95th Evacuation Hospital

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The 95th Evacuation Hospital was a U.S military hospital during World War II, the Vietnam War, and the Gulf War.

Background[edit]

The 95th Evacuation Hospital originally constituted as the 74th Surgical Hospital 21 December 1928.[1] It was activated at Fort Warren, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 1 June 1941. The hospital was then reorganized and re-designated as the 95th Evacuation Hospital 14 August 1942. It was deactivated at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey, 3 December 1954.[1]

The 95th Evacuation Hospital was again activated on 26 March 1963 and deactivated in Vietnam 28 March 1973.[1]

The 95th Evacuation Hospital was activated in Heidelberg, Germany for operation during the Gulf War 15 November 1994.[1]

Service in World War II[edit]

During World War II the 95th Evacuation Hospital operated as a 400-bed mobile hospital. The unit was staffed with approximately 40 doctors, 40 nurses, and 220 enlisted men.[2]

The hospital was in operation in Morocco, Algiers, and Italy where it was assigned to the U.S. Fifth Army. While in operation in France and Germany, the hospital was assigned to the U.S. Seventh Army.

When the 95th Evacuation Hospital landed in Italy 9 September 1943, it was the first U.S. hospital established on the European continent in World War II.[3] In addition to Salerno, the hospital made two other amphibious landings (Anzio and Southern France).

The 95th Evacuation Hospital achieved national recognition at Anzio.[citation needed] On 7 February 1944, German plane dropped a load of fragmentation bombs on the hospital in an effort to evade two British planes.[4] Twenty-eight people were killed and 60 wounded. Among the dead were two officers, three nurses, 16 enlisted men, a Red Cross worker, and two other personnel.[5] The bombing rendered the hospital nonfunctional with damage so great, the 95th was sent to the then-static Cassino front where it was re-staffed and re-equipped.[4]

Service in Vietnam

Because of the build—up in Vietnam, the 95th was reactivated 26 March 1963 at Ft. Benning, Georgia and alerted for overseas movement. On 26 March 1968 the 95th Evacuation Hospital (Smbl) arrived in the Republic of Vietnam to carry on in the outstanding tradition of its predecessors. The Advanced party arrived at the proposed site of the hospital; a sandy beach called “Red Beach” with no access road on the 20th of March 1968. By the time the ship (USS Geiger)arrived with personnel and TAT equipment on the 26th of March 1968, an access road had been started, the site plan completed and Sea Bees were assigned to assist. The initial phase of construction was the preparation of defensive position, perimeter wire and tentage for billets. During the initial phase the unit provided its own mess, electrical power, potable water and hospital laundry facilities. By the 1st of April the vertical construction was initiated consisting of two by four frames for tent wards. Incorporated in the initial construction was the use of parts of the “MUST: unit to provide proper conditions for traumatic surgery in the tropics. There was some uncertainty that the “MUST” unit would arrive in time, so by conserving on available construction resources the unit was able to construct a tropical structure suitable for air-conditioning. The construction for the first 100 beds was completed by the l0th of April which had been set as a tentative date of opening, however the vessel with the general cargo of the unit had not arrived in port. By the time that the general cargo arrived on the l4th off April 1968, additional work had been competed and the first 100 beds was reported operational on the 28th of April. By the 30th of April the hospital was 99% filled, additional beds were rapidly being added so that on 8 May, 300 beds were reported operational. The 27th day of May saw a 400 bed hospital with a census of 240 and an experience of a total of 320 medical patients, 941 surgical patients and 1058 outpatients, with a total of 1261 admission and 1021 dispositions. Seven hundred and fifty-nine of these patients were not from transfer by direct admissions. It was obvious to the staff that this evacuation hospital must continue to improve its procedures because it was to a great extent operating as a Surgical Hospital as well as an Evacuation Hospital. The hospital personnel soon adapted to the situation and found that combined operation of a tent Evacuation Hospital and a “MUST” operating room or complex was feasible. During the following month (May) the unit was continually harassed by enemy action in the nearby areas requiring the personnel to put in arduous 12 hour shifts of patient care and then sleep or stand watch on the perimeter the other 12 hours. To a man and woman without exception, they all did their assigned tasks in an orderly uncomplaining manner. By the end of June the hospital had experienced an additional 1215 admissions and 1188 outpatients for a total of 2476 admissions in the first 63 days of operation. During the preceding time, a new site was being constructed for the hospital some eight miles distance away at the foot of Monkey Mountain. Not only was it necessary for the staff to build and run the tent hospital, they were also required to use that spare time they had to visit the new site and offer needed advise and plan for the future move of their respective sections onto the new site. Plans were carefully laid and the move was scheduled to start by the 4th of July. By the last week of June personnel of the operating hospital on Red Beach were cut to a minimum and worked daily at the new site in preparation for the move without interrupting patient care at either site. Patient census was reduced as low as the situation would allow and the actual move began with one third of the staff moving to the new site on the 4th and 5th of July 1968. In July, the remainder of the staff moved with approximately 60 patients and by the evening of the 7th of July the hospital reported 323 beds operational. In a period of 71 days the personnel of the 95thEvacuation Hospital built one 400 bed “tent” hospital from the ground up on Red Beach, incorporating the use of parts of a “MUST” unit, operated it under combat conditions and moved completely to another location without interruption of its mission, providing its own mess, electrical power, water supply and hospital laundry. As of this date the 95th Evacuation Hospital (Smbl) continues its mission of taking care of the sick and wounded under more pleasant conditions. The present hospital is a 320 bed air conditioned facility offering area medical support to US Military units without organic medical support in the Da Nang area. The hospital also provided medical care to the Free World Military Assistance Forces and Civilian war Casualties. Hospitalization is provided for all classes of patients within the Lintits of available specialties. Selected patients are prepared for further evacuation to medical facilities providing specialized treatment not available at the 95th Hospital. The organization includes four full time dispensaries serving outlying units in the Da Nang Area. The wide range of professional capabilities available has made the 95th Evacuation Hospital a referral center for difficult and sophisticated cases in Northern Military Region I. Neurology, Dermatology, Special Radiologic Procedures, Oral Surgery, Psychiatric Consultations, Orthopedic Surgery, Neuro—Surgery, General surgery are some of the many specialties that have made the hospital the major medical treatment facility in this region. Active “on the job” training in all specialties of medicine is constantly being performed by medical corps officers and Vietnamese physicians as well. Medical, surgical and consultative assistance is provided to the Duy—Ton and Provincial Hospital of Da Nang on a regular basis. A future program is anticipated to train Vietnamese enlisted men technical skills in laboratory, radiology, pharmacy and ward procedures. The 95th Evacuation Hospital was closed down on March 31st 1973 and abandon in place.

