A1 autostrada (Poland)
|Part of E75|
|Length||461.0 km (286.5 mi)|
565.1 km (351 mi) planned
|From||S6 near Gdańsk|
| S5 near Grudziądz (planned) |
A4 near Gliwice
|To||D1 border with Czech Republic|
|Major cities||Gdańsk, Grudziądz, Toruń, Łódź, Piotrków Trybunalski, Częstochowa, Gliwice|
|National roads in Poland|
The autostrada A1, officially named Amber Highway (pol. Autostrada Bursztynowa) in Poland is a north-south motorway, partly under construction, that runs through central Poland, from Gdańsk (on the Baltic Sea) through Łódź and the Upper Silesian Industry Area (to the west of Katowice) to the Polish-Czech border in Gorzyczki/Věřňovice, where it is connected with the Czech motorway D1. Except for its southernmost section, the motorway is a part of European route E75.
The total planned length is 565.1 km (351.1 mi). As of September 2019, 461 km (286 mi) are opened to traffic. The remaining 104 km (65 mi) are in development, primarily as a reconstruction of an existing dual-carriageway national road 1 (the traffic being diverted into one carriageway for the time of reconstruction). The motorway is contracted to be fully completed by October 2022.
History of construction
The construction of the A1 motorway has been a highly politicized issue in Poland, as it is perceived to be an economically vital road that would connect the country's major ports on the Baltic coast with both central and southern Poland. One short fragment (17 km) was constructed in years 1978 – 1989, one of the first motorway stretches built under communist regime. Since 1989 various governments and political parties have supported an accelerated construction schedule for this motorway, without results.
After many delays, caused mainly by lack of funding, construction started in 2005. The main part of the motorway was constructed in years 2005 – 2014: about 395 km (70% of the route's length) have been built within this period. By July 2016 (when a delayed Łódź bypass section was finished), the route has been completed except for those sections where the old national road 1 had already been a dual carriageway, allowing for a significantly lower priority of constructing a motorway on this remaining stretch compared to construction of other highways.
The section from Częstochowa to Pyrzowice is being constructed in years 2016 – 2020. The remaining section from Tuszyn to Częstochowa is being constructed in years 2019 – 2022, which also includes an upgrade of the 17 km long pre-1989 stretch.
Gdańsk to Stryków
This section was built in stages between 2005 and 2014. First, a 25 km (16 mi) section was opened on 22 December 2007, near Gdańsk, extending the S6 bypass expressway, and a remaining 65 km (40 mi) opened on 17 October 2008. The 62 km extension of the motorway to Toruń opened on 14 October 2011.
Stryków to Pyrzowice
The oldest section of this segment, a 17.5 km (11 mi) stretch as the Piotrków Trybunalski bypass, was built between 1978 and 1989. This was one of the very few stretches of motorway built in Poland under the Communist regime. In addition, the section from Częstochowa to Piotrków Trybunalski was built in the 1970s as a dual carriageway road on a motorway alignment. However, it lacks motorway interchanges, and instead has standard intersections with no grade separation, regulated by traffic lights.
On 22 January 2009 a contract was signed for the construction of the 180 km (110 mi) section from Stryków (junction with motorway A2) to Pyrzowice. Under the terms of the contract, the segment from Stryków to Częstochowa (123 km (76 mi)) was to be finished by May 2012, while the remaining segment from Częstochowa to Pyrzowice (57 km (35 mi)) was to be finished by January 2014 (60 months after the signing of the contract). The motorway was to be built within a Private-Public Partnership framework by company Autostrada Południe. The contract included the rebuilding of an already existing stretch of A1 motorway (opened in 1989) as well as the upgrade of the existing dual-carriageway road between Piotrków Trybunalski and Częstochowa. On 23 January 2010 the contract was cancelled as the company was not able to secure financing. It carried out the design project of the motorway however, which according to the Polish government was to make it possible for construction to begin in 2010 by new contractors, and be finished by 2012. However, the design project turned out to be full of flaws and needed to be redone.
The section from Pyrzowice to Częstochowa began construction in 2016, with completion planned for 2019/2020. Reconstruction of the remaining dual-carriageway stretch from Częstochowa to Piotrków Trybunalski began in 2019, with completion of 3 sections contracted for 2021 and 2 sections: for 2022.
