|Died||21 January 1945|
Novi Pazar, Yugoslavia
|Political party||Džemijet (1919–25)|
|Awards||Iron Cross (Germany)|
Aćif Hadžiahmetović (Serbian Cyrillic: Аћиф Хаџиахметовић; 1887–21 January 1945), known as Aćif Bljuta (Albanian: Aqif Bluta, Serbian Cyrillic: Аћиф Бљута), was an Bosniak politician in the Sandžak region of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in the interwar period and during World War II. In the interwar period he was mayor of Novi Pazar and a deputy of Džemijet following the 1923 elections. After the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, he was appointed mayor of Novi Pazar under the German military government of the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia and in 1943–44 was a deputy of Mitrovica in the Albanian parliament. He was also a member of the central committee of the Second League of Prizren. Towards the end of the war, he was executed by the Yugoslav Partisans for his collaboration with the Axis for massive war crimes against Serbs and killings of Albanians who were against his rule.
Origin and early life
Aćif Hadžiahmetović Bljuta was born in 1887 in Novi Pazar (at the time part of the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, now Serbia), to father Emin-aga and mother Jalduza. He was ethnic Albanian, and his family hailed from the area of Gjakova (Serbian: Đakovica). The patronymic Hadžiahmetović was adopted by him to honour his grandfather, Ahmet, who completed hajj. He kept his paternal surname Bljuta, which he especially highlighted since the 1941 occupation, to define himself as Albanian towards the Nazi German rule. He spoke Turkish, Albanian, and Serbian.
He completed a lower gymnasium at Novi Pazar, after which he worked for a time as a municipality registrar in Vučitrn. He then completed the Military Academy in Bitola. He moved to Turkey in 1913. As an officer with the rank of captain, he fought in the Balkan Wars and received the German Iron Cross 2nd Class for courage.
Aćif and his wife Mahije had no children of their own but had adopted two orphans from Đakovica, Qamil and Mejreme.
A member of Džemijet since its foundation in 1919, he was elected mayor of Novi Pazar in 1920. In 1923 he was elected as a representative of the region in the parliament of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. A close collaborator of the party's leader Ferhat Draga, his speeches in the parliament focused on the agrarian reform, which he often attacked as a policy that targeted only Albanian farmers. After Ferhat Draga's imprisonment and the party's dissolution, many of its members faced attacks. Hadžiahmetović himself survived two assassination attempts.
During World War II
Hadžiahmetović organized ceremonial welcome and an official banquet in Novi Pazar for German occupying forces on 16 April 1941. In April 1941 German Nazi forces appointed Hadžiahmetović as mayor of Novi Pazar. He established a governoring committee in Novi Pazar of 11 members, all Albanians, and also established a Muslim gendarmerie which was pro-Albanian and whose members wore Albanian symbols. He was one of the signatories of the Resolution of Sarajevo Muslims in 1941. During that year, his forces began to conduct war crimes against local Serb civilians and started killings of Albanians who were opposed of his rule. At the same time, with officers like Shaban Polluzha under his command, who was responsible for bloody killing of 150 Serbian civilians in Ibarski Kolašin in September 1941, he organized the defense of the region against attacks by Chetnik forces that targeted Albanian and Muslim civilians and by the Yugoslav Partisans who led the antifascist liberation movement. The principal goal of Albanian forces was the creation of a Greater Albania that would include Novi Pazar in it. As a consequence, efforts were made to Albanize the Bosniak population of Novi Pazar – one of the policies that created the greatest revolt among the local Bosniak population was the prohibition of wearing the Muslim hat, fez. During a public speech made when the first Albanian military forces penetrated into Novi Pazar in October 1941, Hadžiahmetović warned the public present that they are "Albanian, and not Bosniak", and stated: "Behind us stand three million Albanians, our Pazar is the centre of Albania, and we will create a Greater Albania.". At another public speech, Hadžiahmetović is recorded to have said that the population which occupies all lands spanning from Raška (a town in southern Serbia) to the southernmost point of Albania is Albanian.
In 1943 he joined the Second League of Prizren and was elected a member of its central committee. A few months later, after the incorporation of Mitrovica into Albania he became a representative of the region in the Albanian parliament along with Ferhat Abidi, Hysen Hysnija and Shaban Mustafa.
He was considered a collaborator with the Axis powers during World War II and was executed in 1945 by the Yugoslav government, after he was found guilty of the murder of nearly 7,000 Serbs.
In the late 2000s the Bosniak National Council initiated the process of his historical rehabilitation in Serbia. Among others Muamer Zukorlić has praised him as a "hero of Bosniak people". The campaign culminated in the inauguration of a memorial dedicated to Hadžiahmetović on August 3, 2012 in Novi Pazar. This event was attended by Sulejman Ugljanin (Minister Without Portfolio of Serbia), Esad Džudžević (president of the Bosniak National Council) and Ahmedin Škrijelj (deputy mayor of Novi Pazar). The Ministry of Justice and State Administration of Serbia instructed the local administration to remove the memorial. There is also an initiative to name the City Stadium of Novi Pazar after him.
Opponents of the rehabilitation of Aćif Hadžiahmetović emphasize that he fought for Greater Albania project, that his aim was to Albanize the Bosniak population of Sandžak, that he collaborated with occupying forces of the Third Reich in the whole period of occupation during World War II, sent a number of communists from Novi Pazar into concentration camps, as well as allowed the elimination of Serbian, Jewish and Roma population of Novi Pazar. For his collaboration he was awarded with Iron Cross by Nazi Germany.
