A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada

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His Divine Grace

অভয় চরণারাবিন্দ ভক্তিবেদান্ত স্বামী
Abhay Charanaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami

Prabhupāda
Prabhupada singing (Germany 1974).jpg
Bhaktivedānta Swami, 1974 in Germany
Personal
Born
Abhay Charan De

(1896-09-01)1 September 1896
Died14 November 1977(1977-11-14) (aged 81)
Resting placeBhaktivedānta Swami's Samadhi, Vrindavan
ReligionHinduism
NationalityIndian
DenominationVaishnavism
LineageBrahma-Madhva-Gaudiya Sampradaya
SectGaudiya Vaishnavism
Notable work(s)Bhagavad-gītā As It Is, Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, Caitanya Caritāmṛta
Alma materScottish Church College of the University of Calcutta (B.A.)[1]
Monastic nameAbhaya Caraṇāravinda Bhakti-vedānta Svāmī
TempleGaudiya Math, ISKCON
PhilosophyAchintya Bheda Abheda
Religious career
TeacherBhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī
Based inVrindavan, India
Period in office1966–1977
PredecessorBhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī
InitiationGauḍīya Vaiṣṇava Diksa
1933
by Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī
OrdinationGaudiya Sannyasa, 1959, by Bhaktiprajnāna Keśava Gosvāmī
PostGuru, Acārya
WebsiteOfficial Website of ISKCON Official Website of Prabhupada

Abhay Charanaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami (IAST: Abhaya Caraṇāravinda Bhakti-vedānta Svāmī; 1 September 1896 – 14 November 1977[2]) or Srila Prabhupada, born Abhay Charan De, was an Indian spiritual teacher and the founder-acharya (preceptor) of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON),[3] commonly known as the "Hare Krishna Movement".[1][4][5][6][7] Members of the ISKCON movement view Bhaktivedanta Swami as a representative and messenger of Krishna Chaitanya.[8]

Born in an aristocratic suvarna banik family in Kolkata (then called Calcutta), he was educated at the Scottish Church College there.[1] Before adopting the life of a novice renunciate (vanaprastha) in 1950,[9] he was married with children and owned a small pharmaceutical business.[10][11] In 1959, he took a vow of renunciation (sannyasa) and started writing commentaries on Vaishnava scriptures.[12] In his later years, as a travelling Vaishnava monk, he became an influential communicator of Gaudiya Vaishnava theology to India and specifically to the West through his leadership of ISKCON, founded in 1966.[13][14] As the founder of ISKCON, he "emerged as a major figure of the Western counterculture, initiating thousands of young Americans."[15] He was criticized by anti-cult groups, but was well regarded by religious scholars, such as J. Stillson Judah, Harvey Cox, Larry Shinn and Thomas Hopkins, who praised Bhaktivedānta Swāmi's translations and defended the group against distorted media images and misinterpretations.[16] Religious leaders from other Gaudiya Vaishnava institutions have also given him credit for his achievements.[17]

He has been described as a charismatic leader who was successful in acquiring followers in many countries including the United States, Europe and India.[18][19][20] His mission was to propagate throughout the world Gaudiya Vaishnavism, a school of Vaishnavite Hinduism that had been taught to him by his guru, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati.[13] After his death in 1977, ISKCON, the society he founded based on a form of Hindu Krishnaism using the Bhagavata Purana as a central scripture, continued to grow. In February 2014, ISKCON's news agency reported reaching a milestone of distributing over half a billion of his books since 1965. His translation of and commentary on the Bhagavad Gita, titled Bhagavad-gītā As It Is, is considered by ISKCON adherents and many Vedic scholars as the finest, bonafide translation of Vaishnava literary works.[5][6][7][21]

Honorifics[edit]

His sannyasa name is "Abhay Charanaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami" or abbreviated as "A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami".

