the 1st Armored Division and air-landed in Tuzla with the 1AD TAC CP and began PA operations to include establishing the first communications in print and radio and covering the crossing of the Sava River by the main forces.

Centrazbat '97[edit]

In September 1997 the 82nd traveled to Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan for CENTRAZBAT '97. Paratroopers from Ft. Bragg, NC flew 8000 miles on U.S. Air Force C-17s and jumped into an airfield in Shimkent, Kazakhstan. Forty soldiers from the three republics joined 500 paratroopers on the exercise-opening jump. Marine Gen. John Sheehan, then-commander in chief of the Atlantic Command, was first out of the aircraft. The 82nd joined units from Kyrgystan, Turkey and Russia in the two week long, NATO peacekeeping training mission. Members of the international press and local reporters from WRAL-TV and the Fayetteville Observer were also imbedded with the 82nd Airborne.[28]

Operation Allied Force: Kosovo[edit]

In March 1999 the TF 2-505 PIR deployed to Albania and forward deployed along the Albania/Kosovo border in support of Operation Allied Force, NATO's bombing campaign against Serbian forces in the Former Yugoslav Republic. In September 1999, TF 3-504 PIR deployed in support of Operation Joint Guardian, replacing TF 2-505 PIR. TF 3-504 PIR was replaced in March 2000 by elements of the 101st Airborne Division. On 1 October 1999, the 3-504th made a combat jump in "Operation Rapid Guardian": 500-foot altitude jump near Pristina.

Global War on Terror[edit]

The Army 82nd Airborne Division performs a mass paratroop jump with during the 2006 Joint Service Open House hosted at Andrews Air Force Base, 20 May 2006.

Operation Enduring Freedom II & III, 2002–03[edit]

After 11 September attacks on the United States, the 82nd's 49th Public Affairs Detachment deployed to Afghanistan in October 2001 in support of Operation Enduring Freedom along with several individual 82nd soldiers who deployed to the Central Command area of responsibility to support combat operations.

In June 2002, elements of the division headquarters and TF Panther (HQs, 3rd Brigade; 1-504th PIR, 1-505th PIR, 3-505th PIR, 1-319th AFAR) deployed to Afghanistan. In January 2003, TF Devil (HQs,1st Brigade, 2-504th PIR, 3-504th PIR, 2-505th PIR, 3-319th AFAR) relieved TF Panther.

Operation Iraqi Freedom I, 2003–04[edit]

U.S. Paratroopers from the 82nd Airborne Division patrol the streets of the Al Sudeek district of Mosul, Iraq, in January 2005.

In March 2003, 1-325, 2–325 and 3-325 Airborne Infantry of the 2nd BCT were attached to the 75th Ranger Regiment as part of a special operations task force to conduct a parachute assault to seize Saddam International Airport in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. On 21 March 2003, D Company crossed the Saudi Arabia–Iraq border as part of Task Force Hunter to escort heavy rocket artillery indirect fire systems to destroy Iraqi artillery batteries in the western Iraqi desert. Upon cancellation of the parachute assault to seize the airport, the battalions returned to their parent 325th Airborne Infantry Regiment at Talil Airfield near An Nasariyah, Iraq. The 325th AIR then continued operations in Samawah, Fallujah, and Baghdad. The brigade returned to the United States by the end of February 2004.[29]

The early days of the 82nd Airborne's participation in the deployment were chronicled by embedded journalist Karl Zinsmeister in his 2003 book Boots on the Ground: A Month with the 82nd Airborne in the Battle for Iraq.

In April 2003, according to Human Rights Watch, soldiers from a subordinate unit, the 325th Airborne Infantry Regiment, fired indiscriminately into a crowd of Iraqi civilians protesting their presence in the city of Fallujah. They killed and wounded many civilians. The battalion suffered no casualties.[30]

The 3rd brigade deployed to Iraq in the summer, redeploying to the U.S. in Spring 2004. The 1st brigade deployed in January 2004. The last units of the division left by the end of April 2004. The 2nd brigade deployed on 7 December 2004 to support the free elections and returned on Easter Sunday in 2005. During this initial deployment 36 soldiers from the division were killed and about 400 were wounded, out of about 12,000 deployed. On 21 July 2006, the 1/325 along with a platoon from A Battery, 2nd Battalion, 319th Airborne Field Artillery Regiment and a troop from 1st Squadron, 73rd Cavalry Regiment deployed to Tikrit, Iraq returning in December 2006. Just days after returning home, the battalion join the rest of the 2nd Brigade in another deployment scheduled for the beginning of January 2007.

