A1 autostrada (Poland)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Autostrada A1 shield}}

Autostrada A1
Autostrada Bursztynowa
Route information
Part of E75
Length484.0 km (300.7 mi)
565.1 km (351 mi) planned
Major junctions
FromS6-PL.svg S6 near Gdańsk
 S5-PL.svg S5 near Grudziądz (planned)

S10-PL.svg S10 near Toruń
A2-PL.svg A2 near Stryków
S8-PL.svg S8 near Tuszyn
S12-PL.svg S12 near Piotrków Trybunalski (planned)
S1-PL.svg S1 near Katowice International Airport in Pyrzowice
S11-PL.svg S11 near Tarnowskie Góry (planned)

A4-PL.svg A4 near Gliwice
ToCZ traffic sign IS16a - D1.svg D1 border with Czech Republic
Major citiesGdańsk, Grudziądz, Toruń, Łódź, Piotrków Trybunalski, Częstochowa, Gliwice
Highway system
National roads in Poland
A1 near Grudziądz, northern (Gdańsk - Grudziądz) section.
2005 photo of partially completed bridge over the Vistula river in Toruń-Czerniewice on the Torun bypass, with only one carriageway finished and pillars for the planned second one. The bridge was opened with dual carriageways in fall of 2011 and became part of A1.
Gliwice-Sośnica interchange of A1 motorway, A4 motorway, national road 44 and voivodeship road 902 near Gliwice, the largest motorway junction in Central-Eastern Europe, opened 2009-2010
800 meter bridge in Knurow near Gliwice
400 meter bridge in Mszana near Wodzisław Śląski

The autostrada A1, officially named Amber Highway (pol. Autostrada Bursztynowa) in Poland is a north-south motorway, partly under construction, that runs through central Poland, from Gdańsk (on the Baltic Sea) through Łódź and the Upper Silesian Industry Area (to the west of Katowice) to the Polish-Czech border in Gorzyczki/Věřňovice, where it is connected with the Czech motorway D1. Except for its southernmost section, the motorway is a part of European route E75.

The total planned length is 565.1 km (351.1 mi). As of December 2019, 484 km (301 mi) are opened to traffic. On the remaining 81 km (50 mi), an existing dual-carriageway national road 1 in under reconstruction to motorway standard (the traffic being diverted into one carriageway for the time of reconstruction). The motorway is contracted to be fully completed by October 2022.

History of construction[edit]

The construction of the A1 motorway has been a highly politicized issue in Poland, as it is perceived to be an economically vital road that would connect the country's major ports on the Baltic coast with both central and southern Poland. One short fragment (17 km) was constructed in years 1978 – 1989, one of the first motorway stretches built under communist regime. Since 1989 various governments and political parties have supported an accelerated construction schedule for this motorway, without results.

After many delays, caused mainly by lack of funding, construction started in 2005. The main part of the motorway was constructed in years 2005 – 2014: about 395 km (70% of the route's length) have been built within this period. By July 2016 (when a delayed Łódź bypass section was finished), the route has been completed except for those sections where the old national road 1 had already been a dual carriageway, allowing for a significantly lower priority of constructing a motorway on this remaining stretch compared to construction of other highways.

The section from Częstochowa to Pyrzowice is being constructed in years 2016 – 2020. The remaining section from Tuszyn to Częstochowa is being constructed in years 2019 – 2022, which also includes an upgrade of the 17 km long pre-1989 stretch.

Gdańsk to Stryków[edit]

This section was built in stages between 2005 and 2014. First, a 25 km (16 mi) section was opened on 22 December 2007, near Gdańsk, extending the S6 bypass expressway, and a remaining 65 km (40 mi) opened on 17 October 2008. The 62 km extension of the motorway to Toruń opened on 14 October 2011.

Stryków to Pyrzowice[edit]

The oldest section of this segment, a 17.5 km (11 mi) stretch as the Piotrków Trybunalski bypass, was built between 1978 and 1989. This was one of the very few stretches of motorway built in Poland under the Communist regime. In addition, the section from Częstochowa to Piotrków Trybunalski was built in the 1970s as a dual carriageway road on a motorway alignment. However, it lacks motorway interchanges, and instead has standard intersections with no grade separation, regulated by traffic lights.

