A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
|ஆ. ப. ஜெ. அப்துல் கலாம்
A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
|Kalam at the International Book Fair, Trivandrum, 2014|
|11th President of India|
25 July 2002 – 25 July 2007
|Prime Minister||Atal Bihari Vajpayee
|Vice President||Krishan Kant
Bhairon Singh Shekhawat
|Preceded by||K. R. Narayanan|
|Succeeded by||Pratibha Patil|
|Born||Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam
15 October 1931
Rameswaram, Ramnad District, Madras Presidency, British India
(now in Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu, India)
|Died||27 July 2015
Shillong, Meghalaya, India
|Alma mater||St. Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli
Madras Institute of Technology
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen "A. P. J." Abdul Kalam (i/ /; 15 October 1931 – 27 July 2015) was the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. A career scientist[clarification needed] turned reluctant politician, Kalam was born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, and studied physics and aerospace engineering. He spent the next four decades as a scientist and science administrator, mainly at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and was intimately involved in India's civilian space program and military missile development efforts. He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology. He also played a pivotal organizational, technical, and political role in India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974.
Kalam was elected President of India in 2002 with the support of both the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party and the opposition Indian National Congress. After serving a term of five years, he returned to his civilian life of education, writing and public service. He was a recipient of several prestigious awards, including the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour.
Early life and education
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931 to a Tamil Muslim family in the pilgrimage centre of Rameswaram on Pamban Island, then in the Madras Presidency and now in the State of Tamil Nadu. His father's name was Jainulabudeen, a boat owner, and his mother Ashiamma, a housewife. His father owned a ferry that took Hindu pilgrims back and forth between Rameswaram and the now-extinct Dhanushkodi. Kalam was the youngest of four brothers and one sister in his family. Kalam's ancestors had been wealthy traders and landowners, with numerous properties and large tracts of land. Their business had involved trading groceries between the mainland and the island and to and from Sri Lanka, as well as ferrying pilgrims between the mainland and Pamban. As a result, the family acquired the title of "Mara Kalam iyakkivar" (wooden boat steerers), which over the years became shortened to "Marakier." With the opening of the Pamban Bridge to the mainland in 1914, however, the businesses failed and the family fortune and properties were lost over time, apart from the ancestral home. By his early childhood, Kalam's family had become poor; at an early age, he started working to supplement his family's income. After completing school, Kalam distributed newspapers to contribute to his father's income.
In his school years, Kalam had average grades but was described as a bright and hardworking student who had a strong desire to learn and spend hours on his studies, especially mathematics. After completing his education at the Ramanathapuram Schwartz Matriculation School, Kalam went on to attend Saint Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli, then affiliated with the University of Madras, from where he graduated in physics in 1954. He moved to Madras in 1955 to study aerospace engineering in Madras Institute of Technology. While Kalam was working on a senior class project, the Dean was dissatisfied with his lack of progress and threatened to revoke his scholarship unless the project was finished within the next three days. Kalam met the deadline, impressing the Dean, who later said to him, "I was putting you under stress and asking you to meet a difficult deadline". He narrowly missed achieving his dream of becoming a fighter pilot, as he placed ninth in qualifiers, and only eight positions were available in the IAF.
Career as a scientist
After graduating from the Madras Institute of Technology in 1960, Kalam joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) as a scientist. He started his career by designing a small helicopter for the Indian Army, but remained unconvinced by his choice of a job at DRDO. Kalam was also part of the INCOSPAR committee working under Vikram Sarabhai, the renowned space scientist. In 1969, Kalam was transferred to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) where he was the project director of India's first Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) which successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in near-earth orbit in July 1980; Kalam had first started work on an expandable rocket project independently at DRDO in 1965. In 1969, Kalam received the government's approval and expanded the programme to include more engineers.
In 1963–64, he visited NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia; Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland; and Wallops Flight Facility. Between the 1970s and 1990s, Kalam made an effort to develop the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and SLV-III projects, both of which proved to be successful.
Kalam was invited by Raja Ramanna to witness the country's first nuclear test Smiling Buddha as the representative of TBRL, even though he had not participated in its development. In the 1970s, Kalam also directed two projects, Project Devil and Project Valiant, which sought to develop ballistic missiles from the technology of the successful SLV programme. Despite the disapproval of the Union Cabinet, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi allotted secret funds for these aerospace projects through her discretionary powers under Kalam's directorship. Kalam played an integral role convincing the Union Cabinet to conceal the true nature of these classified aerospace projects. His research and educational leadership brought him great laurels and prestige in the 1980s, which prompted the government to initiate an advanced missile programme under his directorship. Kalam and Dr V S Arunachalam, metallurgist and scientific adviser to the Defence Minister, worked on the suggestion by the then Defence Minister, R. Venkataraman on a proposal for simultaneous development of a quiver of missiles instead of taking planned missiles one after another. R Venkatraman was instrumental in getting the cabinet approval for allocating ₹388 crores for the mission, named Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) and appointed Kalam as the chief executive. Kalam played a major part in developing many missiles under the mission including Agni, an intermediate range ballistic missile and Prithvi, the tactical surface-to-surface missile, although the projects have been criticised for mismanagement and cost and time overruns.