Rapid deployment operations[edit]

Afghanistan[edit]

In late September 2004 The National Command Authority alerted TF 1-505th PIR for an emergency deployment to Afghanistan in support of that October's (first free) elections.

Iraq[edit]

In December 2004, the task forces based on 2-325th AIR and 3-325th AIR deployed to Iraq to provide a safe and secure environment for the country’s first-ever free national elections. Thanks in part to the efforts of 2nd Brigade paratroopers, more than eight million Iraqis were able to cast their first meaningful ballots.

Operation Enduring Freedom VI, 2005–06[edit]

The First Brigade of the 82nd deployed in April 2005 in support of OEF 6, and returned in April 2006.

Hurricane Katrina[edit]

The 82nd Airborne's 3rd Brigade, 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment and the division's 319th Airborne Field Artillery Regiment along with supporting units deployed to support search-and-rescue and security operations in New Orleans, Louisiana after the city was flooded by Hurricane Katrina in September 2005. About 5,000 paratroopers commanded by Major General William B. Caldwell IV, operated out of New Orleans International Airport.

Reorganization[edit]

In January 2006, the division began reorganizing from a division based organization to a brigade combat team based organization. Activated elements include a 4th Brigade Combat Team (1–508th INF, 2–508th INF, 4–73rd Cav (RSTA), 2–321st FA, 782nd BSB, and STB, 4th BCT) and the inactivation of the Division Artillery, 82nd Signal Battalion, and 313th Military Intelligence Battalion. The 82nd Division Support Command (DISCOM) was redesignated as the 82nd Sustainment Brigade. A pathfinder unit was reactivated within the 82nd when the Long Range Surveillance Detachment of the inactivating 313th Military Intelligence Battalion was transferred to the 2nd Battalion, 82nd Aviation Regiment and converted to a pathfinder role.[citation needed]

Operation Iraqi Freedom, 2006-09, "The Surge"[edit]

On 4 January 2007, 2nd BCT deployed once again to Iraq in support of OIF. On 4 June 2007, 1st Brigade deployed to Southern Iraq, returning 15 July 2008. Since the deployment began, the division has lost 37 paratroopers. Since 11 September 2001, the division has lost 20 paratroopers in Afghanistan and 101 paratroopers in Iraq, but the death toll for the division is still growing. The return date for the 2nd Brigade was April 2008; however, the 1st Battalion of the 2nd BCT is scheduled to return home sooner in November 2007.[31]

A U.S. Paratrooper from the 82nd Airborne Division makes an arrest in June 2007, during the Iraq War.

Operation Enduring Freedom, 2007–08[edit]

In January 2007, then Maj. Gen. David M. Rodriguez deployed the division headquarters to Bagram, Afghanistan, accompanied by 4th BCT and the Aviation Brigade, as Commander, Combined Joint Task Force-82 (CJTF-82)and Regional Command - East for Operation Enduring Freedom VIII. The 3rd BCT, 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry) was extended for 120 days to increase the troop strength against the Taliban spring offensive. Extended to 15-month deployment, 4th BCT, which included 1–508th PIR, 2–508th PIR, and 4th Squadron, 73rd Cavalry, was commanded by then Col. Martin P. Schweitzer and remained in Khowst Province from January 2007 until April 2008. The 2–508th PIR worked to establish and maintain firebases in and around the Ghazni province while actively patrolling their operational area. The 1-508 served in Regional Command-South. Working mostly out of Kandahar province as the theater tactical force, they mentored the Afghan National Security Force, conducted combined operations with both ANSF and NATO partners in the Helmand province.[32] Supporting the division were the 36th Engineer Brigade, and the 43rd Area Support Group. A joint operation between the British Army and the 82nd Airborne secured the district center of Helmand province, in 2007, when an earlier joint operation between the British Army and U.S. Marine Corps failed to do so.

Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom and New Dawn, 2008–11[edit]

U.S. Army and Iraqi army soldiers board a Marine Corps CH-53 Super Stallion helicopter in Camp Ramadi, Iraq, 2009

In December 2008, the 3rd BCT deployed to Baghdad, Iraq and redeployed to Ft. Bragg In November 2009. In August 2009, 1st BCT deployed once again to Iraq and redeployed late July 2010.

During the months of August and September 2009, 4th BCT deployed again to Afghanistan and returned in August 2010 having lost 38 soldiers.

2nd Brigade deployed to the Anbar Province in Iraq in May 2011 for the last time in support of Operation New Dawn with the mission to advise, train and assist the Iraqi Security Forces and lead the responsible withdrawal of U.S. Forces from Iraq. They were part of the long convoy of equipment and troops who exited Iraq into Kuwait as OIF came to an end.[33]

2010 Haiti earthquake - Operation Unified Response[edit]

As part of Operation Unified Response, 2BCT, on rotation as the division's Global Response Force, was alerted and deployed forces to Haiti later that same day for the mission to provide humanitarian assistance following the devastating earthquake in Haiti.[33] Paratroopers distributed water and food during the 2010 Haiti earthquake relief.[34]

Just two months following redeployment from Haiti in 2010, elements of 2nd BCT (Red Falcons) deployed to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom to serve as trainers for the Afghan National Security Forces.[citation needed]

In October 2011, the Division Headquarters returned to Afghanistan, where they relieved 10th Mountain Division as the Headquarters of Regional Command-South.

In February 2012, 4th BCT deployed to Kandahar province.

As of April 2012, the 1st BCT was deployed to Afghanistan, operating in Ghazni Province, Regional Command-East. The paratroopers took control of Ghazni from the Polish Armed Forces, allowing the Polish Task Force White Eagle (pl:Polski Kontyngent Wojskowy w Afganistanie) to consolidate around the provincial seat in northern Ghazni.[35]

In December 2013, elements of the 4th Brigade deployed again to Afghanistan and they were joined by the 1st Brigade in Spring 2014.[36] Since 11 September 2001, the division has lost 106 paratroopers in Afghanistan and 139 paratroopers in Iraq

Current structure[edit]

Order of battle of the 82nd Airborne Div.
US Special Forces extraction by Company A, 2nd Battalion, 82nd Aviation Regiment, Afghanistan January 2010.
82nd paratrooper in Afghanistan.

82nd Airborne Division units:[37][38]


The division's 4th Brigade Combat Team inactivated in fall of 2013: the Special Troops Battalion, 4th BCT;[40] the 2nd Battalion, 321st Field Artillery Regiment; and the 782d Brigade Support Battalion were inactivated with some of the companies of the 782d used to augment support battalions in the remaining three brigades. The 4th Squadron, 73d Cavalry joined the 1st Brigade Combat Team and formed the core of the newly activated 2nd Battalion, 501st Parachute Infantry Regiment. The 2d Battalion, 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment joined the 2d Brigade Combat Team, while the 1st Battalion, 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment joined the 3rd Brigade Combat Team.

Traditions[edit]

To commemorate the 1944 Waal assault river crossing made by the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment and the 307th Engineer Battalion (Airborne) during Operation Market Garden, an annual Crossing of the Waal competition is staged on the anniversary of the operation at McKellars Lake near Fort Bragg. The winning company receives a paddle.[41] The paddle signifies that in the original crossing, many paratroopers had to row with their weapons because the canvas boats lacked sufficient paddles.[citation needed]

Honors[edit]

Campaign participation credit[edit]