On 22 January 2009 a contract was signed for the construction of the 180 km (110 mi) section from Stryków (junction with motorway A2) to Pyrzowice.[1] Under the terms of the contract, the segment from Stryków to Częstochowa (123 km (76 mi)) was to be finished by May 2012, while the remaining segment from Częstochowa to Pyrzowice (57 km (35 mi)) was to be finished by January 2014 (60 months after the signing of the contract). The motorway was to be built within a Private-Public Partnership framework by company Autostrada Południe. The contract included the rebuilding of an already existing stretch of A1 motorway (opened in 1989) as well as the upgrade of the existing dual-carriageway road between Piotrków Trybunalski and Częstochowa. On 23 January 2010 the contract was cancelled as the company was not able to secure financing.[2] It carried out the design project of the motorway however, which according to the Polish government was to make it possible for construction to begin in 2010 by new contractors, and be finished by 2012. However, the design project turned out to be full of flaws and needed to be redone.[3]

The section from Pyrzowice to Częstochowa began construction in 2016, with completion planned for 2019/2020. Reconstruction of the remaining dual-carriageway stretch from Częstochowa to Piotrków Trybunalski began in 2019, with completion of 3 sections contracted for 2021 and 2 sections: for 2022.

Pyrzowice to border with Czech Republic[edit]

At the southern end of the motorway, construction of a 15.5 km (9.6 mi) section from Gliwice-Sośnica to Bełk, part of the southernmost section from the junction with the A4 motorway at Sośnica district of Gliwice to the Czech border, began on 26 March 2007 and was completed in December 2009. The remainder of the 48 km (30 mi) long section from A4 to the border was opened in different stages from 2009 till 2014. Construction of the 43 km (27 mi) section from Gliwice-Sośnica north to Pyrzowice began in 2009 and was fully completed by June 2012.

On 15 December 2009 the Polish government announced the cancelling of the contract for building the Świerklany - Gorzyczki (Czech border) section, citing the unacceptably slow pace of construction by Alpine Bau GmbH.[4] The government solicited new bids for this section in April 2010[4] and the bid was won by the same company that lost the original contract, and construction resumed in October 2010.[5] The original plan was for the road to be ready in the Summer of 2010,[4] and according to the new contract it was to be ready in April 2012, in time for Euro 2012 championships. Alpine Bau GmbH abandoned their second effort to finish this section in May 2013.[6] It was finally opened in May 2014.

Sections of the motorway[edit]

Motorway section Length Constructed Note
Gdańsk - Grudziądz 90 km 2005–2008 opened October 17, 2008; toll motorway
Grudziądz - Toruń 62 km 2008–2011 opened October 14, 2011; toll motorway
Toruń - Kowal 64 km 2010–2014 Construction interrupted in September 2012, as companies involved have been ejected from the contract.[7][8] (the ejected companies have sued the Polish authorities). New contractors have been selected in April 2013 and the road opened to traffic in December 2013 (45 km) and April 2014 (19 km).[9][10]
Kowal - Stryków/Łódź 75 km 2010–2012 opened November 13, 2012
Stryków/Łódź - Tuszyn 37.3 km 2012–2016 Design-build contract signed in December 2010, completion originally planned in 32 months,[11] then delayed to June 2014,[12] then later plans had it completed in Summer of 2015. [13] However, the contractor abandoned the contract in January 2014.[14] New contractors have been appointed fall 2014.[15] Opened July 2016.
Tuszyn - Piotrków Trybunalski 16 km 1978–1989;
Reconstruction of an existing motorway fragment constructed in the 1980s. Widening to 3 lanes per direction. Reconstruction intended to be finished in late 2021.

Currently without motorway features (narrowed to one lane per direction, at-grade intersections, traffic lights, etc.) for the time of reconstruction.

Piotrków Trybunalski - Częstochowa 65 km 2019–2022 Reconstruction of an existing dual-carriageway road constructed in the 1970s (with some motorway features) into a motorway. Widening to 3 lanes per direction.

Eastern carriageway of the old road closed, traffic diverted to western carriageway (one lane northbound, one / two lanes southbound depending on the fragment). First reconstructed carriageway is intended for opening in 2021 and since then two continuous lanes in each direction will be provided to ease the traffic congestion. Second carriageway is to be completed by the end of 2022.