In his 1956 and 1958 Back to Godhead (BTG) magazines, "Goswami" prefixes his name. In his 1960 BTGs as well as some letterheads, "Tridandi Goswami" prefixes his name. In a letter, he explains his usage of "Tridandi Goswami" for Vaisnava sannyasins.[22] In the 1970 to present BTGs as well as his books, his name is written with the following honorifics: "His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda".

Other honorifics:

  • His Divine Grace – Title of address bestowed by American disciples, popularised by ISKCON.
  • Swāmījī – Original honorific used by American disciples.
  • Śrīla Prabhupāda – Bestowed by American disciples, 1968, popularized by ISKCON. Also written as "Prabhupāda".
  • Svāmī Mahārāj – Used in his home denomination Gauḍīya Maṭha (where "Prabhupāda" is confined to Bhaktisiddhānta Gosvāmī).
  • Śrīla Bhaktivedānta – Used in Chaitanya Mission / Science of Identity (where "Prabhupad" is confined to Chris Butler).

Life[edit]

Early life[edit]

Born on 1 September 1896, the day after Janmastami (the birth date of lord krishna), one of the most important festivals, in a noble suvarna banik Bengali family in Calcutta,[23] he was named Abhay Charan,("one who is fearless, having taken shelter at Lord's feet.") Since he was born on the day of Nandotsava ("the celebration of Nanda," Krishna's father, a traditional festival in honour of Krishna's birth) he was also called Nandulāl. His parents, "Sriman" Gour Mohan De and "Srimati" Rajani De, were devout Vaishnavas (devotees of Vishnu). In accordance with Bengali tradition, his mother had gone to the home of her parents for the birth, and only a few days later Abhay returned with parents to his home at 6 Sitakanta Banerjee Lane, Kolkata.[24]

He received a European-style education at the Scottish Church College affiliated to the University of Calcutta, which was well regarded among Bengali. The professors, most of whom were Europeans, were known as sober, moral men.[25] The college was located in north Calcutta, near the De's family home on Harrison Road. In the college, Abhay Charan De (অভয়চরণ দে) was a member of the English Society as well as that of the Sanskrit Society, and it has been suggested that his education provided him with a foundation for his future leadership.[10][24] He graduated in 1920 with majors in English, philosophy and economics.[26] He rejected his diploma in response to Gandhi's independence movement.[27] When he was 22 years old, he married Radharani Devi, who was then 11 years old, in a marriage arranged by their parents. At 14, she gave birth to their first son.[28]

Reason for leaving home[edit]

Once Srila Prabhupad had gone to preach about Vaishnavism and Lord Krishna, his wife sold his manuscript to a book seller in exchange of tea, after, in a conversation with his wife she said in anger said that she preferred tea over him.[29][30][31] Srila Prabhupada tried his hardest to convince his wife to help him in his mission throughout his household life till 1950, but his wife was not interested. Srila Prabhuphada was eager and anxious to fulfill his Spiritual master's instructions and order of giving this wonderful gift of godconsciousness, Krishnaconsciousness (consciousness for Krishna) to humanity so that all souls of the world could get relief out of pains and suffering. So one day he decided to renunciate the household and dedicated his life for humanity.[32]

Religious journey[edit]

In 1922, when he first met his spiritual master, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, in Prayagraj he was requested to spread the message of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in the English language.[33] In 1933 he became a formally initiated disciple of Bhaktisiddhānta. In 1944 (from his front room at Sita Kanta Banerjee, Calcutta), he started the publication called Back to Godhead,[34][35] for which he was writer, designer, publisher, editor, copy editor and distributor. He personally designed the logo, an effulgent figure of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in the upper left corner, with the motto: "Godhead is Light, Nescience is darkness" greeting the readers.[36] In his first magazine he wrote:

Under the circumstances since 1936 up to now, I was simply speculating whether I shall venture this difficult task and that without any means and capacity; but as none have discouraged me, I have now taken courage to take up the work.