Soldiers with the 82nd Airborne Division descend under a parachute canopy to earn foreign jump wings during the 11th Annual Randy Oler Memorial Operation Toy Drop at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, 6 December 2008.
Paratroupers of the 82nd airborne division jump at the 2014 Market Garden memorial, Landgoed Den Heuvel, Groesbeek, Netherlands, 18th September 2014
  • World War I
  1. St. Mihiel
  2. Meuse-Argonne
  3. Lorraine 1918
  • World War II
  1. Sicily
  2. Naples-Foggia
  3. Normandy (with arrowhead)
  4. Rhineland (with arrowhead)
  5. Ardennes-Alsace
  6. Central Europe
  • Armed Forces Expeditions
  1. Dominican Republic
  2. Grenada
  3. Panama
  • Southwest Asia
  1. Defense of Saudi Arabia
  2. Liberation and Defense of Kuwait
Iraqi commandos in June 2010, training under the supervision of soldiers from the 82nd Airborne.
  • Operation Enduring Freedom
  • Operation Iraqi Freedom

Medal of Honor recipients[edit]

World War I[edit]

  1. LTC Pike, Emory, J.
  2. CPL York, Alvin, C.

World War II[edit]

  1. PVT Towle, John, R.
  2. PFC Deglopper, Charles, N.
  3. 1SG Funk, Leonard, A. JR
  4. PVT Gandara, Joe[42]

Vietnam War[edit]

  1. SSG Conde-Falcon, Felix, M.[42]

Decorations[edit]

  1. Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for Sainte-Mère-Église.
  2. Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for Operation Market Garden.
  3. Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for Chiunzi Pass/Naples/Foggia awarded to the following units of the 82nd Airborne: 319th Glider Field Arty Bn,307th Engineer Bn (2nd), 80th Anti-aircraft Bn and Company H, 504 PIR
  4. Valorous Unit Citation (Army) for Operation Iraqi Freedom (3rd Brigade Combat Team, OIF 1)
  5. Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army) for SouthWest Asia.
  6. French Croix de Guerre with Palm, World War II for Sainte-Mère-Église.
  7. French Croix de Guerre with Palm, World War II for Cotentin.
  8. French Croix de Guerre, World War II, Fourragère
  9. Belgian Fourragere 1940
  10. Cited in the Order of the Day of the Belgian Army for action in the Ardennes
  11. Cited in the Order of the Day of the Belgian Army for action in Belgium And Germany.
  12. Military William Order, the highest and a very rare honor of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (only ever awarded to 2 non-Dutch units), for bravery and valiant service in battle at Nijmegen 1944 during Market Garden. (worn as an Orange Lanyard)
  13. Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for the Battle of Samawah, April 2003, awarded to the following unit of the 82nd Airborne: 2nd Brigade Combat Team (325th Airborne Infantry Regiment)
  14. Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for Operation Turkey Bowl, OIF, November 2007, awarded to the following unit of the 82nd Airborne: 5th Squadron, 73rd Cavalry, 3rd Brigade, 505th PIR
  15. Valorous Unit Citation (Army) for actions on objective in the Baghdad neighborhood of Ghazaliya. While attached to 3rd Brigade, 1st Armored Division. Cited in Department of the Army General Order 2009-10
  16. Superior Unit Award (Army) US Army Garrison, Ft Bragg 11 September 2001 – 15 April 2006 Cited in DAGO 2009-29

Units during WW II[edit]

