90th Guards Tank Division

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82nd Rifle Division
82nd Motorized Rifle Division
3rd Guards Motorized Rifle Division
6th Guards Mechanized Corps
6th Guards Mechanized Division
6th Guards Motor Rifle Division
90th Guards Tank Division
Гвардия.png
Guards insignia
Active 1932–2001
Country Soviet Union
Branch Red Army, Soviet Army
Type Infantry, Armour
Size division
Garrison/HQ (final) Chernorech'e
Engagements Operation Mars
Operation Kutuzov
Battle of Berlin

The 90th Guards Tank Division was a division of the Soviet Army, and then of the Russian Ground Forces. It was first activated in 1932 as the 82nd Rifle Division. In 1939 it was renamed the 82nd Motorized Rifle Division, and the same year took part in the Battle of Khalkin Gol. Then-Colonel Ivan Fedyuninsky commanded the division before the war. It was renamed the 3rd Guards Motorized Rifle Division in March 1942. It took part in the summer battles of 1942 with the Western Front and the failed Operation Mars in November/December 1942. After moving back into Stavka Reserves in June 1943, it was reorganized into the 6th Guards Mechanized Corps on 28 June 1943, being merged with the 49th Mechanised Brigade.

The new Corps became part of the 4th Tank Army under General Lieutenant V.M. Badanov. Its first action was at Orel, the counterattack (Operation Kutuzov) on the northern side of the Kursk bulge after the German defeat at the Battle of Kursk proper. John Erickson writes that '..at 1100 on 26 July, two of Badanov's corps (11th Tank and 6th Guards Mechanised) put in a ragged attack towards Bolkhov. For the next few hours, under the very gaze of Bagramyan [commander of 11th Guards Army, whose sector 4th Tank was attacking through] and Badanov, both corps were heavily battered by the concealed German tanks and assault guns.'[1] For the remainder of 1943, it was in reserve. It took part in the winter battles in the Ukraine in 1944 (Proskurov-Chernovitsy), then the L’vov-Sanodmierz Operation in the summer. It then participated in the Lower Silesia, Upper Silesia, Berlin, and Prague operations. In August 1944 it was given the honorific 'Lvov' for its part in the liberation of that city.

The Corps then became the 6th Guards Mechanised Division (1945–57) and then 6th Guards Motor Rifle Division (17 May 1957–82, GSFG). The division was based at Bernau and was part of the 20th Guards Army. In May 1958, the division was reorganized. The 930th Guards Artillery Regiment moved to the 11th Guards Motor Rifle Division and was replaced by the 400th Artillery Regiment. The 1106th Guards Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment and 22nd Separate Guards Sapper Battalion were also transferred to the 11th Guards and replaced by that division's 288th Guards Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment and 122nd Separate Guards Sapper Battalion. The 351st Separate Missile Battalion was activated in 1961. On 19 February 1962, the 32nd Separate Equipment Maintenance and Recovery Battalion was activated. In May, the 10th Separate Tank Battalion was formed. The 122nd Separate Guards Sapper Battalion became an engineer-sapper battalion in 1968 and the 465th Separate Anti-Tank Artillery Battalion was activated. The chemical defence company became the 120th Separate Chemical Defence Battalion in 1972. The 686th Separate Motor Transport Battalion became the 1122nd Separate Material Supply Battalion in 1980.[2]

On 8 February 1985, the 6th Guards Motor Rifle Division became the 90th Guards Tank Division. A new 6th Guards Motor Rifle Division was formed from the previous 90th Guards Tank Division in Poland. The new 90th Guards Tank Division's 16th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment became the 6th Guards Tank Regiment. Its 82nd Guards Motor Rifle Regiment was transferred to the new 6th Guards in Poland and replaced by that division's 215th Guards Tank Regiment. The 10th Separate Tank Battalion was disbanded, and the 465th Separate Anti-Tank Artillery Battalion transferred to the new 6th Guards. On 28 August 1988, the 351st Separate Missile Battalion was transferred to the 464th Missile Brigade. On 1 July 1989, the 215th Guards Tank Regiment was moved to the 25th Tank Division and replaced by that division's 803rd Motor Rifle Regiment.[2]

During its last years in Germany the Division consisted of the 6th and 68th Guards Tank Regiments, the 81st Guards Motor Rifle Regiment, and the 803rd Motor Rifle Regiment . Also part of the Division were the 400th SP Artillery Regiment, the 288th Air defence Missile Regiment, and smaller supporting units.

