8967 Calandra

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8967 Calandra
Discovery [1]
Discovered by C. J. van Houten
I. van Houten-G.
T. Gehrels
Discovery site Palomar Obs.
Discovery date 13 May 1971
MPC designation (8967) Calandra
Named after
Miliaria calandra
(endangered bird)[2]
4878 T-1 · 1978 RM11
1992 EH15
main-belt · (outer)[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 45.76 yr (16,714 days)
Aphelion 3.4081 AU
Perihelion 2.7043 AU
3.0562 AU
Eccentricity 0.1151
5.34 yr (1,952 days)
0° 11m 4.2s / day
Inclination 9.7428°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 8.382±0.103 km[4][5]
10.92 km (calculated)[3]
5.2427±0.0036 h[6]
0.057 (assumed)[3]
13.1[1] · 13.54[3] · 12.9[4] · 13.086±0.004[6] · 13.30±0.10[7]

8967 Calandra, provisional designation 4878 T-1, is a carbonaceous background asteroid from the outer region of the asteroid belt, approximately 9 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 13 May 1971, by Dutch astronomer couple Ingrid and Cornelis van Houten at Leiden Observatory, on photographic plates taken by Dutch–American astronomer Tom Gehrels at the Palomar Observatory in California.[8] It is named after the corn bunting (Emberiza calandra).[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Calandra is a non-family asteroid from the main belt's background population. It orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.7–3.4 AU once every 5 years and 4 months (1,952 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.12 and an inclination of 10° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] No precoveries were taken prior to its discovery.[8]

Survey designation[edit]

The survey designation "T-1" stands for the first Palomar–Leiden Trojan survey, named after the fruitful collaboration of the Palomar and Leiden Observatory in the 1960s and 1970s. Gehrels used Palomar's Samuel Oschin telescope (also known as the 48-inch Schmidt Telescope), and shipped the photographic plates to Cornelis and Ingrid van Houten at Leiden Observatory where astrometry was carried out. The trio of astronomers are credited with the discovery of 4,620 minor planets.[9]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Rotation period[edit]

A photometric lightcurve of Calandra obtained at the Palomar Transient Factory in California in 2011, gave a rotation period of 5.2427±0.0036 hours with a brightness variation of 0.58 magnitude (U=2).[6]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the survey carried out by the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Calandra measures 8.4 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo of 0.17.[4][5] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo for carbonaceous asteroids of 0.057 and hence calculates a larger diameter of 10.2 kilometers with an absolute magnitude of 13.54.[3]


This minor planet is named for the passerine bird, Miliaria calandra or Emberiza calandra, also known as the corn bunting.[2] It is listed as an endangered species on the European Red List of Birds.[10] The approved naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 2 February 1999 (M.P.C. 33794; 34089).[11]


  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 8967 Calandra (4878 T-1)" (2017-02-14 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 22 June 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (8967) Calandra. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 672. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 1 March 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (8967) Calandra". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; et al. (November 2011). "Main Belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE. I. Preliminary Albedos and Diameters". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 20. arXiv:1109.4096Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...68M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/68. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c Waszczak, Adam; Chang, Chan-Kao; Ofek, Eran O.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Levitan, David; et al. (September 2015). "Asteroid Light Curves from the Palomar Transient Factory Survey: Rotation Periods and Phase Functions from Sparse Photometry". The Astronomical Journal. 150 (3): 35. arXiv:1504.04041Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...75W. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/75. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  7. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  8. ^ a b "8967 Calandra (4878 T-1)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 1 March 2016. 
  9. ^ "Minor Planet Discoverers". Minor Planet Center. 24 April 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  10. ^ "European Red List of Birds" (PDF). BirdLife International. 2015. p. 58. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2016. 
  11. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 

External links[edit]