The following are 82nd Airborne units during World War II.[43]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Lineage and Honors Information: 82nd Airborne Division". United States Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 22 December 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "82nd Airborne Division History". GlobalSecurity. Retrieved 22 December 2009. 
  3. ^ Rutledge, G.K,, The Atlanta Georgian, "Name for 82nd Division to be Chosen by next Sunday Tuesday April 2, 1918 page 1.
  4. ^ McGrath, John J. (2004). The Brigade: A History: Its Organization and Employment in the US Army. Combat Studies Institute Press. p. 172. ISBN 978-1-4404-4915-4. 
  5. ^ "82nd Division Composition (World War I)". United States Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 22 December 2009. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "82nd Division Record of Events (World War I)". United States Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 22 December 2009. 
  7. ^ Verier, Mike (2001). 82nd Airborne Division 'All American'. London: Ian Allan. p. 8. 
  8. ^ Army Almanac: A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States. United States Government Printing Office. 1959. p. 587. 
  9. ^ a b "82nd Airborne Division History". 82nd Airborne Division Public Affairs Office. Archived from the original on 25 December 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  10. ^ Blair, Clay (1985). Ridgeway's Paratroopers The American Airborne in World War II. Naval Institute Press. pp. Plate 11. 
  11. ^ Doyle, Charles H.; Terrell Stewart (1988). Stand in the Door!. Williamstown, New Jersey: Phillips Publications. p. 104. 
  12. ^ Ambrose, S. E. (2002). D-Day. Pocket Books. p. 24. 
  13. ^ Ruggero, Ed (29 May 2007). The First Men In: US Paratroopers and the Fight to Save D-Day. Harper Collins. p. 307. ISBN 978-0-06-073129-8. Retrieved 31 October 2012. 
  14. ^ Megellas, James (2007). All the Way to Berlin: A Paratrooper at War in Europe. Random House Publishing Group. p. 165. ISBN 0307414485. 
  15. ^ Toland, John (1 April 1999). Battle: The Story of the Bulge. Bison Books. p. 234. ISBN 0-8032-9437-9. 
  16. ^ Ellis, John (1990). Brute force: allied strategy and tactics in the Second World War. Deutsch. p. 440. ISBN 978-0-233-97958-8. Retrieved 12 September 2012. 
  17. ^ Reynolds, David (1 September 1998). Paras: An Illustrated History of Britain's Airborne Forces. Sutton. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-7509-1723-0. Retrieved 12 September 2012. 
  18. ^ a b Steven J. Mrozek (1997). 82nd Airborne Division. Turner Pub. Co. p. 65. OCLC 52963023. 
  19. ^ "3d Battalion, 320th Field Artillery". History.army.mil. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  20. ^ Vietnam Order of Battle, by Captain (Ret.) Shelby L. Stanton, p. 83
  21. ^ Pike, John. "3rd Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  22. ^ "1971 May Day Protests at AllExperts". Associatepublisher.com. 3 May 1971. Retrieved 13 June 2012. [dead link]
  23. ^ SFC Robert Patty, retired
  24. ^ John Pike. "2nd Battalion, 325th Airborne Infantry Regiment". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  25. ^ Mann, Jim (23 August 1990). "NEWS ANALYSIS: Bush's 'Line in the Sand' Shifts as Objectives Grow: Strategy: The initial mission was to defend Saudi Arabia. Now troops could be used to free hostages, liberate Kuwait, topple Hussein". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  26. ^ Ulbrich, Jeffrey. "82nd Airborne savors 'helping our own'". news.google.com. Gainesville Sun. Retrieved 16 August 2015. 
  27. ^ "82nd Airborne Division". bragg.army.mil. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  28. ^ Gillert, Douglas. "After Jumping, Battalion Learns to Crawl". defense.gov. DoD News. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  29. ^ Pike, John. "2nd Battalion, 325th Airborne Infantry Regiment". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  30. ^ Iraq: U.S. Should Investigate al-Falluja (Report). Human Rights Watch. 17 June 2003. Retrieved 1 September 2013. 
  31. ^ "As War Winds Down, 82nd Prepares". Military.com. November 25, 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  32. ^ "Transcript: DoD News Briefing with Col. Schweitzer from Afghanistan". Defense.gov. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  33. ^ a b "DVIDS - News - Falcons say farewell to brigade commander". Dvidshub.net. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  34. ^ de Montesquiou, Alfred; and Mike Melia (16 January 2010). "Haiti earthquake survivors get more food and water". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Associated Press. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  35. ^ "Contact Support". Rc-east.com. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  36. ^ [1] Archived 15 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ "Fort Bragg". Bragg.army.mil. 16 July 2013. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  38. ^ Brooks, Drew (22 January 2014). "82nd Airborne Division's 4th Brigade Combat Team headed to Afghanistan". Fayetteville Observer. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  39. ^ http://www.bragg.army.mil/units/82ndSustBde/Pages/default.aspx
  40. ^ "Coat of Arms". Tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil. 2006-08-01. Retrieved 2014-07-21. 
  41. ^ Wilt, Susan (22 September 2008). "82nd Airborne engineers re-enact famous WWII river crossing". U.S. Army. Retrieved 30 October 2012. 
  42. ^ a b "Recipients - Valor 24 - Medal of Honor". The United States Army. Retrieved 11 January 2015. 
  43. ^ "82d Airborne Division". Order of Battle of the United States Army World War II. United States Army. December 1945. Archived from the original on 11 March 2008. Retrieved 16 March 2008. 

