8K resolution

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8K resolution or Full Ultra HD (FUHD) is the highest ultra high definition television (UHDTV) resolution to exist in digital television and digital cinematography. 8K refers to the horizontal resolution of these formats, which all are on the order of 8,000 pixels, forming the total image dimensions (7680×4320).[1] 8K is a display resolution that may eventually be the successor to 4K resolution. 1080p is the current mainstream HD standard, with TV manufacturers pushing for 4K to become a new standard by 2017,[2] although the feasibility of such a fast transition as well as the practical necessity of a new standard is questionable.[3]

One advantage of high-resolution displays such as 8K is to have each pixel be indistinguishable from another to the human eye from a much closer distance. On an 8K screen sized 52 inches (132 cm), this effect would be achieved in a distance of 50.8 cm (20 inches) from the screen, and on a 92 in (234 cm) screen at 91.44 cm (3 feet) away. Another practical purpose of this resolution is in combination with a cropping technique used in film editing. This allows filmmakers to film in a high resolution such as 8K, with a wide lens, or at a farther distance from a potentially dangerous subject, intending to zoom and crop digitally in post-production, a portion of the original image to match a smaller resolution such as the current industry standard for high-definition televisions (1080p, 720p, and 480p).[4]

Few video cameras have the capability to film in 8K, with NHK being one of the only companies to have created a small broadcasting camera with an 8K image sensor.[5] Sony and Red Digital Cinema Camera Company are both working to bring larger 8K sensors in more of their cameras in the coming years.[5] Although it is unlikely that 8K will become a mainstream resolution anytime soon, a major reason filmmakers are pushing for 8K cameras is to get better 4K footage. Through a process called downsampling, using a higher resolution 8K image downsampled to 4K could create a sharper picture with richer colors than a 4K camera would be able to achieve on its own with a lower resolution sensor.[5]

History[edit]

Astro Design 8K camera being displayed at the 2013 NAB Show
NHK and Hitachi demonstrating their 8K camera at the 2013 NAB Show

On January 6, 2015, the MHL Consortium announced the release of the superMHL specification which will support 8K resolution at 120 fps, 48-bit video, the Rec. 2020 color space, high dynamic range support, a 32-pin reversible superMHL connector, and power charging of up to 40 watts.[6][7][8]

First cameras[edit]

On April 6, 2013, Astro Design announced the AH-4800, capable of recording 8K resolution. In April of 2015 it was announced by Red that their newly unveiled Red Weapon is also capable of recording 8K footage.

Productions[edit]

In 2007, the original 65 mm negative of the 1992 film Baraka was re-scanned at 8K with a film scanner built specifically for the job at FotoKem Laboratories, and used to remaster the 2008 Blu-ray release. Chicago Sun-Times critic Roger Ebert described the Blu-ray release as "the finest video disc I have ever viewed or ever imagined."[9] A similar 8K scan/4K intermediate digital restoration of Lawrence of Arabia was made for Blu-ray and theatrical re-release during 2012 by Sony Pictures to celebrate the film's 50th anniversary.[10][11] According to Grover Crisp, executive VP of restoration at Sony Pictures, the new 8K scan has such high resolution that when examined, showed a series of fine concentric lines in a pattern "reminiscent of a fingerprint" near the top of the frame. This was caused by the film emulsion melting and cracking in the desert heat during production. Sony had to hire a third party to minimise or eliminate the rippling artifacts in the new restored version.[10]

On May 17, 2013, the Franklin Institute premiered To Space and Back, an 8K×8K, 60 fps, 3D video running approximately 25 minutes. During its first run at the Fels Planetarium it was played at 4K, 60 fps.[12]

Broadcasting[edit]

Japanese public broadcaster NHK began research and development on 8K in 1995, having spent over $1 billion on the resolution since then.[13] Codenamed Super Hi-Vision, NHK also was simultaneously working on the development of 22.2 channel surround sound audio, aiming for mainstream broadcasting by the year 2032.[13][14] Experimental transmissions of the resolution were tested with the London 2012 Olympic Games, and at the Cannes Film Festival showcasing Beauties À La Carte, a 27 minute shortfilm showcased publicly on a 220” screen. The world's first 8K television was unveiled by Sharp at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in 2012.[15]

Resolutions[edit]

10240 × 4320 21:9 43.5 megapixels
8192 × 4320 ~17:9 35.4 megapixels
7680 × 4320 16:9 33.2 megapixels
8192 × 5120 16:10 41.9 megapixels
8192 × 8192 1:1 67.1 megapixels

8K FUHD is a resolution of 7680 × 4320 (33.2 megapixels) and is one of the two resolutions of ultra high definition television, the other being 4K UHD.[16] In 2013, a transmission network's capability to carry HDTV resolution was limited by internet speeds and relied on satellite broadcast to transmit the high data rates. The demand is expected to drive the adoption of video compression standards and to place significant pressure on physical communication networks in the near future.[17]

8K FUHD has four times the horizontal and vertical resolution of the 1080p HDTV format, with sixteen times as many pixels overall.