Pyrzowice to border with Czech Republic
At the southern end of the motorway, construction of a 15.5 km (9.6 mi) section from Gliwice-Sośnica to Bełk, part of the southernmost section from the junction with the A4 motorway at Sośnica district of Gliwice to the Czech border, began on 26 March 2007 and was completed in December 2009. The remainder of the 48 km (30 mi) long section from A4 to the border was opened in different stages from 2009 till 2014. Construction of the 43 km (27 mi) section from Gliwice-Sośnica north to Pyrzowice began in 2009 and was fully completed by June 2012.
On 15 December 2009 the Polish government announced the cancelling of the contract for building the Świerklany - Gorzyczki (Czech border) section, citing the unacceptably slow pace of construction by Alpine Bau GmbH. The government solicited new bids for this section in April 2010 and the bid was won by the same company that lost the original contract, and construction resumed in October 2010. The original plan was for the road to be ready in the Summer of 2010, and according to the new contract it was to be ready in April 2012, in time for Euro 2012 championships. Alpine Bau GmbH abandoned their second effort to finish this section in May 2013. It was finally opened in May 2014.
Sections of the motorway
|Gdańsk - Grudziądz||90 km||2005–2008||opened October 17, 2008; toll motorway|
|Grudziądz - Toruń||62 km||2008–2011||opened October 14, 2011; toll motorway|
|Toruń - Kowal||64 km||2010–2014||Construction interrupted in September 2012, as companies involved have been ejected from the contract. (the ejected companies have sued the Polish authorities). New contractors have been selected in April 2013 and the road opened to traffic in December 2013 (45 km) and April 2014 (19 km).|
|Kowal - Stryków/Łódź||75 km||2010–2012||opened November 13, 2012|
|Stryków/Łódź - Tuszyn||37.3 km||2012–2016||Design-build contract signed in December 2010, completion originally planned in 32 months, then delayed to June 2014, then later plans had it completed in Summer of 2015.  However, the contractor abandoned the contract in January 2014. New contractors have been appointed fall 2014. Opened July 2016.|
|Tuszyn - Piotrków Trybunalski||16 km||1978–1989;
|Reconstruction of an existing motorway fragment from 1980s. Widening to 3 lanes per direction. Reconstruction intended to be finished in late 2021.|
|Piotrków Trybunalski - Częstochowa||65 km||2019–2022||Reconstruction of an existing dual-carriageway road, which was constructed in the 1970s (with some motorway features) into a motorway. Eastern carriageway of the old road closed, traffic diverted to western carriageway (one lane northbound, one / two lanes southbound depending on the fragment). First reconstructed carriageway is intended for opening in 2021 and since then two lanes in each direction will be provided to ease the traffic congestion. Second carriageway is to be completed by the end of 2022. The section will have 3 lanes per direction after construction.|
|Częstochowa bypass||20,3 km||2015–2020||Contract signed in October 2015. In April 2019, Salini Impregilo was ejected from the contract for extensive delays. In August 2019, completion of the section was awarded to Budimex, Strabag and Bud-Pol. Premature opening of the route for traffic in planned in late 2019 or early 2020, while full completion later in 2020.|
|Blachownia -"Częstochowa Południe"||4,7 km||2015–2019||Construction finished, will get opened when the adjacent section is passable to traffic.|
|"Częstochowa Południe" - Woźniki||16,7 km||2016-2019||opened 2 August 2019|