Additional reading[edit]

  • Alexander, Mark, and John Sparry. Jump Commander: In Combat with the 82nd Airborne in World War II. Philadelphia : Casemate, 2010. ISBN 1-935-14928-8 OCLC 506253036
  • Angress, Werner T. Witness to the Storm: A Jewish Journey from Nazi Berlin to the 82nd Airborne, 1920–1945. Durham, NC :Miriam Angress, 2012. ISBN 1-477-45701-1 OCLC 804824030
  • Anzuoni, Robert P. I'm the 82nd Airborne Division!: A History of the All American Division in World War II After Action Reports. Atglen, PA : Schiffer Military History, 2005. ISBN 0-764-32347-4 OCLC 62555533
  • Anzuoni, Robert P. The All American: An Illustrated History of the 82nd Airborne Division, 1917 to the Present. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Pub, 2001. ISBN 0-764-31321-5 OCLC 49935879
  • Barry, Robert F. Power Pack: Dominican Republic, 1965–1966. Portsmouth, Va: Messenger, 1965. OCLC 6655474
  • Baugh, James Emory. From Skies of Blue: My Experiences with the Eighty-Second Airborne During World War II. New York : iUniverse, 2003. ISBN 0-595-74982-8 OCLC 64584040
  • Breuer, William B. Drop Zone, Sicily: Allied Airborne Strike, July 1943. Novato, CA: Presidio, 1983. ISBN 0-891-41196-8 OCLC 9945654
  • Burriss, T. Moffatt. Strike and Hold: A Memoir of the 82nd Airborne in World War II. Washington, D.C.: Brassey's, 2000. ISBN 1-574-88258-9 OCLC 43903491
  • Caraccilo, Dominic J. The Ready Brigade of the 82nd Airborne in Desert Storm: A Combat Memoir by the Headquarters Company Commander. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1993. ISBN 0-899-50829-4 OCLC 27265069
  • Carter, Ross S. Those Devils in Baggy Pants. Cutchogue, NY : Buccaneer Books, 1996. ISBN 0-899-66613-2 OCLC 68043161
  • Cooke, James J. The All-Americans at War: The 82nd Division in the Great War, 1917–1918. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 1999. ISBN 0-275-95740-3 OCLC 39210048
  • Cooksey, Jon. Crossing the Waal: The U.S. 82nd Airborne Division at Nijmegen. Barnsley: Pen and Sword Military, 2005. ISBN 1-844-15228-6 OCLC 57200754
  • Covington, Henry L. A Fighting Heart, An Unofficial Story of the 82nd Airborne Division. Fayetteville, NC: T. Davis, 1949. OCLC 4139070
  • Dawson, Buck. Saga of the All American. Atlanta: Albert Love Enterprises, 1946. OCLC 3595988
  • Francois, Dominique. 82nd Airborne Division 1917-2005. Bayeux: Heimdal, 2006. ISBN 2-840-48215-0 OCLC 64967339
  • Gavin, James M. On to Berlin: Battles of an Airborne Commander, 1943–1946. New York: Viking Press, 1978. ISBN 0-670-52517-0 OCLC 3204743
  • Grey, Stephen. Into the Viper's Nest: The First Pivotal Battle of the Afghan War. Minneapolis: Zenith Press, 2010. ISBN 0-760-33897-3 OCLC 548583278
  • Heilman, William H. A Pilot's Tale: Flying Helicopters in Vietnam. Hooks, Tex.?: William H. Heilman,], 2008. ISBN 1-435-71185-8 OCLC 671642623
  • Hoyt, Edwin Palmer. The Invasion Before Normandy: The Secret Battle of Slapton Sands. Lanham, MD : Scarborough House, 1999. ISBN 0-812-88562-7 OCLC 41712914
  • Imai, Kesaharu. Grenada : October 25 to November 2, 1983. Tokyo : World Photo Press, 1984. OCLC 16348601