— A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami, Back to Godhead magazine (Vol. 1, 1–4, 1944)[36]

In 1947, the Gaudiya Vaishnava Society recognised his scholarship with the title Bhaktivedanta, (bhakti-vedānta) meaning "one who has realised that devotional service to the Supreme Lord is the end of all knowledge"[37] (with the words Bhakti, indicating devotion and Vedanta indicating conclusive knowledge).[38]

His later well known name, Prabhupāda, is a Sanskrit title, literally meaning "he who has taken the shelter of the lotus feet of the Lord" where prabhu denotes "Lord", and pāda means "taking shelter."[39] Also, "at whose feet masters sit".[10] This name was used as a respectful form of address by his disciples from late 1967/early 1968 onwards. Previous to this, as with his early disciples, followers had called him "Swamiji".[40]

From 1950 onwards, he lived at the medieval Radha-Damodar mandir in the holy town of Vrindavan, where he began his commentary and translation work of the Sanskrit work Bhagavata Purana.[41] Of all the notable temples in Vrindavana, the Radha-Damodar mandir had at the time the largest collection of copies of the original writings of the Six Gosvamis and their followers – more than two thousand separate manuscripts, many of them 300 to 400 years old.[42][43] His guru, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, had always encouraged him to print books, and beholding his spiritual master, Abhay felt the words deeply enter his own life – "If you ever get money, print books."[44] referring to the need for the literary presentation of the Vaishnava culture.[11]

Renunciation[edit]

The Gaudiya Matha at Mathura, Uttar Pradesh was where he lived, wrote and studied, edited the Gauḍīya Patrikā magazine and where he donated the deity of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu which stands on the altar beside those of Radha Krishna (named Śrī Śrī Rādhā Vinodavihārījī). During his visit in September 1959 he entered the doors of this matha dressed in white, as Abhoy Babu, but he left dressed in saffron, as a Vaishnava renunciate (sannyasi).[12] He took his renunciate vows from his friend and godbrother Bhakti Prajnana Keshava. On becoming a sannyasa he also took the prenominal Swami (स्वामी Svāmī). He single-handedly published the seventeen chapter first book of Bhagavata Purana, filling three volumes of four hundred pages each, enriched with a detailed commentary. The introduction to the first volume was a biographical sketch of Caitanya Mahāprabhu.[43] He then left India, obtaining free passage on a Scindia Line freighter named Jaladuta, with the aim and hope of fulfilling his spiritual master's instruction to spread the message of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu around the world. In his possession were a suitcase, an umbrella, a supply of dry cereal, about eight dollars worth of Indian currency, and several boxes of books.[45]

Mission to the West[edit]

In 1936, just days before Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati's death, Prabhupada[46] was specifically ordered to spread Krishna consciousness in the English language to the West. He did not take the mission given to him by his spiritual master with the utmost seriousness until he was reading a Bhagavad-gita commentary written by Srila Bhaktivinode Thakur, who was the father of Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati.

A message from Jaladuta Diary, a journal kept by Prabhupada. Between 25 and 30 August 1965, there is no entry in the journal, and on the seventh day, 31 August, is the entry "Passed over a great crisis on the struggle for life and death."

When he sailed to the United States in 1965, his trip was not sponsored by any religious organization, nor was he met upon arrival by a group of loyal followers.[47] As the Indian freighter Jaladuta neared his destination, the magnitude of his intended task weighed on him. On 13 September he wrote in his diary, "Today I have disclosed my mind to my companion, Lord Sri Krishna."[48] On this occasion and on a number of others, he called on Krishna for help in his native Bengali. Examining these compositions, academics regard them as "intimate records of his prayerful preparation for what lay ahead" and a view on "how Bhaktivedanta Swami understood his own identity and mission."[49]

I do not know why You have brought me here. Now You can do whatever You like with me. But I guess You have some business here, otherwise why would You bring me to this terrible place? How will I make them understand this message of Krishna consciousness? I am very unfortunate, unqualified and most fallen. Therefore I am seeking Your benediction so that I can convince them, for I am powerless to do so on my own.[48][49]

By journeying to the United States, he was attempting to fulfil the wish of his guru, possible only by the grace of "his dear Lord Krishna".[49] It was in July 1966 that he brought "global missionary Vaishnavism" to the Western world,[3] founding the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) in New York City. He spent much of the last decade of his life setting up the institution. Since he was the Society's leader, his personality and his management capabilities were responsible for much of ISKCON's growth and the reach of his mission.

