95th United States Congress

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95th United States Congress
94th ←
→ 96th
USCapitol.jpg
January 3, 1977 – January 3, 1979
Senate PresidentNelson Rockefeller (R)
until January 20, 1977
Walter Mondale (D)
from January 20, 1977
Senate President pro temJames Eastland (D)
House SpeakerTip O'Neill (D)
Members100 senators
435 members of the House
5 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityDemocratic
House MajorityDemocratic
Sessions
1st: January 4, 1977 – December 15, 1977
2nd: January 19, 1978 – October 15, 1978

The Ninety-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1977, to January 3, 1979, during the final weeks of the administration of U.S. President Gerald Ford and the first two years of the administration of U.S. President Jimmy Carter.

The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Nineteenth Census of the United States in 1970. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. It was the first time either party held a filibuster-proof 60% super majority in both the Senate and House chambers since the 89th United States Congress in 1965, and last time until the 111th United States Congress in 2009. All three super majorities were Democratic party and also were accompanied by Democratic Presidents.[1] As of 2019, this is the most recent Congress to approve an amendment (the unratified District of Columbia Voting Rights Amendment) to the Constitution.

Contents

Major events[edit]

Hearings[edit]

Major legislation[edit]

Constitutional amendments[edit]

Treaties ratified[edit]

  • March 16, 1978: First of the Torrijos-Carter Treaties (Panama Canal) treaty: "The Treaty Concerning the Permanent Neutrality and Operation of the Panama Canal," commonly known as the "Neutrality Treaty"
  • April 19, 1978: Second of the Torrijos-Carter Treaties treaty, commonly known as "The Panama Canal Treaty"

Party summary[edit]

Senate[edit]

Party standings on the opening day of the 95th Congress
  61 Democratic Senators
  1 Independent Senator, caucusing with Democrats
  38 Republican Senators
Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Conservative
(C)
Democratic
(D)
Independent
(I)
Republican
(R)
End of previous congress 1 60 1 38 100 0
Begin 0 61 1 38 100 0
End 58 41
Final voting share 0.0% 58.0% 1.0% 41.0%
Beginning of next congress 0 58 1 41 100 0

House of Representatives[edit]

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Republican
(R)
End of previous congress 287 146 433 2
Begin 292 143 435 0
End 275 141 41619
Final voting share 66.1% 33.9%
Beginning of next congress 276 157 433 2

Leadership[edit]

Senate[edit]

Senate President
Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller (R),
until January 20, 1977
Walter Mondale
Walter Mondale (D),
from January 20, 1977

Majority (Democratic) leadership[edit]

Minority (Republican) leadership[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

Majority (Democratic) leadership[edit]

Minority (Republican) leadership[edit]

Caucuses[edit]

Members[edit]

Senate[edit]

In this Congress, Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, facing re-election in 1978; Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, facing re-election in 1980; and Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, facing re-election in 1982.

House of Representatives[edit]

Members of the House of Representatives elected statewide at-large, are preceded by "At-large," and the names of those elected from districts, are preceded by their district numbers.

Many of the congressional district numbers are linked to articles describing the district itself. Since the boundaries of the districts have changed often and substantially, the linked article may only describe the district as it exists today, and not as it was at the time of this Congress.

Changes in Membership[edit]

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate[edit]

