A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
|A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada|
|Title||Founder- of ISKCON|
|Born||Abhay Charan De|
1 September 1896
Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British India
|Died||14 November 1977 (aged 81)|
Vrindavan, Uttar Pradesh, India
|Resting place||Bhaktivedanta Swami's Samadhi, Vrindavan|
|Notable work(s)||Bhagavad-Gītā As It Is, Srimad-Bhagavatam|
|Other names||Abhay Caranaravinda, Abhay Charan De, Swami Bhaktivedanta, Shrila Prabhupada, Prabhupada|
|Philosophy||Achintya Bheda Abheda|
|Teacher||Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura|
|Based in||Vrindavan, India|
|Period in office||1966–1977|
|Predecessor||Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura|
|Works||Bhagavad-Gītā As It Is, Srimad-Bhagavatam|
|Post||Guru, Sannyasi, Samsthapaka|
|Website||Official Website of ISKCON Official Website of Prabhupada|
Abhay Charanaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (Abhaya Caraṇāravinda Bhaktivedānta Svāmī Prabhupāda; Bengali: অভয়চরণারবিন্দ ভক্তিবেদান্ত স্বামী প্রভুপাদ; 1 September 1896 – 14 November 1977) was an Indian Hindu spiritual teacher and the founder preceptor of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), commonly known as the "Hare Krishna Movement". Members of the ISKCON movement view Prabhupada as a representant and messenger of Sri Krishna Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
Born Abhay Charan De in Calcutta, he was educated at the Scottish Church College in Calcutta. Before adopting the life of a pious renunciant (vanaprastha) in 1950, he was married with children and owned a small pharmaceutical business. In 1959 he took a vow of renunciation (sannyasa) and started writing commentaries on Vaishnava scriptures. In his later years, as a travelling Vaishnava monk, he became an influential communicator of Gaudiya Vaishnava theology to India and specifically to the West through his leadership of ISKCON, founded in 1966. As the founder of ISKCON, he "emerged as a major figure of the Western counterculture, initiating thousands of young Americans." He received criticism from anti-cult groups, as well as a favourable welcome from religious scholars such as J. Stillson Judah, Harvey Cox, Larry Shinn and Thomas Hopkins, who praised Bhaktivedanta Swami's translations and defended the group against distorted media images and misinterpretations. In respect to his achievements, religious leaders from other Gaudiya Vaishnava movements have also given him credit.
He has been described as a charismatic leader, in the sense used by sociologist Max Weber, as he was successful in acquiring followers in the United States, Europe, India and elsewhere. His mission was to propagate, throughout the world, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, a school of Vaishnavite Hinduism that had been taught to him by his guru, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati. After his death in 1977, ISKCON, the society he founded based on a type of Hindu Krishnaism using the Bhagavata Purana as a central scripture, continued to grow. In February 2014, ISKCON's news agency reported reaching a milestone of distributing over half a billion of his books since 1965. His translation and commentaries of the Bhagavad-Gītā As It Is is considered by adherents to the ISKCON movement and many Vedic scholars as one of the finest literary works of Vaishnavism translated into the English Language.
- 1 Life
- 2 Books and publishing
- 3 Views on other religious traditions
- 4 Within India
- 5 Monuments
- 6 Bibliography
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Born on 4 September 1896, the day after Janmastami, one of the most important Vaishnava holidays, in a humble house in the Tollygunge suburb of Calcutta in a Bengali Suvarna Banik family, he was named Abhay Charan, "one who is fearless, having taken shelter at Lord Krishna's feet." Since he was born on the day of Nandotsava ("the celebration of Nanda," Krishna's father, a traditional festival in honour of Krishna's birth) he was also called Nandulal. His parents, Sriman Gour Mohan De and Srimati Rajani De, were devout Vaishnavas (devotees of Vishnu). In accordance with Bengali tradition, his mother had gone to the home of her parents for the delivery, and only a few days later Abhay returned with parents to his home at 6 Sitakanta Banerjee Lane Kolkata 700005.