When it was suggested to him at the time of founding the ISKCON in 1966 that a broader term "God Consciousness" would be preferable to "Krishna Consciousness" in the title, he rejected this recommendation, suggesting that the name Krishna includes all other forms and concepts of God.[50]

After a group of devotees and a temple had been established in New York, another centre was started in San Francisco in 1967.[26][51] From there he travelled throughout America with his disciples, popularizing the movement through street chanting (sankirtana), book distribution and public speeches.

Once ISKCON was more established in San Francisco, a small number of devotees from the San Francisco temple were sent to London, England where they came into contact with The Beatles. George Harrison took the greatest interest, spending a significant amount of time speaking with him and producing a record with members of what became the London Radha Krsna Temple.[52]

Over the following years his continuing leadership role took him around the world several times setting up temples and communities on other continents.[53] By the time of his death in Vrindavan in 1977, ISKCON had become an internationally known expression of Vaishnavism.[26]

Through his mission, he followed and communicated the teachings of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and introduced bhakti yoga to an international audience.[53][54] Within Gaudiya Vaishnavism this was viewed as the fulfilment of a long time mission to introduce Caitanya Mahaprabhu's teachings to the world.[55][56]

Death[edit]

Bhaktivedanta Swami died on 14 November 1977 at the age of 81, in Vrindavan, India. His body was buried in Krishna Balaram Mandir in Vrindavan.[2]

In India[edit]

Beginning his public preaching mission in India, he founded the League of Devotees in Jhansi in 1953.[57]

Following the establishment of temples and centers in the United States and Europe, he returned to India in 1971, holding many public programs which were well attended. From 1971 onwards, the movement became increasingly popular and spread throughout India. He was particularly eager to see the progress on "the impressive temple project in" Mumbai which he and his disciples had fought with determination to establish,[58] with large temples in Mayapur and Vrindavan to follow in the mid-1970s. To promote the vedic education system within the modern Indian education structure, he introduced a chain of Gurukul in various part of India. The Bhaktivedanta Gurukula and International School is one of the most successful schools in the list.

In 1996, the Government of India recognized his accomplishments by issuing a commemorative stamp in his honour as a part of Prabhupada Centennial celebrations.[59][60]

Speaking at the inauguration of ISKCON's cultural center in New Delhi on the occasion of Ramnavmi in 1998, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, then newly elected Prime Minister of India, said:

If today the Bhagavad Gita is printed in millions of copies in scores of Indian languages and distributed in all nooks and corners of the world, the credit for this great sacred service goes chiefly to ISKCON. ... For this one accomplishment alone, Indians should be eternally grateful to the devoted spiritual army of Swami Prabhupada's followers. The voyage of Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada to the United States in 1965 and the spectacular popularity his movement gained in a very short spell of twelve years must be regarded as one of the greatest spiritual events of the century.

— Atal Bihari Vajpayee – 5 April 1998 [61]

Srila Prabhupada also dreamed of building a Vedic Planetarium Temple that would show the creation of the universe according to the Bhagavata Purana, for which he asked his disciple Alfred Ford (a.k.a. Ambarish Das) to help. This temple is being built in Mayapur.

