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|864 by topic|
|Ab urbe condita||1617|
|Balinese saka calendar||785–786|
|Chinese calendar||癸未年 (Water Goat)
3560 or 3500
— to —
甲申年 (Wood Monkey)
3561 or 3501
|- Vikram Samvat||920–921|
|- Shaka Samvat||785–786|
|- Kali Yuga||3964–3965|
|Japanese calendar||Jōgan 6
|Minguo calendar||1048 before ROC
|Seleucid era||1175/1176 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1406–1407|
990 or 609 or −163
— to —
991 or 610 or −162
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 864.|
- Spring – Emperor Louis II (the Younger) marches with an Frankish army against Rome. While reaching the papal city, he gets ill, and decides to make peace with pope Nicholas I.
- July 25 – Edict of Pistres: King Charles the Bald orders defensive measures against the Vikings. He creates a large force of cavalry, which is the beginning of the French chivalry.
- Viking raiders, led by Olaf the White, arrive in Scotland from the Viking settlement of Dublin (Ireland). He rampages the country, until his defeat in battle by king Constantine I.
- Robert the Strong, margrave of Neustria, attacks the Loire Vikings in a successful campaign. Other Viking raiders plunder the cities of Limoges and Clermont, in Aquitaine.
- King Louis the German invades Moravia, crossing the Danube River to besiege the civitas Dowina (identified, although not unanimously, with Devín Castle in Slovakia).
- Pepin II joins the Vikings in an attack on Toulouse. He is captured while besieging the Frankish city. Pepin is deposed as king of Aquitaine, and imprisoned in Senlis.
- September 13 – Pietro Tradonico dies after a 28-year reign. He is succeeded by Orso I Participazio, who becomes doge of Venice.
- King Alfonso III conquers Porto from the Emirate of Cordoba. This is the end of the direct Muslim domination of the Douro region.
- Mount Fuji, located on Honshu Island, erupts for 10 days, in an event known as the Jōgan eruption (Japan).
- Hasan ibn Zayd establishes the Zaydid Dynasty, and is recognized as ruler of Tabaristan (Northern Iran).
- The Christianization of Bulgaria begins: Boris I, ruler (khan) of the Bulgarian Empire, is converted to Orthodox Christianity. His family and high-ranking dignitaries accept the Orthodox faith at the capital, Pliska.
- Gu Quanwu, general of the Tang Dynasty (d. 931)
- Khumarawayh ibn Ahmad ibn Tulun, ruler of the Tulunid Dynasty (d. 896)
- Louis III, king of the West Frankish Kingdom (or 863)
- Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni, Muslim scholar (d. 941)
- Simeon I, ruler (khan) of the Bulgarian Empire (or 865)
- Yúnmén Wényǎn, Chinese Zen master (or 862)
- September 13 – Pietro Tradonico, doge of Venice
- Al-Fadl ibn Marwan, Muslim vizier
- Al-Fadl ibn Qarin al-Tabari, Muslim governor
- Arnold of Gascony, Frankish nobleman
- Bi Xian, chancellor of the Tang Dynasty (b. 802)
- Ennin, Japanese priest and traveler
- Hucbert, Frankish nobleman (b. 820)
- Laura, Spanish abbess
- Lorcán mac Cathail, king of Uisneach (Ireland)
- Muhammad ibn al-Fadl al-Jarjara'i, Muslim vizier (or 865)
- Pei Xiu, chancellor of the Tang Dynasty (b. 791)
- Sancho II, count of Gascony (approximate date)
- Sergius I, duke of Naples
- Trpimir I, duke (knez) of Croatia
- Yahya ibn Muhammad, Muslim sultan
- Yahya ibn Umar, Muslim imam (or 865)