Kalam served as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister and the Secretary of the Defence Research and Development Organisation from July 1992 to December 1999. The Pokhran-II nuclear tests were conducted during this period in which he played an intensive political and technological role. Kalam served as the Chief Project Coordinator, along with Rajagopala Chidambaram, during the testing phase. Media coverage of Kalam during this period made him the country's best known nuclear scientist. However, the director of the site test, K Santhanam, said that the thermonuclear bomb had been a "fizzle" and criticisied Kalam for issuing an incorrect report. Both Kalam and Chidambaram dismissed the claims.
In 1998, along with cardiologist Soma Raju, Kalam developed a low cost coronary stent, named the "Kalam-Raju Stent". In 2012, the duo designed a rugged tablet computer for health care in rural areas, which was named the "Kalam-Raju Tablet".
Kalam served as the 11th President of India, succeeding K. R. Narayanan. He won the 2002 presidential election with an electoral vote of 922,884, surpassing the 107,366 votes won by Lakshmi Sahgal. His term lasted from 25 July 2002 to 25 July 2007.
On 10 June 2002, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) which was in power at the time, expressed that they would nominate Kalam for the post of President, and both the Samajwadi Party and the Nationalist Congress Party backed his candidacy. After the Samajwadi Party announced its support for Kalam, Narayanan chose not to seek a second term in office, leaving the field clear. Kalam said of the announcement of his candidature:
I am really overwhelmed. Everywhere both in Internet and in other media, I have been asked for a message. I was thinking what message I can give to the people of the country at this juncture.
The polling for the presidential election began on 15 July 2002 in Parliament and the state assemblies, with the media claiming that the election was a one-sided affair and Kalam's victory was a foregone conclusion; the count was held on 18 July. Kalam became the 11th president of the Republic of India in an easy victory, and moved into the Rashtrapati Bhavan after he was sworn in on 25 July. Kalam was the third President of India to have been honoured with a Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour, before becoming the President. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1954) and Dr Zakir Hussain (1963) were the earlier recipients of Bharat Ratna who later became the President of India. He was also the first scientist and the first bachelor to occupy Rashtrapati Bhawan.
During his term as president, he was affectionately known as the People's President, saying that signing the Office of Profit Bill was the toughest decision he had taken during his tenure. Kalam was criticised for his inaction in deciding the fate of 20 out of the 21 mercy petitions submitted to him during his tenure. Article 72 of the Constitution of India empowers the President of India to grant pardons, and suspend or commute the death sentence of convicts on death row. Kalam acted on only one mercy plea in his five-year tenure as president, rejecting the plea of rapist Dhananjoy Chatterjee, who was later hanged. Perhaps the most notable plea was from Afzal Guru, a Kashmiri terrorist who was convicted of conspiracy in the December 2001 attack on the Indian Parliament and was sentenced to death by the Supreme Court of India in 2004. While the sentence was scheduled to be carried out on 20 October 2006, the pending action on his mercy plea resulted in him remaining on death row. He also took the controversial decision to impose President's Rule in Bihar in 2005.
At the end of his term, on 20 June 2007, Kalam expressed his willingness to consider a second term in office provided there was certainty about his victory in the 2007 presidential election. However, two days later, he decided not to contest the Presidential election again stating that he wanted to avoid involving Rashtrapati Bhavan from any political processes. He did not have the support of the left parties, Shiv Sena and UPA constituents, to receive a renewed mandate.
Nearing the expiry of the term of the 12th President Pratibha Patil on 24 July 2012, media reports in April claimed that Kalam was likely to be nominated for his second term. After the reports, social networking sites witnessed a number of people supporting his candidature. The BJP potentially backed his nomination, saying that the party would lend their support if the Trinamool Congress, Samajwadi Party and Indian National Congress proposed him for the 2012 presidential election. A month ahead of the election, Mulayam Singh Yadav and Mamata Banerjee also expressed their support for Kalam. Days afterwards, Mulayam Singh Yadav backed out, leaving Mamata Banerjee as the solitary supporter. On 18 June 2012, Kalam declined to contest the 2012 presidential poll. He said of his decision not to do so:
Many, many citizens have also expressed the same wish. It only reflects their love and affection for me and the aspiration of the people. I am really overwhelmed by this support. This being their wish, I respect it. I want to thank them for the trust they have in me.
After leaving office, Kalam became a visiting professor at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, and the Indian Institute of Management Indore; an honorary fellow of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore; chancellor of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology Thiruvananthapuram; professor of Aerospace Engineering at Anna University; and an adjunct at many other academic and research institutions across India. He taught information technology at the International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, and technology at Banaras Hindu University and Anna University.
