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|983 by topic|
|Ab urbe condita||1736|
|Balinese saka calendar||904–905|
|Chinese calendar||壬午年 (Water Horse)
3679 or 3619
— to —
癸未年 (Water Goat)
3680 or 3620
|- Vikram Samvat||1039–1040|
|- Shaka Samvat||904–905|
|- Kali Yuga||4083–4084|
|Japanese calendar||Tengen 6 / Eikan 1
|Minguo calendar||929 before ROC
|Seleucid era||1294/1295 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1525–1526|
1109 or 728 or −44
— to —
1110 or 729 or −43
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 983.|
- Summer – Diet of Verona: Emperor Otto II (the Red) declares war against the Byzantine Empire and the Emirate of Sicily. He assembles an large expeditionary force for a renewal of a invasion in Calabria (Southern Italy). Otto gifts the Rheingau ("Rhine District") to the Archbishopric of Mainz during the 'Veronese donation'.
- Great Slav Rising: The Polabian Slavs (Wends), mainly Lutici and Obotrite tribes living east of the Elbe River revolt against Christianity and their subjugation to the German (former East Frankish) realm of the Holy Roman Empire. They invade northern Germany, sacking the cities of Havelberg, Brandenburg and Hamburg.
- King Harald Bluetooth rebels against the overlordship of Otto II. A Danish Viking army under his son Sweyn Forkbeard invades the March of Schleswig – along the northern border of modern Denmark. The Sorb Slaves in northern Germany overrun and conquer the March of Zeitz (Marca Geronis) from Saxon control.
- December 7 – Otto II dies from a fever in his palace at Rome after a 10-year reign. He is succeeded by his 3-year-old son (already pre-elected) Otto III, who is crowned as King of Germany and Lombardia in Aachen. The Holy Roman Empire comes under the regency of his mother, Empress consort Theophanu.
- March 26 – 'Adud al-Dawla, ruler (emir) of the Buyid Dynasty, dies after a 34-year reign. He is succeeded by his 20-year-old son Samsam al-Dawla, who is recognised by the Abbasid Caliphate. During al-Dawla's rule his dominions are divided through civil war and revolts (until 987).
- Fall – Fatimid troops under the defecting Hamdanid governor of Homs, Bakjur, attack Aleppo (modern Syria), but are repulsed through the intervention of the Byzantine army. Bardas Phokas (the Younger) sacks the city, while Bakjur flees to Fatimid territory in Egypt.
- Emperor Sheng Zong of the Khitan-led Liao Dynasty leads an expeditionary force against the Zubu after they killed their own khan and begin to act in defiance of the Khitan.
- One of the Four Great Books of Song, the encyclopedia Imperial Readings of the Taiping Era is completed in 1,000 volumes, of 4.7 million written Chinese characters.
- July 10 – Pope Benedict VII dies after a 9-year reign. Otto II secures the election of the imperial chancellor and appoints John XIV as the 136th pope of the Catholic Church.
- Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo, Umayyad chief minister (d. 1009)
- Anthony of Kiev, Russian monk and saint (d. 1073)
- Gunnlaugr Ormstunga, Icelandic poet (approximate date)
- Odo II, French nobleman and pretender (d. 1037)
- Wulfnoth Cild, Anglo-Norse nobleman (approximate date)
- March 26 – 'Adud al-Dawla, ruler of the Buyid Dynasty (b. 936)
- July 10 – Benedict VII, pope of the Catholic Church
- December 7 – Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 955)
- Aed Ua Dubhda, king of Uí Fiachrach (Ireland)
- Ælfhere, Anglo-Saxon ealdorman (approximate date)
- Antony III (the Studite), patriarch of Constantinople
- Ibrahim ibn Marzuban, ruler of the Sallarid Dynasty
- Minamoto no Muneyuki, Japanese nobleman and poet
- Minamoto no Shitagō, Japanese waka poet (b. 911)
- Mu'ayyad al-Dawla, ruler of the Buyid Dynasty (b. 942)