He received a European-led education in the Scottish Church College, which was well reputed among Bengalis; many Vaishnava families sent their sons there. The professors, most of whom were Europeans, were known as sober, moral men, and it is believed that the students received a good education. The college was located in north Calcutta, near the De's family home on Harrison Road. During his years in the college, Abhay Charan De (অভয়চরণ দে) was a member of the English Society as well as that of the Sanskrit Society, and it has been suggested that his education provided him a foundation for his future leadership. He graduated in 1920 with majors in English, philosophy and economics. He rejected his diploma in response to Gandhi's independence movement.
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In 1922, when he first met his spiritual master, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, he was requested to spread the message of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in the English language. In 1933 he became a formally initiated disciple of Bhaktisiddhanta. In 1944, (from his front room at Sita Kanta Banerjee, Calcutta), he started the publication called Back to Godhead, for which he acted as writer, designer, publisher, editor, copy editor and distributor. He personally designed the logo, an effulgent figure of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in the upper left corner, with the motto: "Godhead is Light, Nescience is darkness" greeting the readers. In his first magazine he wrote:
Under the circumstances since 1936 up to now, I was simply speculating whether I shall venture this difficult task and that without any means and capacity; but as none have discouraged me, I have now taken courage to take up the work.— A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami, Back to Godhead magazine (Vol. 1, 1–4, 1944)
In 1947, the Gaudiya Vaishnava Society recognised his scholarship with the title Bhaktivedanta, (bhakti-vedānta) meaning "one who has realised that devotional service to the Supreme Lord is the end of all knowledge" (with the words Bhakti, indicating devotion and Vedanta indicating conclusive knowledge).
His later well known name, Prabhupāda, is a Sanskrit title, literally meaning "he who has taken the shelter of the lotus feet of the Lord" where prabhu denotes "Lord", and pāda means "taking shelter." Also, "at whose feet masters sit". This name was used as a respectful form of address by his disciples from late 1967 early 1968 onwards. Previous to this, as with his early disciples, followers used to call him "Swamiji".
From 1950 onwards, he lived at the medieval Radha-Damodar mandir in the holy town of Vrindavan, where he began his commentary and translation work of the Sanskrit work Bhagavata Purana. Of all notable Vrindavana's temples, the Radha-Damodara mandir had at the time the largest collection of various copies of the original writings of the Six Gosvamis and their followers – more than two thousand separate manuscripts, many of them three hundred, some even four hundred years old. His guru, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, had always encouraged him to print books, and beholding his spiritual master, Abhay felt the words deeply enter his own life – "If you ever get money, print books."  referring to the need of literary presentation of the Vaishnava culture.
The Gaudiya Matha at Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh was where he lived, wrote and studied, edited the Gauḍīya Patrikā magazine and where he donated the idol (murti) of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu which stands on the altar beside those of Radha Krishna (named Śrī Śrī Rādhā Vinodavihārījī). During his visit in September 1959 he entered the doors of this matha dressed in white, as Abhoy Babu, but would be leaving dressed in saffron, a Vaishnava renunciate (sannyasi). He took his renunciate vows from his friend and godbrother Bhakti Prajnana Keshava. On becoming a sannyasa he also took the prenominal Swami (स्वामी Svāmī). He single-handedly published the first three volumes covering seventeen chapters of the first book of Bhagavata Purana, filling three volumes of four hundred pages, each with a detailed commentary. The introduction to the first volume was a biographical sketch of Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He then left India, obtaining free passage on a freighter called the Jaladuta, with the aim and a hope of fulfilling his spiritual master's instruction to spread the message of Caitanya Mahaprabhu around the world. In his possession were a suitcase, an umbrella, a supply of dry cereal, about eight dollars worth of Indian currency, and several boxes of books.
Mission to the West
When he sailed to the United States in 1965, his trip was not sponsored by any religious organization, nor was he met upon arrival by a group of loyal followers. As the Indian freighter Jaladuta neared his destination, the magnitude of his intended task weighed on him. On 13 September he wrote in his diary, "Today I have disclosed my mind to my companion, Lord Sri Krishna." On this occasion and on a number of others, he called on Krishna for help in his native Bengali. Examining these compositions, academics regard them as "intimate records of his prayerful preparation for what lay ahead" and a view on "how Bhaktivedanta Swami understood his own identity and mission."
