960s

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Millennium: 1st millennium
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The 960s decade ran from January 1, 960, to December 31, 969.

Events[edit]

960

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Africa[edit]
Asia[edit]
  • February 4 – The Song Dynasty is established at Kaifeng by the 33-year-old military leader Zhao Kuangyin. He begins to unify the empire by conquering other lands and becomes the first emperor, called as Taizu of Song. The Song Dynasty will rule northern China for over 300 years (until 1279).

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

961[edit]

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
Armenia[edit]
  • King Ashot III (the Merciful) moves his capital from Kars eastward to Ani (modern Turkey). Located on a major east-west caravan route, Ani will become larger than any European city, with a population of about 100,000 that will rival Baghdad, Cairo, and Constantinople. Ani also becomes the site of the royal mausoleum of the Bagratuni kings.[4]

By topic[edit]

Art[edit]
Religion[edit]

962[edit]

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
England[edit]

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

963[edit]

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
Asia[edit]
  • The Chinese government of the Song Dynasty attempts to ban the practice of cremation; despite this decree, the lower and middle classes continue to cremate their dead, until the government resolves the problem in the 12th century, by establishing public graveyards for paupers.
  • The Nanping State, one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China, is forced to surrender, when invaded by armies of the Song Dynasty.

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

964[edit]

Info[edit]

  • John XII, pope of the Catholic Church died, rumoured to be by apoplexy, or at the hands of a cuckolded husband, during an illicit sexual liaison.
Byzantine Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
  • Spring – King Adalbert II returns to the mainland of Italy and occupies the environs of Spoleto. Emperor Otto I (the Great) leaves Rome with his army and lays siege to the fortress city of Spoleto.
  • Otto I proceeds on campaign in Italy, remaining in the environs of Lucca. In the fall he leaves plague-wracked Tuscany and is forced to retreat to Liguria. His rearguard is attacked by Adalbert II.

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]
  • February – Pope John XII returns with his supporters to Rome. He convenes a synod that deposes Antipope Leo VIII who finds refuge at the court of Otto I. John dispatches a delegation under Otgar, bishop of Speyer, to negotiate an agreement.
  • May 14 – John XII dies after a 9-year reign. The Romans elect Benedict V who is acclaimed by the city militia. He begins his pontificate as the 131st pope of the Catholic Church.
  • June 23 – Benedict V is deposed and ecclesiastically degraded after Otto I besieges Rome. He starves the Romans into submission and restores Leo VIII to the papal throne.
Science[edit]

965[edit]

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
China[edit]

By topic[edit]

Literature[edit]
Religion[edit]

966[edit]

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
Asia[edit]

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

967[edit]

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
Arabian Empire[edit]
Japan[edit]
  • July 5 – Emperor Murakami dies after a 21-year reign. He is succeeded by his 17-year-old son Reizei, who is insane and becomes the 63rd emperor of Japan.

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

968[edit]

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
  • Emperor Nikephoros II receives a Bulgarian embassy led by Prince Boris (the son of Tsar Peter I of Bulgaria) with a plead for help against the invading Kievan Rus'. Nikephoros occupied in the East, is unable to support him. Instead he sends envoys to summon the Pechenegs to aid Boris. They besiege Kiev, but Grand Prince Sviatoslav I (on campaign in Bulgaria) returns with a Kievan relief force and defeats the Pechenegs. He drives them out into the Steppe and set up viceroys to rule his Russian territory.[22]
Europe[edit]
  • Spring – Emperor Otto I (the Great) travels to Capua to meet there with ambassadors of Nikephoros II, who again reiterate their friendship but refuse to consent to his dowry demands (see 967). Otto invades with a Lombard expeditionary force the Byzantine Theme of Langobardia. With the assistance of Benevento-Capua and naval support from Pisa, Otto attempts to take Bari by assault. But Byzantine resistance is stiff and Otto withdraws back to Ravenna.
  • Battle of Silistra: A Kievan army (60,000 men) led by Sviatoslav I cross the Lower Danube and defeat the Bulgarians at Silistra. He occupies most of the Dobruja — by seizing 80 fortresses in northeastern Bulgaria. They are looted and destroyed but not permanently occupied. During the winter, Sviatoslav transfers the capital from Kiev to Pereyaslavets.
  • Pandulf I (Ironhead), an Lombard prince, takes over the territory of Benevento and Capua after the death of his brother Landulf III. He appoints his son Landulf IV as co-prince of Benevento, and disinherits Pandulf II (a son of Landulf III) as lord of Sant'Agata (located northeast of Naples).
Ireland[edit]

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

969[edit]