Częstochowa bypass 20,3 km 2015-2019 opened 23 December 2019, construction works continue[16].
Contract signed in October 2015. In April 2019, Salini Impregilo was ejected from the contract for extensive delays. In August 2019, completion of the section was awarded to Budimex, Strabag and Bud-Pol. The section is open to traffic since 23 December 2019, while the construction works will continue in 2020.
Blachownia -"Częstochowa Południe" 4,7 km 2015-2019 opened 23 December 2019[17]
"Częstochowa Południe" - Woźniki 16,7 km 2016-2019 opened 2 August 2019
Woźniki - Pyrzowice 15,2 km 2015-2019 opened 2 August 2019
Pyrzowice - "Zabrze Północ” 31 km 2009–2012 opened 1 June 2012[18]
"Zabrze Północ” - Maciejów 8,1 km 2009–2011 opened December 2011[19], 3 lanes per direction
Maciejów - "Gliwice Sośnica" 6 km 2009–2011 opened September 2011[20], 3 lanes per direction
"Gliwice Sośnica" - Bełk 15,5 km 2007–2009 opened December 2009, 3 lanes per direction
Bełk - Świerklany 14,1 km 2008-2011 Bełk - Rowień opened in December 2010, 3 lanes per direction
Rowień - Świerklany opened in April 2011 (delayed because of floods)
Świerklany - Mszana 7,3 km 2007–2014 Construction interrupted in late 2009 due to contract dispute,[4] then resumed[5] in October 2010. Was to open in July 2012,[21] but a problem with one of the bridges then moved the planned opening until August, 2013.[22] In May, 2013 the contractor abandoned the project, citing disagreement with Polish government agencies.[23] A new contractor to finish the bridge was selected in June 2013, and the road fully opened to traffic on May 23, 2014.
Mszana - Gorzyczki (Czech border) 11,1 km 2007–2012 Construction interrupted in late 2009 due to contract dispute,[4] then resumed[5] in October 2010. Opened (to light vehicles only) in November 2012, and to all vehicles on May 23, 2014 after completion of adjacent section.[24]

Route description[edit]

Number of exit(facility) Exit(facility) name Mileage from terminus Notes(facilities available if opposite the MOP(rest area))
(1) RusocinS6-PL.svgDK91-PL.svgDW226-PL.svgE75-PL.svg 0 km
Toll booth 1 Gdańsk 1 km (0.62 mi)
(1) MOP Kleszczewko 5.2 km (3.23 mi) parking only
(2) StanisławieDW224-PL.svg 16 km (9.94 mi)
(3) SwarożynDK22-PL.svg 24.4 km (15.16 mi)
(4) PelplinDW229-PL.svg 35.9 km (22.31 mi)
(2) MOP Olsze 41 km (25.48 mi) petrol station, restaurant present as well as parking
(5) KopytkowoDW231-PL.svg 57.9 km (35.98 mi)
64.7 km (40.20 mi) Border: kujawsko-pomorskie and pomorskie voiv
(3) MOP Gajewo 68.3 km (42.44 mi)(southbound)

70 km (43.50 mi)(northbound)

