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|Centuries:||8th century – 9th century – 10th century|
|Decades:||810s 820s 830s – 840s – 850s 860s 870s|
|Years:||840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849|
|Births – Deaths – By country
Establishments – Disestablishments
This is a list of events occurring in the 840s, ordered by year.
- After the death of Louis the Pious, his sons Lothar, Charles the Bald and Louis the German fight over the division of the Holy Roman Empire, with Lothar succeeding as Emperor.
- Tang Wu Zong succeeds Tang Wen Zong as emperor of China.
- Kyrgyz in Yenisey region (north) defeat Uyghurs. End of the Uyghur khaganate.
- June 25 – Battle of Fontenay: Louis the German and Charles the Bald defeat Lothar.
- Battle of Magh-Ochtar (Kildare, Ireland): Feidlimid mac Cremthanin is defeated by the Southern Uí Neill.
- The Norse town of Dyflinn or Dublin is founded in Ireland.
- In the Chinese capital of Chang'an, the West Market and East Market are closed every night 1 hour and three quarters before dusk (by government-ordered curfew), yet night markets thrive in residential areas. The local government attempt to shut the night markets down in this year, but with the decline of the government's authority by the mid 9th century, this edict (like many others) is largely ignored as urban dwellers keep attending the night markets regardless.
- February 14 – Charles the Bald and Louis the German sign a treaty.
- Cerball mac Dúnlainge becomes king of Osraige
- The Oaths of Strasbourg, an alliance of Louis the German and Charles the Bald against emperor Lothar, are sworn and recorded in the vernacular languages.
- Ramiro I succeeds Alfonso II as king of Asturias.
- Uurad is succeeded by Bred, then Ciniod as King of the Picts.
- Charles the Bald marries Ermentrude.
- August – The Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian Empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious (Charles the Bald, Lothar and Louis the German).
- Kenneth I (Cináed mac Ailpín), King of the Scots, also becomes King of the Picts, thus becoming the first monarch of the new nation of Scotland. The Alpin dynasty of Scottish kings begins to reign.
- The Battle of Messac is won by Erispoe, son of Nominoe, Count of Vannes, against Renaud d'Herbauges who is prefet of the Marks of Brittany. Renaud d'Herbauges had tried an attack while Nominoe was ill. This battle marks the beginning of the hostilities between Charles the Bald and Nominoe.
- Al-Andalus: The city of Saragossa rises against the Umayyad emir.
- Byzantine Empire: Official end of Iconoclasm and a return to images in all Orthodox churches of the Empire. To commemorate this, on the first Sunday in Lent the Feast of Orthodoxy is celebrated every year since then.
- Crete: A major Byzantine attempt at recovering the island from the Saracens is launched. After initial success, the Byzantine army is overwhelmed.
- In the Tang Dynasty Chinese capital of Chang'an, a large fire consumes 4,000 homes, warehouses, and other buildings in the East Market, yet the rest of the city is at a safe distance from the blaze (which is largely quarantined in East Central Chang'an thanks to the large width of roads in Chang'an that produce fire breaks).
- The iconoclastic controversies end in Byzantium with the widow of Emperor Theophilus, Theodora II, acting as regent for her son, the future Michael III. Theodora II restored the veneration of icons in the Eastern Church, thus ending Iconoclasm.
- Rhodri Mawr ('the Great') becomes king of Gwynedd.
- June 15 – Louis II is crowned King of Lombardy by Pope Sergius II.
- Nominoe, Count of Vannes, raids into Maine and plunders the territory.
- According to the Annales Bertiniani, Nominoe makes war on the Vikings.
- Dorestad is raided by the Vikings.
- First Viking attacks on the Muslim possessions of the Iberian Peninsula. After being defeated in Corunna, the Scandinavian raiders sack Seville, Niebla, Beja and Lisbon.
- March 28 or 29 (Easter) – Siege of Paris ends when Paris is sacked by a Viking raiding fleet, probably under Ragnar Lodbrok, who collect a huge ransom in exchange for leaving. The Vikings also sack Hamburg and Melun.
- November 22 – Count of Vannes, Nominoe, defeats the king of Francia Charles the Bald at the battle of Ballon near Redon. No more toll is taken on Brittany, and it becomes an independent state lasting for seven centuries.
- Persecution of Buddhists is started in China. More than 4,600 monasteries and 40,000 temples and shrines are destroyed. More than 260,000 Buddhist monks and nuns are forced to return to secular life.
- September 16: Prisoner exchange between the Byzantine Empire and the Abbasid Caliphate at the river Lamos.
- Nominoe occupies Nantes and Rennes, he makes raids in Anjou and threatens Bayeux. Charles the Bald recognizes him as Duke of Brittany after being defeated three times.
- The Moors recapture León.
- Máel Sechnaill mac Máele Ruanaid becomes the first High King of Ireland
- Pribina established Blatnohrad, capital of Balaton Principality and build several churches there.
- 11,000 Saracen Arab squadrons from Africa, with 500 horses, desecrate Christian shrines in Rome, including the tombs and basilicas of Sts. Peter and Paul.
- Xuanzong II succeeds Wuzong as emperor of China.
- Jang Bogo, a powerful maritime hegemon of Silla, is assassinated by aristocratic elements.
- Bari is captured by the Saracens.
- According to the Annales Bertiniani, Nominoe, king of Brittany, makes war on the Vikings.
- January – Pope Leo IV succeeds Pope Sergius II as the 103rd pope.
- Rabanus Maurus becomes Archbishop of Mainz.
- Chola Dynasty starts to rule (approximate date).
- The Saracens destroy Leontini.
- Charles the Bald, Louis the German and Lothar meet in Koblenz.
- Máel Sechnaill mac Maíl Ruanaid, King of Mide, defeats a Norse army at Sciath Nechtain, in Ireland.
- The Borobudur is completed (approximate date).
- Bagrat II Bagratuni, "Prince of Princes" of Arminiya, begins a rebellion against the Abbasid Caliphate.
- In the Tang dynasty Chinese capital city of Chang'an, an imperial prince is impeached from his position by officials at court for erecting a building that obstructs a street in the northwesternmost ward in South Central Chang'an.
- At the battle of Ostia, the Italian fleets of Naples, Amalfi and Gaeta repel the Saracen pirates and save Rome from plunder.
- Alfred the Great
- Louis the Pious
- Charles the Bald
- Ermentrude of Orléans
- Louis the Stammerer
- Louis the German
- Lothair I
- Kenneth I of Scotland
- Ragnar Lodbrok
- Michael III
- 845 – Charles of Provence
- 848 – Charles the Child
- 849 – Carloman, son of Charles the Bald
- 843 – Jia Dao
- 849 – Walafrid Strabo