I do not know why You have brought me here. Now You can do whatever You like with me. But I guess You have some business here, otherwise why would You bring me to this terrible place? How will I make them understand this message of Krishna consciousness? I am very unfortunate, unqualified and most fallen. Therefore I am seeking Your benediction so that I can convince them, for I am powerless to do so on my own.
By journeying to the United States, he was attempting to fulfil the wish of his guru, possible only by the grace of "his dear Lord Krishna". It was in July 1966 that he brought "global missionary Vaishnavism" to the Western world, founding the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) in New York City. He spent much of the last decade of his life setting up the institution. Since he was the Society's leader, his personality and management were responsible for much of ISKCON's growth and the reach of his mission.
When it was suggested to him at the time of founding the ISKCON in 1966 that a broader term "God Consciousness" would be preferable to "Krishna Consciousness" in the title, he rejected this recommendation, suggesting that the name Krishna includes all other forms and concepts of God.
After a group of devotees and a temple had been established in New York another centre was started in San Francisco in 1967. From there he travelled throughout America with his disciples, popularizing the movement through street chanting (sankirtana), book distribution and public speeches.
Once ISKCON was more established in there, a small number of devotees from the San Francisco temple were sent to London, England where they came into contact with The Beatles. George Harrison took the greatest interest, spending a significant time speaking with him and producing a record with members of the later London Radha Krsna Temple.
Over the following years his continuing leadership role took him around the world some several times setting up temples and communities on other continents. By the time of his death in Vrindavan in 1977, ISKCON had become an internationally known expression of Vaishnavism.
In the twelve years from his arrival in New York until his final days, he:
- circled the globe fourteen times on lecture tours that took him to six continents
- initiated many disciples, awarding sannyasa initiations.
- introduced Vedic gurukul education to a Western audience
- directed the founding of the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, which claims to be the world's largest publisher of ancient and classical Vaishnava religious texts
- founded the religious colony New Vrindavan in West Virginia,
- authored more than eighty books (with many available online) on Vedantic philosophy, religion, literature and culture (including four published originally in Bengali)
- introduced international celebrations such as Jagannatha processions
- watched ISKCON grow to more than 108 temples, various institutes, and farm communities
Through his mission, he followed and communicated the teachings of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and introduced bhakti yoga to an international audience. Within Gaudiya Vaishnavism this was viewed as the fulfilment of a long time mission to introduce Caitanya Mahaprabhu's teachings to the world.
In his discussion with historian Arnold J. Toynbee in London, he is quoted as saying: "I have started this Krishna Conscious Movement among the Indians and Americans and for the next ten thousand years it will increase."
- According to the most recent issue of Back to Godhead magazine, founded by Prabhupada, there are presently over 400 temples and farm communities listed to visit. The magazine lists only the major centres, there are many more homes turned temple that hold programs as well that aren't close by regular temples (Back to Godhead). Prabhupada's initiated disciples and grand disciples number in the tens or hundreds of thousands, while millions of believers who accept his teachings as genuine and bona-fide throughout the world.
Books and publishing
It is believed that Bhaktivedanta Swami's most significant contribution are his books. Within the final twelve years of his life Bhaktivedanta Swami translated over sixty volumes of classic Vedic scriptures (such as the Bhagavad Gita, Chaitanya Charitamritaand the Srimad Bhagavatam) into the English language. For their authority, depth, and clarity, his books have won praise from professors at colleges and universities like Harvard, Oxford, Cornell, Columbia, Syracuse, Oberlin, and Edinburgh, and his Bhagavad-Gītā As It Is was published by Macmillan Publishers, in 1968 and unabridged edition in 1972, and is now available in over sixty languages around the world and some other books by Bhaktivedanta Swami are available in over eighty different languages. In February 2014, ISKCON's news agency reported to have reached a milestone of distributing over half a billion books authored by Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, since 1965.
