# 88 (number)

 ← 87 88 89 →
Cardinaleighty-eight
Ordinal88th
(eighty-eighth)
Factorization23 × 11
Divisors1, 2, 4, 8, 11, 22, 44, 88
Greek numeralΠΗ´
Roman numeralLXXXVIII
Binary10110002
Ternary100213
Senary2246
Octal1308
Duodecimal7412

88 (eighty-eight) is the natural number following 87 and preceding 89.

## In mathematics

88 is:

88 and 945 are the smallest coprime abundant numbers, since all numbers until 945 are multiples of 2, 945 has 3, 5 and 7 as divisors, and 88 is the first abundant number that doesn't have 3, 5 or 7 as divisors.

## Cultural significance

### In Chinese culture

Number 88 symbolizes fortune and good luck in Chinese culture, since the word 8 sounds similar to the word (, which implies 發財, or wealth, in Mandarin or Cantonese). The number 8 is considered to be the luckiest number in Chinese culture, and prices in Chinese supermarkets often contain many 8s. The shape of the Chinese character for 8 () implies that a person will have a great, wide future as the character starts narrow and gets wider toward the bottom. The Chinese government has been auctioning auto license plates containing many 8s for tens of thousands of dollars. The 2008 Beijing Olympics opened at 8 p.m., 8 August 2008.[8]

In addition, 88 is also used to mean "bye bye (拜拜)" in Chinese-language chats, text messages, SMSs and IMs, because its pronunciation in Mandarin is similar to "bye bye".[9]

In amateur radio, 88 is used as shorthand for "love and kisses" when signing a message or ending an exchange. It is used in spoken word (radiotelephony), Morse code (radiotelegraphy), and in various digital modes. It is considered rather more intimate than "73", which means "best regards"; therefore 73 is more often used. The two may be used together. Sometimes either expression is pluralized by appending an -s.[10] These number codes originate with the 92 Code adopted by Western Union in 1859.

### In neo-Nazism

Neo-Nazis use the number 88 as an abbreviation for the Nazi salute Heil Hitler.[11] The letter H is eighth in the alphabet, whereby 88 becomes HH.[12]

Often, this number is associated with the number 14, e.g. 14/88, 14-88, or 1488; this number symbolizes the Fourteen Words coined by David Lane, a prominent white supremacist.[13] Example uses of 88 include the song "88 Rock 'n' Roll Band" by Landser, and the organizations Column 88 and Unit 88.

The number is banned on Austrian license plates due to its association with "Heil Hitler [and] where H comes in the alphabet".[14] In June 2023, the Italian Football Federation (FIGC) and the Italian government announced that the number 88 would be banned from use in Italian association football, as part of a joint initiative to combat antisemitism. This followed an incident in March of that year in which a Lazio supporter wore a club shirt bearing the name "Hitlerson" and the number 88, which led to the supporter receiving a lifetime ban from attending Lazio matches.[15]

## In other fields

Eighty-eight (88) is also:

• a popular ice cream bar manufactured by GB Glace
• the number of keys on a typical piano (36 black and 52 white); a piano is sometimes called an "eighty-eight"
• 88 Keys, character in the 1990 Dick Tracy film
• Eighty Eight, a live album by the Christian rock band the 77s
• in the titles of songs:
• 88 Miles per hour is the speed that Doctor Emmett Brown's Delorean car had to reach in order to attain time travel, in the movie(s) "Back to the Future".

## References

1. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A033950 (Refactorable numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
2. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A006036 (Primitive pseudoperfect numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
3. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A005114 (Untouchable numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
4. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A051868 (16-gonal (or hexadecagonal) numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
5. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A059756 (Erdős-Woods numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
6. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A030984 (2-automorphic numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
7. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A000787 (Strobogrammatic numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
8. ^ Dubner, Stephen (2007-07-05). "Lucky 8's in China". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-02-08.
9. ^ 黎, 少銘 (2015). "香港網絡語言初探" (PDF). 中國語文通訊. 94. Hong Kong: 3–26.
10. ^ Zook, Glen (September 28, 2011). "88". Retrieved 2012-02-08.
11. ^ "Racist Skinhead Glossary | Southern Poverty Law Center". Southern Poverty Law Center. 2006. Retrieved 2013-12-06.
12. ^ Natsiviittaus Ariel-pesujauhepaketissa herättää pahennusta Saksassa, YLE Uutiset 9 May 2014. Accessed on 12 May 2014.
13. ^ "88".
14. ^ "Austria bans neo-Nazi car reg codes". BBC News. 2015-07-23. Retrieved 2022-04-08.
15. ^ "Italy bans players wearing No. 88 in antisemitism campaign". ESPN.com. Associated Press. 2023-06-28. Retrieved 2023-07-24.
16. ^