In May 2012, Kalam launched a programme for the youth of India called the What Can I Give Movement, with a central theme of defeating corruption. He also enjoyed writing Tamil poetry and playing the veenai, a South Indian string instrument. Kalam listened to Carnatic devotional music every day and believed in the Hindu culture. Kalam used to read Bhagavad Gita and was a vegetarian. He was nominated for the MTV Youth Icon of the Year award in 2003 and 2006. In the 2011 Hindi film I Am Kalam, Kalam is portrayed as a positive influence on a poor but bright Rajasthani boy named Chhotu, who renames himself Kalam in honour of his idol.
In 2011, Kalam was criticised by civil groups over his stand on the Koodankulam Nuclear Power Plant; he supported the establishment of the nuclear power plant and was accused of not speaking with the local people. The protesters were hostile to his visit as they perceived to him to be a pro-nuclear scientist and were unimpressed by the assurances provided by him regarding the safety features of the plant.
On 27 July 2015, Kalam travelled to Shillong to deliver a lecture on "Creating a Livable Planet Earth" at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong. At around 6:35 p.m. IST, only five minutes into his lecture, he collapsed. He was rushed to the nearby Bethany Hospital in a critical condition; upon arrival, he lacked a pulse or any other signs of life. Despite being placed in the intensive care unit, Kalam was confirmed dead of a sudden cardiac arrest at 7:45 p.m IST.
The last word reportedly said by A.P.J Abdul Kalam was
Funny guy! Are you doing well?
to his aide Srijan Pal Singh.
Following his death, Kalam's body was airlifted in an Indian Air Force helicopter from Shillong to Guwahati, from where it was flown to New Delhi on the morning of 28 July in an air force C-130J Hercules. The flight landed at Palam Air Base and was received by the President, the Prime Minister, Chief Minister of Delhi Arvind Kejriwal, and the three service chiefs of the Indian Armed Forces, who laid wreaths on Kalam's body. His body was then placed on a gun carriage draped with the Indian flag and taken to his Delhi residence at 10 Rajaji Marg; there, the public and numerous dignitaries paid homage, including former prime minister Manmohan Singh, Congress president Sonia Gandhi, Rahul Gandhi, and Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav.
On the morning of 29 July, Kalam's body, wrapped in the Indian flag, was taken to Palam Air Base and flown to Madurai in an air force C-130J aircraft, arriving at Madurai Airport that afternoon. His body was received at the airport by the three service chiefs and national and state dignitaries, including cabinet ministers Manohar Parrikar, Venkaiah Naidu, Pon Radhakrishnan and the governors of Tamil Nadu and Meghalaya, K Rosaiah and V. Shanmuganathan. After a brief ceremony, Kalam's body was flown in an air force helicopter to the town of Mandapam. From Mandapam, Kalam's body was taken in an army truck to his hometown of Rameswaram, where it was displayed in an open area in front of the local bus station to allow the public to pay their final respects until 8 p.m. that evening.
On 30 July 2015, the former President was laid to rest at Rameswaram's Pei Karumbu Ground with full state honours. Over 350,000 people attended the last rites, including the Prime Minister, the governor of Tamil Nadu and the chief ministers of Karnataka, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh.
India reacted to Kalam's death with an outpouring of grief; numerous tributes were paid to the former President across the nation and on social media. The Government of India declared a seven-day state mourning period as a mark of respect. President Pranab Mukherjee, Vice President Hamid Ansari, Home Minister Rajnath Singh, and other leaders condoled the former President's demise. Prime Minister Narendra Modi said "his [Kalam's] death is a great loss to the scientific community. He took India to great heights. He showed the way." Former Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, who had served as prime minister under Kalam, said, "our country has lost a great human being who made phenomenal contributions to the promotion of self reliance in defence technologies. I worked very closely with Dr. Kalam as prime minister and I greatly benefited from his advice as president of our country. His life and work will be remembered for generations to come." ISRO chairman A. S. Kiran Kumar called his former colleague "a great personality and a gentleman", while former chairman G. Madhavan Nair described Kalam as "a global leader" for whom "the downtrodden and poor people were his priority. He always had a passion to convey what is in his mind to the young generation", adding that his death left a vacuum which none could fill.