Monuments[edit]

A number of memorial samadhis or shrines to Bhaktivedanta Swami were constructed by the members of ISKCON in his remembrance, the largest being in Mayapur and Vrindavan India as well as the larger sized temples in the United States. Prabhupada's Palace of Gold was designed and constructed by devotees of the New Vrindavan community and dedicated on 2 September 1979. In 1972, it was intended to be simply a residence for Bhaktivedanta Swami, but over time the plans evolved into an ornate marble and gold palace, which is now visited by thousands of Hindu pilgrims each year and is a centrepiece of the community that strongly relies upon tourist trade.[62][63]

Books and publishing[edit]

Srila Prabhupada Room at Radha Damodar Mandir in Vrindavan
Srila Prabhupada Room at Radha Damodar Mandir in Vrindavan

Bhaktivedanta Swami's books are considered one of the most significant contributions.[64][65] During the final twelve years of his life, Bhaktivedanta Swami translated over sixty volumes of classic Vedic scriptures (e.g. Bhagavad Gita, Chaitanya Charitamrita and Srimad Bhagavatam) into the English language.[66] For their authority, depth and clarity, his books have won praise from professors at colleges and universities like Harvard, Oxford, Cornell, Columbia, Syracuse, Oberlin, and Edinburgh.[67] His Bhagavad-gītā As It Is was published by Macmillan Publishers in 1968 with an unabridged edition in 1972.[68][69][70] It is now available in over sixty languages around the world with some of his other books available in over eighty different languages.[34][54] In February 2014, ISKCON's news agency reported reaching a milestone of distributing over half a billion books authored by Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada since 1965.[21]

The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust was established in 1972 to publish his works, and it has also published his multi-volume biography, Srila Prabhupada-lilamrta, that according to Larry Shinn, will "certainly be one of the most complete records of the life and work of any modern religious figure".[3][71] Prabhupada reminded his devotees before his death that he would live forever in his books, and through them would remain present as a spiritual master (guru).[72] Bhaktivedanta Swami had instilled in his followers an understanding of the importance of writing and publishing not only with regard to his works, but also their own initiatives. His early disciples felt Prabhupada had given them Back To Godhead for their own writings from the very start.[72]

A prominent Gaudiya Vaishnava figure, Shrivatsa Goswami, who, as a young man, met Bhaktivedanta Swami in 1972, affirmed the significance of book publishing and distribution in spreading the message of Caitanya in an interview with Steven Gelberg:[72]

Making these Vaisnava texts available is one of Srila Prabhupada's greatest contributions. Apart from the masses, his books have also reached well into academic circles and have spurred academic interest in the Chaitanya tradition ... The significance of making these texts available is not merely academic or cultural; it is spiritual.[73]

Bhaktivedanta Swami said:

Actually, it doesn't matter – Krishna or Christ – the name is the same. The main point is to follow the injunctions of the Vedic scriptures that recommend chanting the name of God in this age.[74]

Other typical expressions present a different perspective, where he would point out that "today I may be a Hindu, but tomorrow I may become a Christian or Muslim. In this way faiths can be changed, but dharma is a natural sequence, a natural occupation or a connection and it can not be changed, because it is permanent, according to him."[66] While the ISKCON theology of personal god is close to Christian theology, both personal and monotheistic, being a preacher of bhakti and a missionary he sometimes would add that "already many Christians have tasted the nectar of divine love of the holy name and are dancing with karatalas (hand-cymbals) and mridangas (drums)."[75]

His approach to modern knowledge is similar to that of sectarian Orthodox Judaism, where the skills and technical knowledge of modernity are encouraged, but the values rejected. "Whatever our engagement is, by offering the result to Krishna we become Krishna conscious".[47] Bhaktivedanta Swami himself taught a dualism of body and soul and that of the genders. Similar to many traditional religions he considered sexuality and spirituality as conflicting opposites.[76] Among some liberal male followers there is a positive recognition of his example in applying the spirit of the law according to time, place, person and circumstance, rather than literal tracing of the tradition.[77]

Published works[edit]

Samadhi of Prabhupada in Vrindavan.