|Woźniki - Pyrzowice||15,2 km||2015-2019||opened 2 August 2019|
|Pyrzowice - "Zabrze Północ”||31 km||2009–2012||opened 1 June 2012|
|"Zabrze Północ” - Maciejów||8,1 km||2009–2011||opened December 2011, 3 lanes per direction|
|Maciejów - "Gliwice Sośnica"||6 km||2009–2011||opened September 2011, 3 lanes per direction|
|"Gliwice Sośnica" - Bełk||15,5 km||2007–2009||opened December 2009, 3 lanes per direction|
|Bełk - Świerklany||14,1 km||2008-2011||Bełk - Rowień opened in December 2010, 3 lanes per direction|
Rowień - Świerklany opened in April 2011 (delayed because of floods)
|Świerklany - Mszana||7,3 km||2007–2014||Construction interrupted in late 2009 due to contract dispute, then resumed in October 2010. Was to open in July 2012, but a problem with one of the bridges then moved the planned opening until August, 2013. In May, 2013 the contractor abandoned the project, citing disagreement with Polish government agencies. A new contractor to finish the bridge was selected in June 2013, and the road fully opened to traffic on May 23, 2014.|
|Mszana - Gorzyczki (Czech border)||11,1 km||2007–2012||Construction interrupted in late 2009 due to contract dispute, then resumed in October 2010. Opened (to light vehicles only) in November 2012, and to all vehicles on May 23, 2014 after completion of adjacent section.|
|Number of exit(facility)||Exit(facility) name||Mileage from terminus||Notes(facilities available if opposite the MOP(rest area))|
|Toll booth 1||Gdańsk||1 km (0.62 mi)|
|(1)||MOP Kleszczewko||5.2 km (3.23 mi)||parking only|
|(2)||Stanisławie||16 km (9.94 mi)|
|(3)||Swarożyn||24.4 km (15.16 mi)|
|(4)||Pelplin||35.9 km (22.31 mi)|
|(2)||MOP Olsze||41 km (25.48 mi)||petrol station, restaurant present as well as parking|
|(5)||Kopytkowo||57.9 km (35.98 mi)|
|64.7 km (40.20 mi)||Border: kujawsko-pomorskie and pomorskie voiv|
|(3)||MOP Gajewo||68.3 km (42.44 mi)(southbound)
70 km (43.50 mi)(northbound)
|(6)||WarlubieIndirect (in 1 km range):||73.2 km (45.48 mi)|
|(7)||Nowe MarzyContract signed for(works haven't started):||89 km (55.30 mi)|
|Bridge over Vistula||middle at 94.3 km (58.60 mi)|
|(8)||Grudziądz(indirect access to )||96.1 km (59.71 mi)|
|(4)||MOP Malankowo||105.6 km (65.62 mi)||petrol station and restaurant|
|(9)||Lisewo||111.8 km (69.47 mi)|
|(5)||MOP Nowy Dwór||128.4 km (79.78 mi)||parking only|
|(10)||Turzno(indirect access to )||134.3 km (83.45 mi)|
|(11)||Toruń Wschód(indirect access to )||140.4 km (87.24 mi)|
|(6)||MOP Nowa Wieś||143.3 km (89.04 mi)||Parking only|
|Toll booth||Toruń||143.7 km (89.29 mi)|
|Bridge over Vistula(Most Im. Armii Krajowej)||149.1 km (92.65 mi)|
|(12)||Czerniewice||151 km (93.83 mi)||End of toll road|
|(7)||MOP Otłoczyn Zachód||159 km (98.80 mi)||Petrol station and restaurant|
|(13)||Ciechocinek(indirect access)||163.6 km (101.66 mi)|
|(8)||MOP Kałęczynek Zachód||177 km (109.98 mi)||parking only|
|(14)||Brzezie(indirect access)||186.5 km (115.89 mi)|
|(15)||Włocławek||195.1 km (121.23 mi)|
|(9)||MOP Ludwinowo Wschód||201.8 km (125.39 mi)||parking only|
|(16)||Kowal||215 km (133.59 mi)|
|(10)||MOP Lubień Północ||218.7 km (135.89 mi)||petrol station|
|229.5 km (142.60 mi)||Triple border point: kujawsko-pomorskie, łódzkie and mazowieckie (going on the border of the two latter voivoderships to 235.9 km (146.58 mi), when fully starts going in łódzkie)|
|(11)||MOP Strzelce||236.9 km (147.20 mi)||Eastbound only, parking only|
|(17)||Kutno Północ||243.4 km (151.24 mi)|
|(18)||Kutno Południe||252.6 km (156.96 mi)|
|(19)||Piątek||271 km (168.39 mi)|
|(12)||MOP Głowno||278.1 km (172.80 mi)|
|(20)||Łódź Północ||292.2 km (181.56 mi)|