South Asian leaders expressed condolences and lauded the late statesman. The Bhutanese government ordered the country's flags to fly at half-staff to mourn Kalam's death, and lit 1000 butter lamps in homage. Bhutanese Prime Minister Tshering Tobgay expressed deep sadness, saying Kalam "was a leader greatly admired by all people, especially the youth of India who have referred to him as the people’s President". Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina described Kalam as "a rare combination of a great statesman, acclaimed scientist, and a source of inspiration to the young generation of South Asia" and termed his death an "irreparable loss to India and beyond". Bangladesh Nationalist Party chief Khaleda Zia said "as a nuclear scientist, he engaged himself in the welfare of the people". Ashraf Ghani, the President of Afghanistan, called Kalam "an inspirational figure to millions of people," noting that "we have a lot to learn from his life". Nepalese Prime Minister Sushil Koirala recalled Kalam's scientific contributions to India: "Nepal has lost a good friend and I have lost an honoured and ideal personality." The President of Pakistan, Mamnoon Hussain, and Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif also expressed their grief and condolences on his passing. The President of Sri Lanka, Maithripala Sirisena, also expressed his condolences. "Dr. Kalam was a man of firm conviction and indomitable spirit, and I saw him as an outstanding statesman of the world. His death is an irreparable loss not only to India but to the entire world." Maldivian President Abdulla Yameen and Vice President Ahmed Adheeb condoled Kalam's passing, with Yameen naming him as a close friend of the Maldives who would continue to be an inspiration to Indians and generations of South Asians. Former president Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, who had made an official visit to India during Kalam's presidency, termed his demise as a great loss to all of humankind. The Commander-in-Chief of the Myanmar Armed Forces, Senior General Min Aung Hlaing, expressed condolences on behalf of the Myanmar government. The Dalai Lama expressed his sadness and offered condolences and prayers, calling Kalam's death "an irreparable loss".
Kathleen Wynne, the Premier of Ontario, which Kalam had visited on numerous occasions, expressed "deepest condolences ... as a respected scientist, he played a critical role in the development of the Indian space program. As a committed educator, he inspired millions of young people to achieve their very best. And as a devoted leader, he gained support both at home and abroad, becoming known as 'the people's President'. I join our Indo–Canadian families, friends, and neighbours in mourning the passing of this respected leader." United States President Barack Obama extended "deepest condolences to the people of India on the passing of former Indian President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam", and highlighted his achievements as a scientist and as a statesman, notably his role in strengthening U.S.–India relations and increasing space cooperation between the two nations. "Suitably named 'the People’s President', Dr. Kalam’s humility and dedication to public service served as an inspiration to millions of Indians and admirers around the world." Russian President Vladimir Putin expressed sincere condolences and conveyed his sympathy and support "to the near and dear ones of the deceased leader, to the government, and entire people of India". He remarked on Kalam's outstanding "personal contribution to the social, economic, scientific, and technical progress of India and in ensuring its national security," adding that Dr. Kalam would be remembered as a "consistent exponent of closer friendly relations between our nations, who has done a lot for cementing mutually beneficial Russian–Indian cooperation." Other international leaders—including former Indonesian president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak, Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, President of the United Arab Emirates Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, and Vice President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates and emir of Dubai Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum—also paid tribute to Kalam. In a special gesture Secretary-General of the United Nations, Ban Ki-moon, visited the Permanent Mission of India to the UN and signed the condolence book placed following his death. "The outpouring of grief around the world is a testament of the respect and inspiration he has garnered during and after his presidency. The UN joins the people of India in sending our deepest condolences for this great statesman. May he rest in peace and eternity", Ban said in his message.
In his book India 2020, Kalam strongly advocated an action plan to develop India into a "knowledge superpower" and a developed nation by the year 2020. He regarded his work on India's nuclear weapons programme as a way to assert India's place as a future superpower.
I have identified five areas where India has a core competence for integrated action: (1) agriculture and food processing; (2) education and healthcare; (3) information and communication technology; (4) infrastructure, reliable and quality electric power, surface transport and infrastructure for all parts of the country; and (5) self-reliance in critical technologies. These five areas are closely inter-related and if advanced in a coordinated way, will lead to food, economic and national security.
Kalam describes a "transformative moment" in his life when he asked Pramukh Swami, the guru of the BAPS Swaminarayan Sampradaya, how India might realize this five-pronged vision of development. Pramukh Swami’s answer—to add a sixth area developing faith in God and spirituality to overcome the current climate of crime and corruption—became the spiritual vision for the next 15 years Kalam’s life, which he describes in his final book, Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji, published just a month before his death.
It was reported that there was considerable demand in South Korea for translated versions of books authored by him.
Kalam took an active interest in other developments in the field of science and technology, including a research programme for developing biomedical implants. He also supported open source technology over proprietary software, predicting that the use of free software on a large scale would bring the benefits of information technology to more people.
Kalam set a target of interacting with 100,000 students during the two years after his resignation from the post of scientific adviser in 1999. He explained, "I feel comfortable in the company of young people, particularly high school students. Henceforth, I intend to share with them experiences, helping them to ignite their imagination and preparing them to work for a developed India for which the road map is already available."
Awards and honours
Kalam has received honorary doctorates from 40 universities. The Government of India has honoured him with the Padma Bhushan in 1981 and the Padma Vibhushan in 1990 for his work with ISRO and DRDO and his role as a scientific advisor to the Government. In 1997, Kalam received India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, for his contribution to the scientific research and modernisation of defence technology in India. In 2013, he was the recipient of the Von Braun Award from the National Space Society "to recognize excellence in the management and leadership of a space-related project".
