Ašvieniai are divine twins in the Lithuanian mythology, identical to Latvian Dieva deli and the Baltic counterparts of Vedic Ashvins. Both names derive from the same Proto-Indo-European root for the horse – *ek'w-: Old Lithuanian ašva and Sanskrit ashva mean "horse". Like the Greek Dioscuri Castor and Pollux, they are reflexes of a common Indo-European mytheme, the Divine Twins.
Ašvieniai are represented as pulling a carriage of Saulė (the Sun) through the sky. Ašvieniai, depicted as žirgeliai or little horses, are common motifs on Lithuanian rooftops, placed for protection of the house. Similar motifs can also be found on beehives, harnesses, bed frames, and other household objects. Ašvieniai are related to Lithuanian Ūsinis and Latvian Ūsiņš (cf. Vedic Ushas), gods of horses. Usins, one of the Ašvieniai, is described as driving a solar chariot pulled across the sky by a pair of white horses.
- Hamacher, Duane W. "The Sumerians and Gemini: Sumerian Astronomical Interpretations as Origins of the Divine Horse Twins and Solar Chariots in Indo-European Mythology (Unpublished manuscript)" (PDF). p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-10-31.
- Indo-European etymology
- Parpola, Asko (2015). The Roots of Hinduism: The Early Aryans and the Indus Civilization. Oxford University Press. p. 109. ISBN 9780190226923.
- Dundulienė, Pranė (1991). Lietuvių etnologija (in Lithuanian). Mokslas. p. 50. ISBN 5-420-00713-4.
- Musteikis, Egidijus (2003-06-09). "Arklys tradicijose" (in Lithuanian). Horse Museum – Branch of A. Baranauskas and A. Vienuolis-Žukauskas Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 2010-10-31. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- Leeming, David Adams (2003). From Olympus to Camelot: The World of European Mythology. Oxford University Press. pp. 125–126. ISBN 0-19-514361-2.
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