  • replacements: 11
  • deaths: 4
  • resignations: 5
  • vacancy:
  • Total seats with changes: 9
State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[a]
Arkansas
(2)
John L. McClellan
(D)
Died November 28, 1977.
Successor appointed to finish the term.
Kaneaster Hodges Jr.
(D)
December 10, 1977
Montana
(2)
Lee Metcalf
(D)
Died January 12, 1978.
Successor appointed to finish the term.
Paul G. Hatfield
(D)
January 22, 1978
Minnesota
(1)
Hubert Humphrey
(DFL)
Died January 13, 1978.
Successor appointed to continue the term.
Muriel Humphrey
(D)
January 25, 1978
Alabama
(3)
James Allen
(D)
Died June 1, 1978.
Successor appointed to continue the term.
Maryon Pittman Allen
(D)
June 8, 1978
Alabama
(3)
Maryon Pittman Allen
(D)
Appointee lost special election.
Successor elected November 7, 1978.
Donald Stewart
(D)
November 7, 1978
Minnesota
(1)
Muriel Humphrey
(DFL)
Appointee retired when successor qualified.
Successor elected November 7, 1978.
David Durenberger
(R)
November 8, 1978
Montana
(2)
Paul G. Hatfield
(D)
Lost nomination to the next term.
Resigned early December 12, 1978.
Successor appointed, having already been elected to the next term.
Max Baucus
(D)
December 15, 1978
Kansas
(2)
James B. Pearson
(R)
Resigned December 23, 1978.
Successor appointed, having already been elected to the next term.
Nancy Kassebaum
(R)
December 23, 1978
Mississippi
(2)
James Eastland
(D)
Resigned December 27, 1978.
Successor appointed, having already been elected to the next term.
Thad Cochran
(R)
December 27, 1978
Minnesota
(2)
Wendell Anderson
(DFL)
Resigned December 29, 1978.
Successor appointed, having already been elected to the next term.
Rudy Boschwitz
(R)
December 30, 1978
Wyoming
(2)
Clifford Hansen
(R)
Resigned December 31, 1978.
Successor appointed, having already been elected to the next term.
Alan K. Simpson
(R)
January 1, 1979
Virginia
(2)
William L. Scott
(R)
Resigned January 1, 1979.
Successor appointed, having already been elected to the next term.
John Warner
(R)
January 2, 1979

House of Representatives[edit]

  • replacements: 6
  • deaths: 6
  • resignations: 21
  • contested election:
  • Total seats with changes: 25


District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[a]
Minnesota 7th Robert Bergland (DFL) Resigned January 22, 1977, after being appointed United States Secretary of Agriculture Arlan Stangeland (R) February 22, 1977
Washington 7th Brock Adams (D) Resigned January 22, 1977, after being appointed United States Secretary of Transportation John E. Cunningham (R) May 17, 1977
Georgia 5th Andrew Young (D) Resigned January 29, 1977, after being appointed United States Ambassador to the United Nations Wyche Fowler (D) April 6, 1977
Louisiana 1st Richard A. Tonry (D) Forced to resign May 4, 1977 Bob Livingston (R) August 27, 1977
New York 18th Ed Koch (D) Resigned December 31, 1977, after being elected Mayor of New York City S. William Green (R) February 14, 1978
New York 21st Herman Badillo (D) Resigned December 31, 1977, after becoming Deputy Mayor of New York City. Elected on the Republican and Liberal tickets on February 14th, but officially took office as a Democrat after being accepted by the caucus on February 21st. Robert García (D) February 21, 1978
Tennessee 5th Clifford Allen (D) Died June 18, 1978 Vacant Not filled this term
California 18th William M. Ketchum (R) Died June 24, 1978
Illinois 1st Ralph Metcalfe (D) Died October 10, 1978
Maryland 6th Goodloe Byron (D) Died October 11, 1978
California 11th Leo Ryan (D) Murdered by members of the Peoples Temple at the Guyana Airport November 18, 1978, shortly before the Jonestown Massacre
Wisconsin 6th William A. Steiger (R) Died December 4, 1978
Montana 1st Max Baucus (D) Resigned December 14, 1978, after being appointed to the U.S. Senate
Mississippi 4th Thad Cochran (R) Resigned December 26, 1978, after being appointed to the U.S. Senate
Wyoming At-large Teno Roncalio (D) Resigned December 30, 1978
California 3rd John E. Moss (D) Resigned December 31, 1978
California 14th John J. McFall (D) Resigned December 31, 1978
California 33rd Del M. Clawson (R) Resigned December 31, 1978
Kansas 5th Joe Skubitz (R) Resigned December 31, 1978
Michigan 10th Elford A. Cederberg (R) Resigned December 31, 1978
New Jersey 14th Joseph A. LeFante (D) Resigned December 31, 1978
New York 9th James Delaney (D) Resigned December 31, 1978
Texas 6th Olin E. Teague (D) Resigned December 31, 1978
Texas 11th William R. Poage (D) Resigned December 31, 1978
Texas 17th Omar Burleson (D) Resigned December 31, 1978

Committees[edit]

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (2 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Joint committees[edit]

Employees and legislative agency directors[edit]

Legislative branch agency directors[edit]

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b This is the date the member was seated or an oath administered, not necessarily the same date her/his service began.

References[edit]

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

External links[edit]