Following his death, Kalam received numerous tributes. The Tamil Nadu state government announced that his birthday, 15 October, would be observed across the state as "Youth Renaissance Day;" the state government further instituted the "Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Award," constituting an 8-gram gold medal, a certificate and ₹500,000 (US$7,800). The award will be awarded annually on Independence Day, beginning in 2015, to residents of the state with achievements in promoting scientific growth, the humanities or the welfare of students.
Books and documentaries
- Kalam's writings
- Developments in Fluid Mechanics and Space Technology by A P J Abdul Kalam and Roddam Narasimha; Indian Academy of Sciences, 1988
- India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium by A P J Abdul Kalam, Y. S. Rajan; New York, 1998.
- Wings of Fire: An Autobiography by A P J Abdul Kalam, Arun Tiwari; Universities Press, 1999.
- Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power Within India by A P J Abdul Kalam; Viking, 2002.
- The Luminous Sparks by A P J Abdul Kalam, by; Punya Publishing Pvt Ltd, 2004.
- Mission India by A P J Abdul Kalam, Paintings by Manav Gupta; Penguin Books, 2005
- Inspiring Thoughts by A P J Abdul Kalam; Rajpal & Sons, 2007
- Indomitable Spirit by A P J Abdul Kalam; Rajpal and Sons Publishing
- Envisioning an Empowered Nation by A P J Abdul Kalam with A Sivathanu Pillai; Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi
- You Are Born To Blossom: Take My Journey Beyond by A P J Abdul Kalam and Arun Tiwari; Ocean Books, 2011.
- Turning Points: A journey through challenges by A P J Abdul Kalam; Harper Collins India, 2012.
- Target 3 Billion" by A P J Abdul Kalam and Srijan Pal Singh; December 2011 | Publisher Penguin Books.
- My Journey: (titled எனது பயணம் - Tamil) Transforming Dreams into Actions by A P J Abdul Kalam; August 2013 by the Rupa Publication.
- A Manifesto for Change: A Sequel to India 2020 by A P J Abdul Kalam and V Ponraj; July 2014 by Harper Collins.
- Forge your Future: Candid, Forthright, Inspiring by A P J Abdul Kalam; by Rajpal and Sons, 29 October 2014.
- Reignited: Scientific Pathways to a Brighter Future by A P J Abdul Kalam and Srijan Pal Singh; by Penguin India, 14 May 2015.
- Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji by A P J Abdul Kalam with Arun Tiwari; HarperCollins Publishers, June 2015
- Eternal Quest: Life and Times of Dr Kalam by S Chandra; Pentagon Publishers, 2002.
- President A P J Abdul Kalam by R K Pruthi; Anmol Publications, 2002.
- A P J Abdul Kalam: The Visionary of India by K Bhushan, G Katyal; A P H Pub Corp, 2002.
- A Little Dream (documentary film) by P. Dhanapal; Minveli Media Works Private Limited, 2008.
- The Kalam Effect: My Years with the President by P M Nair; Harper Collins, 2008.
- My Days With Mahatma Abdul Kalam by Fr A K George; Novel Corporation, 2009.
- "Kalam And Islam".
- editor; Ramchandani, vice president Dale Hoiberg; editor South Asia, Indu (2000). A to C (Abd Allah ibn al-Abbas to Cypress). New Delhi: Encyclopædia Britannica (India). p. 2. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5.
- Pruthi, R. K. (2005). "Ch. 4. Missile Man of India". President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam. Anmol Publications. pp. 61–76. ISBN 978-81-261-1344-6.
- "India's 'Mr. Missile': A man of the people". 30 July 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "Kalam's unrealised 'Nag' missile dream to become reality next year". 30 July 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- Sen, Amartya (2003). "India and the Bomb". In M. V. Ramana and C. Rammanohar Reddy. Prisoners of the Nuclear Dream. Sangam Books. pp. 167–188. ISBN 978-81-250-2477-4.
- "Dr Abdul Kalam, People's President in Sri Lanka". Daily News via HighBeam Research. 23 January 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- Kalam, Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul; Tiwari, Arun (1 January 1999). Wings of Fire: An Autobiography. Universities Press. ISBN 978-81-7371-146-6. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- Jai, Janak Raj (1 January 2003). Presidents of India, 1950–2003. Regency Publications. p. 296. ISBN 978-81-87498-65-0. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- "Bio-data: Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 1 March 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "APJ Abdul Kalam, the unconventional President who learnt the art of the political".
- "The greatest student India ever had".
- "Brother awaits Kalam last trip".
- "How two orthodox Brahmins played a crucial role in APJ Abdul Kalam’s childhood".
- "Day before death, Kalam enquired about elder brother's health".