Timeline[edit]

  • August 14, 1942 – Fort Warren, Wyoming, 74th Surgical Hospital re-designated 95th Evacuation Hospital[1]
  • September 19, 1942 – Camp Breckinridge, Morganfield, Kentucky[citation needed]
  • April 2, 1943 – Camp Shanks, Orangeburg, New York[6]
  • April 15, 1943 – Departed New York Harbor for North Africa aboard the USS Mariposa[7]
  • April 24, 1943 – Casablanca, Morocco[8]
  • May 24, 1943 – Oujda, Morocco[9]
  • July 7, 1943 – Unit commendation[10]
  • July 8, 1943 – Ain el Turck, Algeria in support of Operation Husky (Sicily)[11]
  • September 5, 1943 – Departed Oran, Algeria, aboard the Dutch ship Marnix[12]
  • September 9, 1943 – Landed Paestum, Italy, Operation Avalanche, D-day +H-11[13]
  • October 9, 1943 – Naples, Italy[13]
  • November 28, 1943 – Capua, Italy[14]
  • January 8, 1944 – Departed Capua for Caserta, in preparation for Operation Shingle[15]
  • January 17, 1944 – Unit commendation[16]
  • January 23, 1944 – Boarded LST #163, for Anzio, Italy, Green Beach, D-day +1[17]
  • January 31, 1944 – Nettuno, Italy[4]
  • February 7, 1944 – Bombing killed 26, wounded 60, rendered hospital nonfunctional[4]
  • February 11, 1944 – Riardo (Cassino), Italy[4]
  • March 13, 1944 – Carinola, Italy[18]
  • April 10, 1944 – Unit commendation[19]
  • May 23, 1944 – Itri, Italy[20]
  • June 1, 1944 – Cori (Cisterna), Italy[21]
  • June 13, 1944 – Montalto di Castro, Italy[22]
  • July 16–18, 1944 – Sparanise, Italy, Operation Dragoon[22]
  • August 12, 1944 – Departed Pozzuoli, Italy, aboard 2 LCIs (#188 and an unknown)[23][24]
  • August 14, 1944 – Ajaccio, Corsica[25]
  • August 15, 1944 – Cavalaire, France, D-Day H-8[23]
  • August 17, 1944 – Cogolin, France, not in operation[26]
  • August 18, 1944 – Gonfaron, France[23]
  • August 28–31, 1944 – Closed, awaiting movement orders and transportation[27]
  • September 3, 1944 – Beaumont (Beaumont-de-Aspre)[28]
  • September 5, 1944 – St. Amour, France[28]
  • September 20, 1944 – Saulx, France[29]
  • October 9, 1944 – Epinal (Renauvoid), France[30]
  • November 1944 – Epinal (Golbey), France[31]
  • December 6, 1944 – Mutzig, France[32]
  • January 3, 1945 – Epinal (Golbey), France[33]
  • January 3, 1945 – Mutzig, France[33]
  • January 8, 1945 – Departed for Sarrebourg, France[33]
  • March 29, 1945 – Bensheim, Germany[34]
  • April 8, 1945 – Kist, Germany[35]
  • April 29, 1945 – Ebermergen, Germany[35]
  • Late May–June (possibly after May 21) – Bretton, Germany[citation needed]