In January 1991, the 803rd Motor Rifle Regiment transferred back to the Soviet Union and was replaced by the 35th Motor Rifle Division's 69th Motor Rifle Regiment. The division became part of the 2nd Guards Tank Army in May. In August 1992, the division moved to Chernorechye (now Roshchinsky) in Samara Oblast, becoming part of the Volga Military District. In 1993, the 69th Motor Rifle Regiment became the 169th Tank Regiment. Between December 1993 and May 1998, the division was part of the 2nd Guards Army. Between 14 December 1994 and 9 April 1995 the 81st Guards Motor Rifle Regiment fought in the First Chechen War. In December 1997, the division became the 5968th Guards Weapons and Equipment Storage Base. The 81st Guards Motor Rifle Regiment was sent to the 27th Guards Motor Rifle Division. The base disbanded in 2005.[2][3]

The division was withdrawn in 1990-93 from Germany to Chernorech'e near Samara in the then Volga Military District and declined to a very low strength. In 1997-99 became the 5968th Base for Storage of Weapons and Equipment. A Russian media report on 14 July 2001 said the 5968th Base was to be broken up to reinforce the 27th Motor Rifle Division and other units.[4]

Its final division honorifics were: Lvov, Order of the Red Banner, Order of Lenin, Order of Suvorov (Russian: Львовская краснознаменная, орденов Ленина, Суворова).

Regiments, 1980s[edit]

Source: http://orbat.com/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?=&p=57

  • 6th Guards "Lvovskiy" order of Lenin Red Banner orders of Suvorov, Kutuzov and Bogdan Khmelnitskiy Tank Regiment (ex. 16th Guards Mechanized Brigade)
  • 68th Guards "Zhitomirsko-Berlinskiy" Red Banner orders of Suvorov, Kutuzov, Bogdan Khmelnitskiy and Aleksandr Nevskiy Tank Regiment (ex. 68th Guards Tank Brigade, directly attached to the 4th Guards Tank Army)
  • 81st Guards "Petrokovskiy" twice Red Banner orders of Suvorov, Kutuzov and Bogdan Khmelnitskiy Tank Regiment (ex. 17th Guards Mechanized Brigade)
  • 803rd Motorized Rifle Regiment (1989 from the 25th Tank Division; replaced the 215th Guards "Kamenesk-Podolskiy" Guards Tank Regiment [ex. 35rd[clarification needed] Guards Mechanized Brigade])
  • 400th "Transilvanskiy" Red Banner order of Bogdan Khmelnitskiy Motorized Artillery Regiment (not originally part of the 6th Guards Mechanized Corps)
  • 288th Guards Anti-Aircraft Missile Regiment (originally directly subordinated to the 1st Ukrainian Front)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ John Erickson, 'Road to Berlin,' 1982, p.115
  2. ^ a b c Holm, Michael. "6th Guards Motorised Rifle Division". www.ww2.dk. Retrieved 2016-03-01. 
  3. ^ "2-я Гв. ТА в ПОСЛЕВОЕННЫЙ ПЕРИОД 1945-1998 г." [2nd Guards Tank Army postwar 1945-1998]. www.2gvta.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2016-03-01. 
  4. ^ AVN Military News Agency, 'Russia: Motor-rifle division in Volga district undergoing planned changes,' 1340 GMT 13 July 2001, via BBC Summary of World Broadcasts

References[edit]

  • Keith Bonn (ed.), Slaughterhouse: The Handbook of the Eastern Front, Aberjona Press, 2005
  • Craig Crofoot, 'Group of Soviet Forces Germany,' V3.0.0, 7 February 2007, manuscript available via www.microarmormayhem.com.
  • Feskov,, V.I.; K.A. Kalashnikov, V.I. Golikov (2004). The Soviet Army in the Years of the 'Cold War' (1945-1991). Tomsk: Tomsk University Press. ISBN 5-7511-1819-7. 
  • Chernorech'e base at warfare.ru
  • 6 GMC museum: http://www.russianmuseums.info/M557