Bengali writings[edit]

  • Gītār Gān (in Bengali). c. 1973.[78]
(a.k.a. Geetār-gān) A poetic translation of the Bhagavad Gita.[79]
  • Vairāgya-vidyā (in Bengali). 1977.[80]
A collection of his early Bengali essays, which were originally printed in a monthly magazine that he edited called Gauḍīya Patrika. Starting in 1976, Bhakti Charu Swami reprinted these essays into Bengali booklets called Bhagavāner Kathā (Knowledge of the Supreme) [from 1948 & 1949 issues], Bhakti Kathā (The Science of Devotion), Jñāna Kathā (Topics of Spiritual Science), Muni-gānera Mati-bhrama (The Deluded Thinkers), and Buddhi-yoga (The Highest Use of Intelligence), which he later combined into Vairāgya-vidyā. In 1992, an English translation was published called Renunciation Through Wisdom.[81]
  • Buddhi-yoga (in Bengali).
  • Bhakti-ratna-boli (in Bengali).

Translations with commentary[edit]

(editions) A translation and commentary on the first canto of the Bhagavata Purana. In 1964, volume two was published covering the second half of chapter seven to chapter twelve. In 1965, volume three was published covering chapters thirteen to nineteen.[82][83]
(editions) A translation and commentary on the Bhagavad Gita. This abridged edition contained about 300–400 pages. In 1972, he published a complete edition of about 1000 pages.[84]
(editions) A translation and commentary on the eighteen hymns of the Isha Upanishad.[85]
(editions) A translation and commentary on the Bhagavata Purana up to the thirteenth chapter of the tenth canto. In 1972, he first published part one of canto one. In the 1980s, his disciples completed and republished the set by translating and commenting on cantos ten (chapters 14–90) through twelve.[82][86]
(editions) A translation and commentary on the Chaitanya Charitamrita.[87]
(editions) A translation and commentary on the Upadesamrita, which describes eleven lessons to progress in Bhakti Yoga.[88]
(editions) A translation and new commentary on chapters 15–33 of the third canto of the Bhagavat Purana (Kapila's teachings on Sankhya philosophy) based on his lectures in Mumbai, India in 1974, which were more detailed than his recently completed commentaries.[89]

Summary studies[edit]

(editions) An introductory summary study on the teachings of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu found in the Chaitanya Charitamrita.[90]
(a.k.a. Krishna Book; editions) A summary study on the ninety chapters found in the tenth canto of the Bhagavata Purana, which contain the detailed description of the pastimes of Krishna on Earth. It was dedicated to his father, Gour Mohan Dey. George Harrison funded the publishing and wrote the forward.[86][91]
(editions) A summary study on the Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu of Rupa Goswami, which is a guide for Bhakti Yoga practitioners.[92]

Albums[edit]

Other works[edit]

(a.k.a. BTG) A magazine he founded to offer spiritual solutions to complex problems facing humanity at large. He was often the sole writer, editor and publisher. After coming to the United States in 1966, he handed over responsibilities to his disciples and followers, who continue to publish it today. He relaunched publishing with Vol. 1, No. 1 for 1966 Oct 23–Nov 6.[96][97]
  • Easy Journey to Other Planets. Boston, Mass.: ISKCON Press. 1970. LCCN 70118080.
(editions) A short treatise in response to the mid-20th century "space race" era to explore the moon.[98]
  • Kṛṣṇa Consciousness: The Topmost Yoga System. Boston, Mass.: ISKCON Press. 1970. LCCN 77127182.
(editions) His lecture at the University of Florida in 1971 addressing the many popular misconceptions about the meaning and goal of yoga.[99]
(editions) A collection of essays where the title piece is transcribed from his lecture in San Francisco in 1967 discussing our spiritual nature.[100]
(editions) A collection of transcribed lectures in 1966 on the second and eighth chapters of the Bhagavad Gita discussing liberation from the cycle of reincarnation.[101]
  • The Perfection of Yoga. New York: ISKCON Press. 1972. LCCN 72076302.
(editions) Originally presented before a live audience as a lecture on the sixth chapter of the Bhagavad Gita in New York City in 1966, he addresses many common misconceptions about the purpose and goal of the yoga system.[102]
(editions) A compact book on elevating one's consciousness to the spiritual platform.[103]
Based on his lectures in New York in 1966 on the seventh chapter of the Bhagavad Gita regarding attaining real happiness.[104]
(editions) A collection of transcribed lectures on the ninth chapter of the Bhagavad Gita, which gives practical ways to enhance our self-knowledge and understanding of the Supreme Person.[105]
(editions) A collection of transcribed lectures on the philosophy and practice of Bhakti Yoga, the process of reestablishing our connection with the Supreme Person.[106]
(editions) A transcribed conversation in Mayapur in 1972 with Bob Cohen, an American Peace Corps worker living in India, who asked Prabhupada every question on spirituality he could think of.[107]
(editions) A collection of his articles (interviews, lectures and essays) from the Back to Godhead magazine covering knowledge of the soul and the practice of Bhakti Yoga.[108]