|(26)||Piotrków Trybunalski Zachód||13.3 km (8.26 mi)||Entrance into southern direction (Gorzyczki) only, to be upgraded|
|(27)||Piotrków Trybunalski Południe||16.1 km (10.00 mi)||Terminus|
|(28)||Kamieńsk||Has only DŚU|
|Entrance to Silesian voivodership|
|(30)||Kościelec||Has only DŚU|
|(37)||Piekary Śląskie||14.1 km (8.76 mi)|
|(38)||Bytom||16.6 km (10.31 mi)|
|(39)||Zabrze Północ||26.6 km (16.53 mi)|
|(40)||Zabrze Zachód||31.9 km (19.82 mi)|
|(41)||Gliwice Wschód||36.1 km (22.43 mi)|
|(42)||Gliwice Sośnica(I)||40.2 km (24.98 mi)|
|(43)||Gliwice Sośnica(II)||41.4 km (25.72 mi)|
|(44)||Gliwice Sośnica(III)||42.5 km (26.41 mi)|
|(45)||Knurów||47 km (29.20 mi)|
|(13)||MOP Knurów||50.3 km (31.25 mi)||Parking only|
|(46)||Dębieńsko||54.2 km (33.68 mi)|
|(47)||Rybnik||58 km (36.04 mi)|
|(48)||MOP Rowień Zachód||65 km (40.39 mi)||Petrol station and restaurant|
|(49)||Żory||65.4 km (40.64 mi)|
|(50)||Świerklany||72.4 km (44.99 mi)|
|(51)||Mszana||79.7 km (49.52 mi)|
|(14)||MOP Mszana||82.7 km (51.39 mi)||Restaurant, hotel, petrol station and shower|
|(52)||Gorzyce (indirect access to )||88.9 km (55.24 mi)||Last interchange before border to Czech Republic|
|Border Gorzyce-Bohumín||91 km (56.54 mi)||Entrance to (Czech motorway);to Ostrava, Olomouc, Brno, Bratislava and Prague|
- News on GDDKiA official web portal
- biznes.onet.pl article Jan. 23, 2009 Archived January 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- Ostre hamowanie A1 w Pyrzowicach
- biznes.onet.pl article, 15 December 2009 Archived 12 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Announcement on official www.gddkia.gov.pl
- constructionpoland.com article on abandonment, 20 May 2013
- "Minister: autostrada A1 do Łodzi dopiero za rok". Archived from the original on 2012-09-10. Retrieved 2012-09-07.
- Walsh, John (September 14, 2012). "Sisk to sue Poland over road project". Irish Examiner.
- Salini dokończy budowę A1. Umowy podpisane
- "Gazeta Wyborcza". Archived from the original on 2013-12-21. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
- Umowa na budowę odcinka autostrady A1 w kierunku Katowic
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-10-24. Retrieved 2012-10-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Autostrada A1. Bez szans na oddanie w terminie". Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
- "Budowa autostrady A1. Kiedy dokończą obwodnicę Łodzi?". Archived from the original on 2014-01-29. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
- "Przybyło nam kolejne 28 km autostrad". Bankier.pl. 2012-06-01. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
- GDDKiA official announcement
- Autostrada A1 otwarta z Maciejowa do Sośnicy!
- Autostrada A1. Nie zdążą przed Euro 2012 Archived April 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- Naprawa mostu na autostradzie A1 wystraszyła inwestorów. Gmina załamana
- Alpine Bau nie dokończy mostu w Mszanie na autostradzie A1
- A1 do samej granicy? Wiemy kiedy będzie gotowa
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Freeway A1 (Poland).|
- Official website of Gdańsk-Toruń section operator (in English)
- Official page for construction project A1 Kowal-Stryków (in Polish)
- Official page for construction project A1 Stryków-Tuszyn (in Polish)
- Official page for construction project A1 Pyrzowice-Gliwice Sośnica (in Polish)
- Official page for construction project A1 Rząsawa - Blachownia (in Polish)
- Official page for construction project A1 Blachownia-Zawodzie (in Polish)
- Official page for construction project A1 Zawodzie - Woźniki (in Polish)
- Official page for construction project A1 Woźniki - Pyrzowice (in Polish)