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Millennium: 1st millennium
931 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar931
Ab urbe condita1684
Armenian calendar380
Assyrian calendar5681
Balinese saka calendar852–853
Bengali calendar338
Berber calendar1881
Buddhist calendar1475
Burmese calendar293
Byzantine calendar6439–6440
Chinese calendar庚寅年 (Metal Tiger)
3627 or 3567
    — to —
辛卯年 (Metal Rabbit)
3628 or 3568
Coptic calendar647–648
Discordian calendar2097
Ethiopian calendar923–924
Hebrew calendar4691–4692
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat987–988
 - Shaka Samvat852–853
 - Kali Yuga4031–4032
Holocene calendar10931
Iranian calendar309–310
Islamic calendar318–319
Japanese calendarEnchō 9 / Jōhei 1
Javanese calendar830–831
Julian calendar931
Korean calendar3264
Minguo calendar981 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−537
Seleucid era1242/1243 AG
Thai solar calendar1473–1474
Tibetan calendar阳金虎年
(male Iron-Tiger)
1057 or 676 or −96
    — to —
(female Iron-Rabbit)
1058 or 677 or −95
Pope John XI (910 - 935)

Year 931 (CMXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


By place[edit]


  • Spring – Hugh of Provence, king of Italy, cedes Lower Burgundy to Rudolph II, in return for Rudolf's renunciation of all claims to the Italian crown. He receives the imperial crown, and induces the Italian nobility to recognize his son Lothair II as the co-ruler of Lombardia (Regnum Italiae).[1]
  • King Harald Fairhair of Norway dies after a 59-year reign as the Scandinavian nation's first ruler. He divides the kingdom among his many sons (about 25 years ago) to bring peace. Unable to travel through the country - and perform his royal duties, Harald hands over power to his favorite son Eric Bloodaxe, who allegedly kills at least two of his brothers to gain the Norwegian throne that he will hold (approximate date).
  • Rollo, duke of Normandy, dies at Rouen after an 11-year reign. He is the first leader of the Viking settlers to establish an independent dukedom (a vassal of the West Frankish Kingdom). His eldest son, William I Longsword, becomes the second ruler of Normandy (approximate date).
  • Ramiro II forces the abdication of his brother Alfonso IV and becomes king of León (Northern Spain). He has Alfonso and Fruela's three sons blinded in order to make them incapable of ruling.[2]
  • Ramiro II expands the border eastwards (nearly to the Pyrenees) and captures Burgos and the surrounding land. This land would soon be known as the County of Castile (approximate date).



By topic[edit]






  1. ^ [1]. Italian History - Timeline Lombard Leagues Board, p. 11.
  2. ^ Collins, Roger (1983). Early Medieval Spain. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 241. ISBN 0-312-22464-8.