Additional books have been published posthumously.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Jones, Constance (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. New York: Infobase Publishing. pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-0-8160-5458-9.
  2. ^ a b "Timeline of Srila Prabhupada's Life". 1896 - September 01 - Calcutta - took birth. "Timeline of Srila Prabhupada's Life - 1977". November 14, 19:30 - Disappearance Day of Srila Prabhupada - age 81.
  3. ^ a b c Goswami et al. 1983, p. 986
  4. ^ "Who's Who in Religion". Marquis Who's Who (2nd ed.). 1977. p. 531. ISBN 0-8379-1602-X. Prabhupada, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami, leader, Hare Krishna Movement. Founder, Internat. Soc. for Krishna Cosnciousness, 1965.
  5. ^ a b J. Gordon Melton, Hare Krishna at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  6. ^ a b "His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada". prabhupada.krishna.com.
  7. ^ a b "Who is Srila Prabhupada?". berksbhaktiyoga.org.
  8. ^ Satsvarupa dasa Goswami (1968). Prabhupada: Messenger of The Supreme Lord. India: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Publications. pp. vi. ISBN 978-8189574307.
  9. ^ Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter 6
  10. ^ a b c Rhodes 2001, p. 178
  11. ^ a b Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter 4
  12. ^ a b Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter 9
  13. ^ a b Klostermaier 2007, p. 217
  14. ^ Ekstrand & Bryant 2004, p. 23
  15. ^ Klostermaier 2007, p. 309
  16. ^ Vasan & Lewis 2005, p. 129
  17. ^ Paramadvaiti, Swami B. A. "Branches of the Gaudiya Math". www.vrindavan.org. Archived from the original on 4 July 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2008.
  18. ^ Chryssides, George D. (2012). "Unrecognized charisma? A study and comparison of five charismatic leaders: Charles Taze Russell, Joseph Smith, L Ron Hubbard, Swami Prabhupada and Sun Myung Moon". Max Weber Studies. 12 (2): 185–204. doi:10.15543/MWS/2012/2/4. JSTOR 24579924.
  19. ^ "in an evaluation of the nature of the guru, Larry Shinn, a scholar of religions, utilised Max Weber's analysis of charisma in order to understand Prabhupada and the issue of leadership in ISKCON..."status as charismatic leader" Knott 1997, Chapter: Prabhupada and role of guru
  20. ^ Shinn 1987, p. 49
  21. ^ a b Smullen, Madhava (12 February 2014). "BBT reaches half a billion books distributed since 1965". ISKCON News. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
  22. ^ "000000 - Letter to Rayarama written from Unknown Place".
  23. ^ "Interview with Srila Prabhupada's Grand-Nephew - Sankarsan Prabhu". bvml.org. Archived from the original on 27 July 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  24. ^ a b Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter 2
  25. ^ Wikipedia, Source (August 2013). Scottish Church College, Calcutta Alumni: A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Ajit Kumar Panja, Amal Kumar Sarkar, Amarendranath Chatterjee, Anamika. General Books. ISBN 978-1-230-65485-0.
  26. ^ a b c Vasan & Lewis 2005, p. 128
  27. ^ Eggenberger, D. 1989. Encyclopedia of World Biography: A to F.
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