8K fulldome[edit]

This chart shows the proportional scale differences from 1080p (1920×1080 pixels) to 8K×8K fulldome video.

8K fulldome is a resolution of 8192×8192 (67.1 megapixels) and is the resolution of top-end modern projection for hemispherical fulldome theatres often seen in planetaria. 8K fulldome projects over 4 times the width and over 7.5 times the height resolution of 1080p HDTV format, with 32 times as many pixels overall.

Devices[edit]

TVs/Monitors[edit]

Cameras[edit]

  • AH-4800, a camera capable of recording in 8k resolution. Unveiled by Astro Design on April 6, 2013.
  • RED 8K Weapon Vista Vision Arrives at the end of 2015, sporting an 8192×4320 that shoots 8K at 60 fps in full-sensor mode, or at up to 75 fps in a scope (2.40:1) frame format. NAB 2015
  • Ikegami SHK-810 8K UHDTV camera. NBA 2015
  • Hitachi SK-UHD8060. NAB 2015

Fulldome[edit]

  • Definiti 8K theaters, 8192×8192 resolution (apu)

See also[edit]

  • 4K resolution—Digital video formats with a horizontal resolution of around 4000 pixels
  • UHDTV—Digital video formats with resolutions of 4K (3840×2160) and 8K (7680×4320)
  • VP9 (WebM)—Video standard that supports 4K/8K UHDTV and any theoretical resolution
  • High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC)—Video standard that supports 4K/8K UHDTV and resolutions up to 8192×4320
  • Rec. 2020—ITU-R Recommendation for UHDTV

References[edit]

  1. ^ Robert Silva. "8K Resolution - Definition and Explanation of 8K Video Resolution". About.com. Retrieved February 12, 2014. 
  2. ^ Johnson, Luke. "Toshiba suggests 4K TVs will be mainstream by 2017". Trusted Reviews. Retrieved April 3, 2014. 
  3. ^ Roy Furchgott. "Why You Don't Need a 4K TV". The New York Times. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  4. ^ Bloom, Phillip. "From Chicago to the Moon: The power of 4K resolution and how to make it work for you creatively". Retrieved April 3, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c Marine, Joe. "NHK Has Finally Shrunk Their 8K Resolution Camera, but How Close Are We to Shooting in 8K?". No Film School. Retrieved April 3, 2014. 
  6. ^ "MHL Consortium Announces superMHL – the First Audio/Video Specification With Support Up to 8K". Yahoo Finance. January 6, 2015. Retrieved January 10, 2015. 
  7. ^ Ryan Smith (January 6, 2015). "MHL Consortium Announces superMHL: New Standard & New Cable To Drive 8K TV". AnandTech. Retrieved January 10, 2015. 
  8. ^ "Introducing superMHL". MHL. Retrieved January 10, 2015. 
  9. ^ Ebert, Roger (2008-10-16). "Great Movies: Baraka (1992)". Chicago Sun-Times / rogerebert.com. Archived from the original on 17 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-15. 
  10. ^ a b Rob Sabin (December 20, 2011). "Home Theater: Hollywood, The 4K Way". HomeTheater.com Ultimate Tech. Source Interlink Media. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  11. ^ Lawrence of Arabia on Blu-ray Later This Year. Blu-rayDefinition.com (June 12, 2012).
  12. ^ "'To Space & Back' latest Planetarium feature". Philadelphia Tribune (Google Cache). Retrieved May 14, 2013. 
  13. ^ a b Shilov, Anton. "NHK Shows World’s First 8K Movie at Cannes Film Festival.". X Bit Labs. Retrieved April 3, 2014. 
  14. ^ Grabham, Dan. "Super Hi-Vision: the future of TV that's 16x HD". Tech Radar. Retrieved April 3, 2014. 
  15. ^ Singal, Nidhi. "CES 2013: Sharp showcases world's first 8K TV". Business Today. Retrieved April 3, 2014. 
  16. ^ "CES 2013: Sharp Demoes Double-UHD (8K) Set, Two 4K Sets, 21 New Aquos 3D Smart TVs". http://www.dailytech.com/. 
  17. ^ "High Efficiency Video Coding". Motion Pictures Experts Group. Retrieved December 10, 2013.