- "Not aware of any will left by Kalam: nephew". Times of India. 31 July 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- Sharma, Mahesh; Das, P.K.; Bhalla, P. (2004). Pride of the Nation : Dr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. p. 13. ISBN 978-81-288-0806-7. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- Bhushan, K.; Katyal, G. (2002). A.P.J. Abdul Kalam: The Visionary of India. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. pp. 1–10,153. ISBN 9788176483803.
- K. Raju; S. Annamalai (24 September 2006). "Kalam meets the teacher who moulded him". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- Dixit, Sumita Vaid (18 March 2010). "The boy from Rameswaram who became President". Rediff.com. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
- "Failed in my dream of becoming pilot: Abdul Kalam in new book". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 18 August 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- "Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam". National Informatics Centre. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- Gopalakrishnan, Karthika (23 June 2009). "Kalam tells students to follow their heart". The Times of India (Chennai, India). Retrieved 4 July 2012.
- Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, Inc. (November 1989). Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, Inc. pp. 32–. ISSN 0096-3402. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "Missile Chronology, 1971–1979" (PDF). James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at Monterey Institute of International Studies, Nuclear Threat Initiative. July 2003. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "The prime motivator". Frontline. 22 June – 5 July 2002. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- Pandit, Rajat (9 January 2008). "Missile plan: Some hits, misses". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- Jerome M. Conley (2001). Indo-Russian military and nuclear cooperation: lessons and options for U.S. policy in South Asia. Lexington Books. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-7391-0217-6. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- ANI (8 November 2011). "Koodankulam nuclear plant: A. P. J. Abdul Kalam's safety review has failed to satisfy nuke plant protestors, expert laments". The Economic Times (Chennai, India). Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- R., Ramachandran (12–25 September 2009). "Pokhran row". Frontline. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- Hardnews bureau (August 2009). "Pokhran II controversy needless: PM". Hard News. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "Story of indigenous stents". The Hindu-Businessline (India). 15 August 2001.
- "The stent man". Rediff-News (India). 19 December 1998.
- Gopal, M. Sai (22 March 2012). "Now, 'Kalam-Raju tablet' for healthcare workers". The Hindu (India). Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "Former Presidents, Rashtrapati Bhavan". Retrieved Jul 28, 2015.
- Times News Network (11 June 2002). "NDA's smart missile: President Kalam". The Economic Times. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- "With him at the helm, there is hope that things might change".
- "SP to support Kalam for President's post". Rediff.com. 11 June 2002. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "NCP supports Kalam's candidature for presidentship". Rediff.com. 11 June 2002. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "Narayanan opts out, field clear for Kalam". Rediff.com. 11 June 2002. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "Overwhelmed by response: Kalam". Rediff.com. 13 June 2002. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "Presidential nominee Abdul Kalam files nomination papers". Rediff.com. 18 June 2002. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "Polling for presidential election begins". Rediff.com. 15 July 2002. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- Ved, Mahendra (26 July 2002). "Kalam is 11th President in 12th term". The Times of India. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
- "Abdul Kalam elected President". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 18 July 2002. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "List of Bharat Ratna Awardees" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, India. 2010. p. 2. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "A P J Kalam is sworn in as India's eleventh President". Rediff.com. 25 July 2002. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- Tyagi, Kavita; Misra, Padma. Basic Technical Communication. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. p. 124. ISBN 978-81-203-4238-5. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- "APJ Abdul Kalam is people's president: Mamata Banerjee". CNN-IBN. Press Trust of India. 19 June 2012. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
- Perappadan, Bindu Shajan (14 April 2007). "The people's President does it again". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "'My toughest decision as president was returning the Office of Profit Bill to Parliament'".
- "Signing office of profit bill was toughest decision: A P J Kalam". The Economic Times (Coimbatore). 18 July 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- "The journey of a mercy plea". The New Indian Express. 21 May 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- V., Venkatesan (April 2009). "Mercy Guidelines". Frontline. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- "APJ Abdul Kalam: The People's President". NDTV. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "President Kalam votes for uniform civil code".
- "Kalam calls for uniform civil code".
- "Uniform Civil Code essential: Kalam".
- "Puri seer rallies for uniform civil code".