- Zečević, Miodrag Đ.; Popović, Jovan P. (2000). Dokumenti iz istorije Jugoslavije: državna komisija za utvrđivanje zločina okupatora i njihovih pomagača iz Drugog svetskog rata, tom IV (PDF). Belgrade: Arhiv Jugoslavije. pp. 49–50.
- Živković 2012, p. 72.
- Živković 2012, p. 75.
- Azizi, Ismet. "Përvjetori i 67-të i pushkatimit të liderit politik e ushtarak të Sanxhakut të Pazarit të Ri". Mesazhi (in Albanian). Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
- Abdyli, Ramiz (April 15–16, 1993). The Expropriation Of The Albanian Population And Attempts For Colonisation Of Albanian Territories (1918–1941). The Kosova issue—a historic and current problem. p. 92.
- Milutin Živković (9 November 2013). "Sandžak hoće svoju istoriju". Večernje Novosti. Belgrade, Serbia. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
- "Džudžević: Nismo očekivali ovakvu "histeriju" oko Aćifa". Press online. Tanjug. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
u aprilu 1941. godine, komanda nemačke okupacione vojske je postavila na čelnu funkciju u Novom Pazaru.
- Maliković, Milija K. (1971). Raška i okolina (in Serbian). Istorijski arhiv. p. 81. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Antonijević, Nenad. Stradanje srpskog i crnogorskog civilnog stanovništva na Kosovu i Metohiji 1941. godine. p. 362.
Više hiljada vulnetara i žandarma pod komandom Bislima Bajgore i Šabana Poluže napali su Ibarski Kolašin 30. septembra....Vulnetari su u Ibarskom Kolašinu 1941. ubili 150 ljudi.
- Jakšić, Slobodan (1996), Prosveta i škole u starom Kolašinu, Ars Libri, p. 116, OCLC 69423634,
Овај напад је толико био дивљачки и крвнички да су га Немци назвали "крвави талас".
- Šušević, Izudin (2001), "Dnevnik događaja u Novom Pazaru", Novopazarski zbornik, Novi Pazar, Museum Ras
- Mušović, Ejup (1979). Etnički procesi i ethnička struktura stanovništva Novog Pazara. Etnografski Institut. p. 48.
- Neuwirth, Hubert (2008). Widerstand und Kollaboration in Albanien 1939–1944. Otto HarrassowitzVerlag. p. 145. ISBN 9783447057837. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
- Ligjëvënësit Shqiptarë 1920–2005, Parliament of Albania, p. 41
- Mehonić, Almir (13 August 2012). "Aćif efendija okupirao Vladu". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 2012-08-17. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
Još prije toga srbijanska javnost je Hadžiahmetovića optužila da je za vrijeme Drugog svjetskog rata sa svojom oružanom jedinicom bio u službi fašističke Njemačke i da su ga partizani strijeljali 1945. godine, jer je bio odgovoran za ubistvo blizu 7.000 Srba. Uslijedila je odluka Vlade: “Skidaj Aćifa, jer je bio saradnik okupatora”.
- Zukorlić, Muamer (15 August 2012). "Zukorlić: Aćif-efendija naš heroj". Danas. B92. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
Bošnjaci su jedini narod u Evropi koji nikada nije imao fašističku niti bilo koju srodnu ideologiju. Aćif-efendija je naš heroj, rekao je muftija Zukorlić.
- "Odalović: Naloženo uklanjanje table Aćif-efendiji". Beta. 23 August 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
Ministarsvo pravde i državne uprave je naložilo upravi u Novom Pazaru da ukloni tablu posvećenu Aćif-efendiji, upravniku Novog Pazara u Drugom svetskom ratu, izjavio je sekretar Vlade Veljko Odalović.
- Ćorović, Aida (7 August 2012). "Aida Ćorović: BNV rehabilituje Kurtu i Murtu". Sandžačke novine. Archived from the original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
Njegovo ime danas zagovornici iz BNV uporno vezuju za odbranu bošnjačkog življa u Sandžaku od četnika, ali se prećutkuje činjenica da je on bio eksponent Velike Albanije, da je njegov zadatak bio da albanizuje bošnjačko stanovništvo u Sandžaku i da je sve vrijeme okupacije sarađivao s okupatorom i poslao veliki broja novopazarskih komunista i učesnika NOR-a u logore. Istovremeno, u vreme strašnih pokolja koje su počinili četnici pod vodstvom Pavla Đurišića na sjeveru Crne Gore, Bljuta nije reagovao iako je bio u poziciji da ih spriječi ili minimalizuje....Za saradnju sa okupatororn, Bljutu je nacistička Njemačka nagradila gvozdenim krstom.
- Dželetović, Pavle (15 September 2012). "Aćif Bljuta vođa krvavog talasa". Novosti. (in Serbo-Croatian)
- Maliković, Milija K. (1971). Raška i okolina (in Serbian). Istorijski arhiv. pp. 81, 83, 93. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Živković, Milutin (2012). "Aćif Hadžiahmetović Bljuta: prilozi za biografiju 1919–1941" (PDF). Istorija 20. Veka (in Serbian). Belgrade: ISI. XXX (3): 71–94.