Personnel[edit]

Commanding Officers: Col. Paul K. Sauer, Lt. Col. Hubert L. Binkley (commander after Sauer was wounded in the 7 February bombing.) Chief of Surgical Service Lt. Col. Grantley W. Taylor, Chief of Medical Service Col. William Comess, Laboratory and Pharmacy Officer Capt. Harry J. Schneider, X-ray Officer Capt. Mario C. Gian, Chief of Dental Services Major Lewis A Imerman, Chief Anesthetist Capt. Marshall A. Bauer, Principal Chief Nurse Capt. Evelyn E. Swanson.[36]

Battles and campaigns[edit]

Decorations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e ArmyPharmacy.
  2. ^ Monahan 2003, p. 30.
  3. ^ Wiltse, p. 231.
  4. ^ a b c d e USArmy 1944g, p. 3.
  5. ^ USArmy 1944g, Bombing raid report.
  6. ^ Monahan 2003, p. 133.
  7. ^ Friedenberg 2004, p. 10.
  8. ^ Friedenberg 2004, p. 12.
  9. ^ Friedenberg 2004, p. 18.
  10. ^ Friedenberg 2004, p. 143.
  11. ^ Friedenberg 2004, p. 30.
  12. ^ Friedenberg 2004, p. 34.
  13. ^ a b Friedenberg 2004, pp. 37–38.
  14. ^ Wiltse, p. 241.
  15. ^ Friedenberg 2004, p. 76.
  16. ^ Friedenberg 2004, p. 145.
  17. ^ Friedenberg 2004, p. 78.
  18. ^ USArmy 1944g, p. 4.
  19. ^ Friedenberg 2004, p. 146.
  20. ^ USArmy 1944g, p. 5.
  21. ^ Wiltse, p. 303.
  22. ^ a b USArmy 1944g, p. 8.
  23. ^ a b c USArmy 1944g, p. 9.
  24. ^ Friedenberg 2004, p. 104.
  25. ^ Friedenberg 2004, pp. 104–5.
  26. ^ Wiltse, pp. 378–9.
  27. ^ USArmy 1944b.
  28. ^ a b USArmy 1944g, p. 10.
  29. ^ USArmy 1944c.
  30. ^ USArmy 1944d.
  31. ^ USArmy 1944e.
  32. ^ USArmy 1944f.
  33. ^ a b c USArmy 1944a.
  34. ^ USArmy 1945a.
  35. ^ a b USArmy 1945b.
  36. ^ USArmy 1944g.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Monahan, Evelyn (2003). And If I Perish. New York: Random House. 
  • Wiltse, Charles M. The Medical Department: Medical Services in the Mediterranean and Minor Theaters. Office of Medical History, U.S. Army Medical Department. 
  • Friedenberg, Zachary (2004). Hospital At War. Texas A&M Univ. Press. 
  • 95th Evacuation Hospital 1944 January Monthly report, NARA RG407. US Army. 1944. 
  • 95th Evacuation Hospital 1944 August Monthly Report, NARA RG407. US Army. 1944. 
  • 95th Evacuation Hospital 1944 September Monthly report, NARA RG407. US Army. 1944. 
  • 95th Evacuation Hospital 1944 October Monthly report, NARA RG407. US Army. 1944. 
  • 95th Evacuation Hospital 1944 November Monthly report, NARA RG407. US Army. 1944. 
  • 95th Evacuation Hospital 1944 December Monthly Report, NARA RG407. US Army. 1944. 
  • 95th Evacuation Hospital 1944 Annual Report, NARA RG407. US Army. 1944. 
  • 95th Evacuation Hospital 1945 March Monthly report, NARA RG407. US Army. 1945. 
  • 95th Evacuation Hospital 1945 April Monthly report, NARA RG407. US Army. 1945. 
  • Anon. "Army Pharmacy". Archived from the original on June 17, 2002. Retrieved 1 June 2011.