- "Kalam not to contest presidential poll". Rediff.com. 22 June 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- "Kalam not to contest Presidential polls". The Times of India. 22 June 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- "Kalam not to contest Presidential polls". The Times of India. 22 June 2007. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- "Talks under way on Presidential election". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 10 May 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Prafulla Marapakwar, Times News Network (23 April 2012). "Next President should be apolitical: Pawar". The Times of India. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- Raj, Rohit (23 April 2012). "Virtual world seeks second term for Abdul Kalam". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- NDTV Correspondent (23 April 2012). "Race for Rashtrapati Bhawan: APJ Abdul Kalam a good choice, says SP; backs Pawar". NDTV. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- Azeez, Parwin (8 May 2012). "Kalam for President clicks on social networks". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
- "Netizens campaign for second term to Kalam". Deccan Herald. 26 April 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- "President poll: BJP rejects Pranab Mukherjee, Hamid Ansari, may back Kalam". CNN-IBN (New Delhi). 30 April 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- Press Trust of India (PTI) (30 April 2012). "Presidential polls: We will not support Pranab Mukherjee, BJP says". The Times of India (New Delhi). Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- "Prez poll: Mulayam, Mamata suggest APJ Kalam, Manmohan Singh, Somnath Chatterjee". DNA India. 13 June 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- "Mamata turns to Facebook, seeks support for Kalam". The Times of India (Kolkata, India). Press Trust of India. 16 June 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- Karthick S (18 June 2012). "Abdul Kalam not to contest presidential poll 2012". The Times of India (Chennai, India). Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- "Honorary Fellowship of IISc". Iisc.ernet.in. 27 May 2008. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
- Kalam, A. P. J. Abdul (5 September 2012). Turning Points: A Journey Through Challenges. HarperCollins Publishers. pp. 48, 69. ISBN 9350295431. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
- "About us". What Can I Give. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- Mallady, Shastry (26 June 2011). "Take part in movement against corruption: Kalam". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "India's A.P.J. Abdul Kalam". Time. 30 November 1998. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- Shashi Tharoor (28 June 2015). "Abdul Kalam: People’s president, extraordinary Indian". BBC. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- "India was his Gurukul and its people, his shishyas".
- "Dr Kalam, India's Most Non-Traditional President".
- "Kalam a puppet of votebank politics".
- "Kalam, Islam and Dr Rafiq Zakaria".
- "Anil Ambani Voted MTV Youth Icon of the Year". The Financial Express. 5 September 2003. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- "MTV's Youth Icon". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 21 May 2004. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- "Dhoni voted youth icon 2006". Daily News and Analysis. 23 June 2006. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- "I Am Kalam: Movie Review". The Times of India. 4 August 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- "Dr Kalam's 'assurance' on nuclear power plants draws flak". Financial Magazine. 7 November 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- "Kalam bats for Kudankulam but protesters unimpressed". The Times of India. 7 November 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- PTI (28 July 2015). "Abdul Kalam showed no signs of life when brought to hospital: Doctor". IBN Live.com. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Abdul Kalam, former president of India, passes away at 84". The Indian Express. 27 July 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- "End of an era: 'Missile man' APJ Abdul Kalam passes away after cardiac arrest". Firstpost. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- Anindita Sanyal (27 July 2015). "Former President APJ Abdul Kalam Dies at 83". NDTV.com. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- Last words said by some legends
- HT Correspondent, Guwahati (28 July 2015). "Farewell Kalam! Pranab, Modi lead nation in paying homage". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Live: Kalam's body at Delhi house for people to pay tribute". India Today. 28 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- Arunachalam, Pon Vasanth (29 July 2015). "Dignitaries Pay Respect to Kalam in Madurai Airport". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Kalam's mortal remains reach Rameswaram". The Hindu. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "People's president' Kalam laid to rest with full state honours". Business Standard. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "Nation bids adieu to Abdul Kalam". The Hindu. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "People's president: India mourns Abdul Kalam". BBC. 28 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Seven-day state mourning but no holiday". The Times of India. 28 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Former President APJ Abdul Kalam has died aged 83". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "A.P.J Abdul Kalam was great human being: Manmohan Singh". The Economic Times. 28 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Abdul Kalam's Death Tremendous Loss to India: ISRO Chief A S Kiran Kumar". NDTV.com. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "'Karmayogi' Kalam's death a 'great loss for humanity', says ex-ISRO chief". Business Standard. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Former Indian President APJ Abdul Kalam passes away". Kuensel. 28 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- PTI (28 July 2015). "World leaders pay glowing tributes to inspirational Kalam". Business Standard. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Sri Lankan President Condoles the Death of Dr A P J Abdul Kalam". Asian Tribune. 28 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Maldivian leaders condole Kalam's death". IndiaTV News.com. 31 July 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "Sr. Gen. U Min Aung Hliang, Commander-in-Chief of Myanmar Defence Services calls on PM". Business Standard. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- Choesang, Yeshe (28 July 2015). "HH the Dalai Lama expresses sadness over Abdul Kalam's demise". Tibet Post International. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Statement:Premier's Statement on the Passing of Former Indian President Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam". Government of Ontario. 28 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Statement by the President on the Death of Former Indian President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam". The White House: Office of the Press Secretary. 28 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- ANI (28 July 2015). "Putin condoles passing away of Dr. Kalam". Business Standard. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- Rishi Iyengar (28 July 2015). "India Pays Tribute to ‘People’s President’ A.P.J. Abdul Kalam". TIME. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- Kalam, A.P.J. Abdul (1 October 2011). "IDG Session Address" (PDF). NUJS Law Review. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
- Kalam, A.P.J. Abdul; Tiwari, Arun (2015). Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji. Noida, India: HarperCollins India. pp. 3–6. ISBN 978-93-5177-405-1.
