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|861 by topic|
|Ab urbe condita||1614|
|Balinese saka calendar||782–783|
|Chinese calendar||庚辰年 (Metal Dragon)|
3557 or 3497
— to —
辛巳年 (Metal Snake)
3558 or 3498
|- Vikram Samvat||917–918|
|- Shaka Samvat||782–783|
|- Kali Yuga||3961–3962|
|Japanese calendar||Jōgan 3|
|Minguo calendar||1051 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||1172/1173 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1403–1404|
987 or 606 or −166
— to —
988 or 607 or −165
- March – Robert the Strong is appointed margrave of Neustria by King Charles the Bald. He re-establishes the Breton March, and extends his remit by campaigning against Salomon, duke 'king' of Brittany. Robert hires a combined Seine-Loire fleet for 6,000 pounds of silver, 'before Salomon can ally with them against him'. In return, Salomon enlists 12 Viking ships under the command of Hastein, to raid the county of Maine, which, with Anjou, becomes squeezed between Brittany and Neustria.
- Spring – Council of Constantinople, attended by 318 fathers and presided over by papal legates confirms Photius the Great as patriarch and passes 17 canons.
- Carloman, eldest son of King Louis the German, revolts against his father. He is captured, but manages to escape to the Ostmark (or 862).
- Summer – Viking raiders sack the cities of Paris, Cologne, Aachen, Worms and Toulouse.
- December 11 – Caliph al-Mutawakkil is murdered by his Turkish guard, starting the period of troubles known as the "Anarchy at Samarra" (861–870). He is succeeded by his son Al-Muntasir, as ruler of the Abbasid Caliphate.
- Ya'qub ibn al-Layth, a Muslim military leader, founds the Saffarid Dynasty. He rules over parts of Khurasan and eastern Iran, and establishes his capital at Zaranj (modern Afghanistan).
- Al-Mutawakkil orders the construction of a Nilometer on Rhoda Island in central Cairo, supervised by the Persian astronomer Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathir al-Farghani.
- Abdullah ibn al-Mu'tazz, Muslim poet (d. 908)
- Abu Bakr Shibli, Muslim Sufi (d. 946)
- Al-Mu'tadid, Muslim caliph (or 854)
- Heongang, king of Silla (approximate date)
- April 6 – Prudentius, bishop of Troyes
- December 11
- Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathir al-Farghani, Persian astronomer
- Álvaro of Córdoba, Mozarab scholar and theologian
- Ansovinus, bishop of Camerino (approximate date)
- Bai Minzhong, chancellor of the Tang Dynasty (b. 792)
- Gladilanus, Galician clergyman (approximate date)
- Gregory of Khandzta, Georgian archimandrite (b. 759)
- Heonan, king of Silla (Korea)
- Princess Ito of Japan
- Lando I, count of Capua
- Meinrad of Einsiedeln, German hermit and martyr
- Pribina, Slavic prince (approximate date)
- Samuel of Kakheti, Georgian prince