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
  • Peter I, emperor (tsar) of the Bulgarian Empire, suffers a stroke and abdicates the throne in favour of his eldest son Boris II. He arrives (after being an honorary hostage at Constantinople) in Preslav and is proclaimed as the new ruler. Boris regains lost territory from the Kievan Rus' and recaptures Pereyaslavets, an important trade city at the mouth of the Danube.[25]
  • Summer – Grand Prince Sviatoslav I invades Bulgaria at the head of an Kievan army, which includes Pecheneg and Hungarian auxiliary forces. He defeats the Bulgarians in a major battle and retakes Pereyaslavets. Boris II capitulates and impales 300 Bulgarian boyars for disloyalty. Sviatoslav assigns garrisons to the conquered fortresses in Northern Bulgaria.[26]
  • Pandulf I (Ironhead), duke of Benevento and Capua, leads the siege of Bovino. He is captured by the Byzantines and taken in chains to Bari, and jailed in Constantinople. Neapolitan forces under Marinus II, duke of Naples, invade Benevento-Capua, capture the city of Avellino and then lay siege to Capua.[27]
  • Emperor Otto I (the Great) assembles a large expeditionary force at Pavia, joined by Spoletan troops. He counter-attacks, relieves the siege of Capua and devastates the area around Naples. Otto enters Benevento, where he is received as 'liberator' by Landulf IV and in the cities of Apulia (Southern Italy).
Africa[edit]
Asia[edit]

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

Significant people[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Romane, Julian (2015). Byzantium Triumphant. Barnsley: Pen and Sword Books. p. 5. ISBN 978-1473845701.
  2. ^ Richard Brzezinski (1998). History of Poland: Old Poland, King Mieszko I, p. 14. ISBN 83-7212-019-6.
  3. ^ Romane, Julian (2015). Byzantine Triumphant. Pen and Sword Books, p. 6. ISBN 978-1473845701.
  4. ^ Manuk-Khaloyan, Armen (2013). "In the Cemetery of their Ancestors: The Royal Burial Tombs of the Bagratuni Kings of Greater Armenia (890–1073/79)". Revue des Études Arméniennes: pp. 147–155.
  5. ^ Chisholm, Hugh (1911). "Tavistock". Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh Edition). Cambridge University Press, pp. 457–458.
  6. ^ Timothy Reuter (1999). The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume III, p. 251. ISBN 978-0-521-36447-8.
  7. ^ Timothy Reuter (1999). The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume III, p. 592. ISBN 978-0-521-36447-8.
  8. ^ Ostrogorsky, George (1969). History of The Byzantine State. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. p. 284. ISBN 0-8135-0599-2.
  9. ^ Timothy Reuter (1999). The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume III, p. 248. ISBN 978-0-521-36447-8.
  10. ^ W. Treadgold. A History of the Byzantine State and Society, p. 948.
  11. ^ W. Treadgold. A History of the Byzantine state and Society, p. 948.
  12. ^ Jim Bradbury (2007). The Capetians: Kings of France, 987–1328, p. 43 (London: Hambledon Continuum).
  13. ^ Richard Brzezinski (1998). History of Poland: Old Poland, King Mieszko I, p. 15. ISBN 83-7212-019-6.
  14. ^ Jim Bradbury (2007). The Capetians: Kings of France, 987–1328, p. 42 (London: Hambledon Continuum).
  15. ^ Richard Brzezinski (1998). History of Poland: Old Poland, King Mieszko I, p. 15. ISBN 83-7212-019-6.
  16. ^ Bóna, Istvá (2000). The Hungarians and Europe in the 9th-10th centuries. Budapest: Historia - MTA Történettudományi Intézete, p. 34. ISBN 963-8312-67-X.
  17. ^ Steven Runciman (1987). A History of the Crusades, Vol. 1. The First Crusade, p. 30 (Cambridge University Press).
  18. ^ The Papacy: An Encyclopedia, Ed. Philippe Levillain, p. 841 (Routledge, 2002).
  19. ^ W. Treadgold. A History of the Byzantine State and Society, p. 509.
  20. ^ Reuter, Timothy (1991). Germany in the Early Middle Ages: 800–1056. Addison Wesley Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-49034-5.
  21. ^ The Abbey Church of St. Mary & St. Aethelfla
  22. ^ John V.A. Fine, Jr. (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, p. 183. ISBN 978-0-472-08149-3.
  23. ^ Reuter, Timothy (1999). The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume III, p. 252. ISBN 978-0-521-36447-8.
  24. ^ Reuter, Timothy (1999). The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume III, p. 594. ISBN 978-0-521-36447-8.
  25. ^ John V.A. Fine, Jr. (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, p. 184. ISBN 978-0472-08149-3.
  26. ^ Reuter, Timothy (1999). The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume III, p. 584. ISBN 978-0-521-36447-8.
  27. ^ Gay, Jules (1904). L'Italie méridionale et l'empire Byzantin: Livre II. New York: Burt Franklin.
  28. ^ The Fatimid Revolution (861-973) and its aftermath in North Africa, Michael Brett, The Cambridge History of Africa, Vol. 2 ed. J. D. Fage, Roland Anthony Oliver, (Cambridge University Press, 2002). p. 622.