The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust was established in 1972 to publish his works, and it has also published his multi-volume biography, Srila Prabhupada-lilamrta, that according to Larry Shinn will "certainly be one of the most complete records of the life and work of any modern religious figure". Prabhupada reminded his devotees before his death that he would live forever in his books, and through them would remain present as a spiritual master or guru. Bhaktivedanta Swami had instilled in his followers an understanding of the importance of writing and publishing not only with regard to his works, but also their own initiatives. His early disciples felt Prabhupada had given them Back To Godhead for their own writings from the very start.
A prominent Gaudiya Vaishnava figure, Shrivatsa Goswami, who as a young man had met Bhaktivedanta Swami in 1972, affirmed the significance of book publishing and distribution in spreading the message of Caitanya in an interview with Steven Gelberg:
Making these Vaisnava texts available is one of Srila Prabhupada's greatest contributions. Apart from the masses, his books have also reached well into academic circles and have spurred academic interest in the Chaitanya tradition ... The significance of making these texts available is not merely academic or cultural; it is spiritual.
In 1997, a legal dispute opposing ISKCON Inc. / BBTI (Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International) to the sole trustee of Bhaktivedanta Book Trust (at this time, Hansadutta Swami), ISKCON Inc. supported the position that Bhaktivedanta Book Trust was non-existent; in 1995 it was claimed by ISKCON that Bhaktivedanta's work was done as a "Work for hire". The litigation led to amiable arrangement after which books of Bhaktivedanta are being edited in mainly two forms: original work ("Pre 1978") and work which has, since Bhaktivedanta's passing, been further edited, the later being the sole endorsed by ISKCON.
Views on other religious traditions
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Bhaktivedanta Swami said:
Actually, it doesn't matter – Krishna or Christ – the name is the same. The main point is to follow the injunctions of the Vedic scriptures that recommend chanting the name of God in this age.
Other typical expressions present a different perspective, where he would point out that "today I may be a Hindu, but tomorrow I may become a Christian or Muslim. In this way faiths can be changed, but dharma is a natural sequence, a natural occupation or a connection and it can not be changed, because it is permanent, according to him." While the ISKCON theology of personal god is close to Christian theology, both personal and monotheistic, being a preacher of bhakti and a missionary he sometimes would add, that "already many Christians have tasted the nectar of divine love of the holy name and are dancing with karatalas (hand-cymbals) and mridangas (drums)." His approach to modern knowledge is also seen in sectarian Orthodox Judaism, where the skills and technical knowledge of modernity are encouraged, but the values rejected. Bhaktivedanta Swami stated "devotees should not be lazy, idle...we are not afraid to work. Whatever our engagement is, by offering the result to Krishna we become Krishna conscious". Some of his representations are believed to affect women adversely and are male-centred, others are tender and celebratory. Bhaktivedanta Swami himself taught a dualism of body and soul and that of the genders. Similar to many traditional religions he considered sexuality and spirituality as conflicting opposites. Among some liberal male followers there is a positive recognition of his example in applying the spirit of the law according to time, place, person and circumstance, rather than literal tracing of the tradition.
Following the establishment of temples and centres in the United States and Europe, he returned to India in 1971, holding many public programs which were well attended. From 1971 onwards, the movement became increasingly popular and spread throughout India. He was particularly eager to see the progress at "the impressive temple project in" Mumbai which he and his disciples had fought very hard to establish, with large temples in Mayapur and Vrindavan to follow in the mid-1970s. To promote the vedic education system within the modern Indian education structure, he introduced a chain of Gurukul in various part of India. The Bhaktivedanta Gurukula and International School is one of the most successful schools in the list.
Speaking at the inauguration of ISKCON's cultural centre in New Delhi on 5 April on the occasion of Ramnavmi in 1998, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, then India's prime minister, said:
If today the Bhagavad Gita is printed in millions of copies in scores of Indian languages and distributed in all nooks and corners of the world, the credit for this great sacred service goes chiefly to ISKCON. ... For this one accomplishment alone, Indians should be eternally grateful to the devoted spiritual army of Swami Prabhupada's followers. The voyage of Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada to the United States in 1965 and the spectacular popularity his movement gained in a very short spell of twelve years must be regarded as one of the greatest spiritual events of the century.— Atal Bihari Vajpayee – April 1998 
A number of memorial samadhis or shrines to Bhaktivedanta Swami were constructed by the members of ISKCON in his remembrance, the largest of which are in Mayapur, Vrindavan and at the larger sized temples in America. Prabhupada's Palace of Gold was designed and constructed by devotees of the New Vrindavan community and dedicated on 2 September 1979. Back in 1972 it was intended to be simply a residence for Bhaktivedanta Swami, but over time the plans evolved into an ornate marble and gold palace which is now visited by thousands of Hindu pilgrims each year, visiting this centrepiece of the community strongly relying upon tourist trade.