- "Kalam, the author catching on in South Korea". Outlook magazine. 9 February 2006. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
- Becker, David (29 May 2003). "India leader advocates open source". CNET. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "Dr.Kalam's Page". abdulKalam.com. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- Dayekh, Ribal (16 April 2011). "Dr Abdul Kalam former President of India arrives to Dubai". Zawya. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
- "Kalam receives honorary doctorate from Queen's University Belfast". Oneindia.in. 11 June 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
- "Bharat Ratna conferred on Dr Abdul Kalam". Rediff.com. 26 November 1997. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
- National Space Society, NSS Von Braun Award. retrieved 10 February 2015
- "Award in Kalam's name, birthday to be observed as 'Youth Renaissance Day'". Economic Times. 31 July 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- "Ex-President of India Abdul Kalam visits the Forum". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Honorary Degrees – Convocation". Simon Fraser University. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- "IEEE Honorary Membership Recipients" (PDF). IEEE. p. 1. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
- "Yet another honorary doctorate for Kalam". Rediff.com. 6 October 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
- "A.P.J Abdul Kalam – Honorary Degree, 2009". Oakland University.
- "Former President Kalam chosen for Hoover Medal". The Times of India (New York). 27 March 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
- "Caltech GALCIT International von Kármán Wings Award". galcit.caltech.edu. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "Dr Abdul Kalam, former President of India, receives NTU Honorary Degree of Doctor of Engineering". Nanyang Technological University. 26 August 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
- "AMU to honour Kalam with doctorate". The Economics Times. Retrieved 28 August 2015. Check date values in:
- "Carnegie Mellon University Awards Honorary Doctorate To Former India President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam". cmu.edu. Carnegie Mellon University. 26 October 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "King Charles II Medal for President". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 12 July 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "King Charles II Medal for Kalam". The Economic Times (India). 11 July 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "Royal Society King Charles II Medal". Royal Society. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- "Kalam conferred Honorary Doctorate of Science". The Economic Times (India). 23 October 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "Dr. Abdul Kalam's Diverse Interests: Prizes/Awards". Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "List of recipients of Bharat Ratna" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "List of Distinguished Fellows". Institute of Directors. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
- "Bharat Ratna conferred on Dr Abdul Kalam". Rediff.com. 26 November 1997. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "Developments in Fluid Mechanics and Space Technology". National Informatics Centre. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- Kalam, A.P.J. Abdul; Y.S., Rajan (1998). India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium. New York. ISBN 978-0-670-88271-7.
- Kalam, A.P.J. Abdul (2002). Ignited minds: unleashing the power within India. Viking.
- Kalam, A.P.J. Abdul (2004). The luminous sparks : a biography in verse and colours. Bangalore: Punya Pub. ISBN 978-81-901897-8-1.
- Rajan, A.P.J. Abdul Kalam with Y.S. (2005). Mission India : a vision for Indian youth. New Delhi, India: Puffin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-333499-6.
- Kalam, A.P.J. Abdul (2007). Inspiring thoughts. Delhi: Rajpal & Sons. ISBN 978-81-7028-684-4.
- Kalam, A.P.J. Abdul (2006). Indomitable Spirit. Delhi: Rajpal & Sons. ISBN 978-81-7028-654-7.
- You Are Born To Blossom : Take My Journey Beyond. New Delhi, India: Ocean Books. ISBN 81-8430-037-9.
- "Turning Points:A journey through challenges". Harper Collins India.
- "Dr. Abdul Kalam’s new Book A Manifesto for Change to release on July 14". news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- Abdul Kalam, A P J (29 October 2014). Forge Your Future: Candid, Forthright, Inspiring. Rajpal and Sons. ISBN 978-93-5064-279-5.
- Abdul Kalam, A P J; Pal Singh, Srijan (14 May 2015). Reignited: Scientific Pathways to a Brighter Future. Penguin India. ISBN 978-0-14-333354-8.
- "Dr. Abdul Kalam’s new Book Transcendence My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji to release on June 15". Harper Collins India Publication.
- Rohde, David (19 July 2002). "Nuclear Scientist, 70, a Folk Hero, Is Elected India's President". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- Pruthi, Raj (2003). President Apj Abdul Kalam. Anmol Publications. ISBN 978-81-261-1344-6.
- Bhushan, K.; Katyal, G. (2002). A.P.J. Abdul Kalam: The Visionary of India. APH Publishing. ISBN 978-81-7648-380-3.
- "Documentary on Kalam released". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 12 January 2008. Archived from the original on 11 May 2009. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
- Nair, P. M. (2008). The Kalam Effect: My Years with the President. HarperCollins Publishers, a joint venture with the India Today Group. ISBN 978-81-7223-736-3.
- Fr A K George (2009). My Days with Mahatma Abdul Kalam. Novel Corp. ISBN 978-81-904529-5-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to A. P. J. Abdul Kalam.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: A. P. J. Abdul Kalam|