  • Langdon, Allen. Ready: The History of the 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division, World War II. [Fort Bragg, N.C.]: The Division, 1986. OCLC 16221387
  • Lebenson, Leonard. Surrounded by Heroes: Six Campaigns with Division Headquarters, 82nd Airborne Division, 1942-1945.Drexel Hill, PA: Casemate, 2007. ISBN 1-932-03358-0 OCLC 124985055
  • LoFaro, Guy Sword of St. Michael: The 82nd Airborne Division in World War II. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2011. ISBN 0-306-82023-4 OCLC 659768768
  • Lunteren, Frank van The Battle of the Bridges: The 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment in Operation Market Garden. Philadelphia: Casemate Publishing, 2014. ISBN 978-1-61200232-3
  • Marshall, S. L. A., Carl Sandburg, and H. Garver Miller. Night Drop: The American Airborne Invasion of Normandy. Boston: Little, Brown, 1962. OCLC 1260577
  • McCann, John P. Passing Through : The 82nd Airborne Division in Northern Ireland 1943–44. Newtownards, County Down, Northern Ireland : Colourpoint Books, 2005. ISBN 1-904-24241-3 OCLC 60883703
  • McKenzie, John D. On Time, on Target: The World War II Memoir of a Paratrooper in the 82nd Airborne. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 2000. ISBN 0-891-41714-1 OCLC 42863044
  • McManus, John C. September Hope: The American Side of a Bridge Too Far. New York: New American Library, 2012. ISBN 0-451-23706-4 OCLC 741538553
  • Megellas, James. All the Way to Berlin: A Paratrooper at War in Europe. New York: Ballantine Books, 2003. ISBN 0-891-41784-2 OCLC 50810144
  • Mrozek, Steven J. 82nd Airborne Division. Paducah, Ky: Turner Pub. Co, 1997. ISBN 1-563-11364-3 OCLC 52963023
  • Nordyke, Phil. All American, All the Way: The Combat History of the 82nd Airborne Division in World War II. St. Paul, MN: Zenith Press, 2005. ISBN 0-760-32201-5 OCLC 60757547
  • Nordyke, Phil. The All Americans in World War II: A Photographic History of the 82nd Airborne Division at War. St. Paul, MN: Zenith Press, 2006. ISBN 0-760-32617-7 OCLC 64961665
  • Ruggero, Ed. Combat Jump: The Young Men Who Led the Assault into Fortress Europe, July 1943. New York : HarperCollins, 2003. ISBN 0-060-08875-3 OCLC 51978036
  • Saunders, Tim. Nijmegen, Grave, and Groesbeek. Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Leo Cooper, 2001. ISBN 0-850-52815-1 OCLC 49594764
  • Thompson, Leroy. The All Americans: The 82nd Airborne. Newton Abbot, Devon: David & Charles Publishers, 1988. ISBN 0-715-39182-8 OCLC 19393819
  • Zinsmeister, Karl. Boots on the Ground: A Month with the 82nd Airborne in the Battle for Iraq. New York: Truman Talley Books/St. Martin's Press, 2003. ISBN 0-312-32663-7 OCLC 52775207
  • Zinsmeister, Karl, Dan Jurgens, and Raul Trevino. Combat Zone: True Tales of GIs in Iraq. New York, NY: Marvel Comics, 2005. ISBN 0-785-11516-1 OCLC 61373604

External links[edit]

[1]

  1. ^ Rutledge, G.K,, The Atlanta Georgian, "Name for 82nd Division to be Chosen by next Sunday Tuesday April 2, 1918 page 1