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Translations with commentary
- Bhagavad-Gītā As It Is (1968) ISBN 0-89213-134-9
- Śrī Īśopaniṣad (1969) ISBN 0-89213-280-9
- Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1972–77) ISBN 84-86883-07-5 (Vols.)
- Caitanya-caritāmṛta (1974) ISBN 0-912776-50-1 (Vols.)
- The Nectar of Instruction (1975) ISBN 0-912776-85-4
- Teachings of Lord Caitanya (1969) ISBN 0-912776-07-2
- Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead (1970) ISBN 0-89213-354-6
- The Nectar of Devotion (1970) ISBN 0-912776-05-6
Other works published within Prabhupada's lifetime
- Easy Journey to Other Planets (1970)
- Kṛṣṇa Consciousness: The Topmost Yoga System (1970)
- Beyond Birth and Death (1972)
- The Perfection of Yoga (1972)
- Kṛṣṇa, the Reservoir of Pleasure (1972)
- On the Way to Kṛṣṇa (1973)
- Rāja-vidyā: The King of Knowledge (1973)
- Elevation to Kṛṣṇa Consciousness (1973)
- Kṛṣṇa Consciousness: The Matchless Gift (1974)
- Perfect Questions, Perfect Answers (1977)
- Teachings of Lord Kapila, the Son of Devahūtī
- Light of the Bhāgavata (1978) OL 11337662W
- Teachings of Queen Kuntī (1978) ISBN 0-89213-102-0
- Life comes from life (1978) OL 8622511W ISBN 0-89213-100-4
- Search for liberation OL 1998508W (1981)
- Chant and be happy (1982) OL 15397592W ISBN 0-89213-118-7
- Coming back: the science of reincarnation (1982) OCLC 495474079 ISBN 0-89213-114-4
- Dialectic spiritualism OL 8622518W (1985)
- Path of perfection (1989) OL 2089579W ISBN 0-89213-103-9
- Nārada bhakti sūtra (1991) ISBN 0-89213-273-6
- Mukunda-mālā-stotra (1989) OL 1058156W ISBN 0-89213-275-2
- The Hare Krsna challenge OCLC 34455353 (1990)
- A second chance OL 2089576W (1991)
- The journey of self discovery OL 15143945W (1991)
- Laws of nature : an infallible justice (1991) OL 4101128W ISBN 0-89213-272-8
- Renunciation Through Wisdom (1992)
- Quest for Enlightenment (1993)
- The Nectar of Book Distribution (1993)
- The Path of Yoga (1995)
- Message of Godhead (1996?)
- Civilization and Transcendence (1998) ISBN 0-89213-298-1
- Dharma: The Way of Transcendence (1998)
- Srila Prabhupada Slokas (1998)
- Beyond Illusion and Doubt (1999)
- Introduction to Bhagavad-gītā (2005)
- A Shower of Divine Compassion (2008)
- Collected Lectures on Bhagavad-gita As It Is (7 volumes)
- Collected Lectures on Srimad-Bhagavatam (11 volumes)
- Collected Teachings of A.C.Bhaktivedanta Swami (7 volumes)
- Conversations with Srila Prabhupada (37 volumes)
- Srila Prabhupada Siksamrta (3 volumes)
- Srila Prabhupada's Letters (5 volumes)
- The Pioneer Years: Back to Godhead, 1944–1960
- The Jaladuta Diary
- The Spiritual Master and the Disciple
- The Beginning-The 1966 New York Journal
- Sri Namamrta-The Nectar of the Holy Name
- Srila Prabhupada's original League of Devotees 'Srimad Bhagwatam' reprint.
- Goswami et al. 1983, p. 986
- Melton, John Gordon. "Hare Krishna". Encyclopædia Britannica. www.britannica.com. Archived from the original on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
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- Jones, Constance (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. New York: Infobase Publishing. pp. 77–78. ISBN 0-8160-5458-4.
- Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter 6
- Rhodes 2001, p. 178
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- Klostermaier 2007, p. 217
- Ekstrand & Bryant 2004, p. 23
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- Paramadvaiti, Swami B. A. "Branches of the Gaudiya Math". www.vrindavan.org. Archived from the original on 4 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
- "Unrecognized charisma? A study and comparison of four charismatic leaders: Charles Taze Russell, Joseph Smith, L Ron Hubbard, Swami Prabhupada" by George D. Chryssides. Paper presented at the 2001 International Conference The spiritual supermarket: religious pluralism in the 21st century, organised by INFORM and CESNUR (London, April 2001)
- "in an evaluation of the nature of the guru, Larry Shinn, a scholar of religions, utilised Max Weber's analysis of charisma in order to understand Prabhupada and the issue of leadership in ISKCON..."status as charismatic leader" Knott 1997, Chapter: Prabhupada and role of guru
- Shinn 1987, p. 49
- Smullen, Madhava (2014-02-12). "BBT Reaches Half a Billion Books Distributed Since 1965". ISKCON News. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
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- Eggenberger, D. 1989. Encyclopedia of World Biography: A to F.
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- A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Satsvarupa dasa Goswami (1998) The secrets of transcendental love, ISBN 0-89213-273-6, p. 73: "The spiritual harmony of knowledge and devotion is well expressed in the phrase bhakti-vedānta"
- Aparna Chattopadhyay (2004). Pearls of Spiritual Wisdom. Pustak Mahal, India. p. 37. ISBN 81-223-0858-9.
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- Charles S. J. White (2004). A Catalogue of Vaishnava Literature on Microfilms in the Adyar Library. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-2067-3.
- Mukherjee, T.; Wright, J.C. (1979). "An early testamentary document in Sanskrit". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 42 (2): 297–320. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00145859. JSTOR 615020.
- Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter This momentous hour of need
- Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter 4 "Āmār icchā chila kichu bai karānā: "Standing by Rādhā-kuṇḍa and beholding his spiritual master, Abhay felt the words deeply enter his own life – "If you ever get money, print books."
- Knott 1997, "Bhaktivedanta Swami, by journeying to America, was attempting to fulfill the wish of his guru, possible only by the grace of his dear Lord Krishna."
- "Charisma and Religious Innovation: Prabhupada and the Founding of ISKCON". ISKCON Communications Journal. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 31 May 2008. (self published)
- Goswami 2002, Vol 1. Ch 1
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- Smith, David Nichol (2003). Hinduism and modernity. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Pub. p. 178. ISBN 0-631-20862-3.
- "Babaji initiation, Chicago, July 11, 1975". prabhupadabooks.com. Retrieved 2008-10-19.
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- "The matrix of principal published translated works. Bhaktivedanta Book Trust offers a 2006 summary PDF file showing which books translated in which languages" (PDF). www.krishna.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2008.
- Shinn & Bromley 1987, p. 124 now a tourist attraction. "New Vrindavan in West Virginia, on the other hand, is a close-knit community, has a strong sense of common purpose."
- "Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Online". vedabase.com.
- Cole & Dwayer 2007, p. 5
- Maharaja, Sridhar. "Branches of the Gaudiya Math". www.vrindavan.org. Archived from the original on 4 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
- Gosvāmī, Satsvarūpa Dāsa (1983). Let there be a temple: India around the world, 1971–1975. Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. ISBN 0-89213-119-5. OL 8622579W. Ch. 6, p. 161
- Sharma 1981, p. 971
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- Cox et al. 1983, p. 247
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- "BBT Only". Archived from the original on 12 August 2011.
- Bhaktivedanta 2003
- Cole & Dwayer 2007, p. 6
- Cole & Dwayer 2007, p. 224
- Cole & Dwayer 2007, p. 223
- League of Devotees article prabhupadaconnect.com
- Cole & Dwayer 2007, p. 27
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