parking only
(6) WarlubieDW214-PL.svgIndirect (in 1 km range):DK91-PL.svgDW238-PL.svgDW391-PL.svg 73.2 km (45.48 mi)
(7) Nowe MarzyDK5-PL.svgDK91-PL.svgContract signed for(works haven't started):S5-PL.svg 89 km (55.30 mi)
Bridge over Vistula middle at 94.3 km (58.60 mi)
(8) GrudziądzDK95-PL.svg(indirect access to DK55-PL.svg) 96.1 km (59.71 mi)
(4) MOP Malankowo 105.6 km (65.62 mi) petrol station and restaurant
(9) LisewoDW548-PL.svg 111.8 km (69.47 mi)
(5) MOP Nowy Dwór 128.4 km (79.78 mi) parking only
(10) TurznoDK96-PL.svg(indirect access to DK15-PL.svgDW646-PL.svg) 134.3 km (83.45 mi)
(11) Toruń WschódDK10-PL.svgDK80-PL.svg(indirect access to DW552-PL.svg) 140.4 km (87.24 mi)
(6) MOP Nowa Wieś 143.3 km (89.04 mi) Parking only
Toll booth Toruń 143.7 km (89.29 mi)
Bridge over Vistula(Most Im. Armii Krajowej) 149.1 km (92.65 mi)
(12) CzerniewiceS10-PL.svg 151 km (93.83 mi) End of toll road
(7) MOP Otłoczyn Zachód 159 km (98.80 mi) Petrol station and restaurant
(13) CiechocinekDK91-PL.svg(indirect access)DW266-PL.svg 163.6 km (101.66 mi)
(8) MOP Kałęczynek Zachód 177 km (109.98 mi) parking only
(14) BrzezieDW252-PL.svgDW268-PL.svg(indirect access) 186.5 km (115.89 mi)
(15) WłocławekDK62-PL.svg 195.1 km (121.23 mi)
(9) MOP Ludwinowo Wschód 201.8 km (125.39 mi) parking only
(16) KowalDK91-PL.svg 215 km (133.59 mi)
(10) MOP Lubień Północ 218.7 km (135.89 mi) petrol station
229.5 km (142.60 mi) Triple border point: kujawsko-pomorskie, łódzkie and mazowieckie (going on the border of the two latter voivoderships to 235.9 km (146.58 mi), when fully starts going in łódzkie)
(11) MOP Strzelce 236.9 km (147.20 mi) Eastbound only, parking only
(17) Kutno PółnocDK60-PL.svg 243.4 km (151.24 mi)
(18) Kutno PołudnieDK92-PL.svg 252.6 km (156.96 mi)
(19) PiątekDW703-PL.svg 271 km (168.39 mi)
(12) MOP Głowno 278.1 km (172.80 mi)
(20) Łódź PółnocA2-PL.svgE30-PL.svg 292.2 km (181.56 mi)
(21) Brzeziny
(22) Łódź Wschód
(23) Łódź Górna
(24) Łódź PołudnieS8-PL.svg
(25) Tuszyn 0 km
(26) Piotrków Trybunalski ZachódS8-PL.svgE67-PL.svg 13.3 km (8.26 mi) Entrance into southern direction (Gorzyczki) only, to be upgraded
(27) Piotrków Trybunalski Południe DK74-PL.svg 16.1 km (10.00 mi) Terminus
(28) Kamieńsk Has only DŚU
(29) Radomsko
Entrance to Silesian voivodership
(30) Kościelec Has only DŚU
(31) Rząsawa Under construction
(32) LgotaDK43-PL.svg
(33) BlachowniaDK46-PL.svg
(34) Częstochowa PołudnieDW908-PL.svg
(35) WoźnikiDW789-PL.svg
(36) PyrzowiceS1-PL.svg 0 km
(37) Piekary ŚląskieDW911-PL.svg 14.1 km (8.76 mi)
(38) BytomDK11-PL.svg 16.6 km (10.31 mi)
(39) Zabrze PółnocDK78-PL.svgDK94-PL.svg 26.6 km (16.53 mi)
(40) Zabrze ZachódDK78-PL.svg 31.9 km (19.82 mi)
(41) Gliwice WschódDK88-PL.svg 36.1 km (22.43 mi)
(42) Gliwice Sośnica(I)DW902-PL.svg 40.2 km (24.98 mi)
(43) Gliwice Sośnica(II)DK44-PL.svg 41.4 km (25.72 mi)
(44) Gliwice Sośnica(III)A4-PL.svgE40-PL.svg 42.5 km (26.41 mi)
(45) KnurówDW921-PL.svg 47 km (29.20 mi)
(13) MOP Knurów 50.3 km (31.25 mi) Parking only
(46) Dębieńsko 54.2 km (33.68 mi)
(47) RybnikDW925-PL.svg 58 km (36.04 mi)
(48) MOP Rowień Zachód 65 km (40.39 mi) Petrol station and restaurant
(49) ŻoryDW935-PL.svg 65.4 km (40.64 mi)
(50) ŚwierklanyDW932-PL.svg 72.4 km (44.99 mi)
(51) MszanaDW933-PL.svg 79.7 km (49.52 mi)
(14) MOP Mszana 82.7 km (51.39 mi) Restaurant, hotel, petrol station and shower
(52) Gorzyce (indirect access to DK78-PL.svg) 88.9 km (55.24 mi) Last interchange before border to Czech Republic
Border Gorzyce-BohumínFlag of Poland (WFB 2004).gifFlag of the Czech Republic.svg 91 km (56.54 mi) Entrance to CZ traffic sign IS16a - D1.svg(Czech motorway);to Ostrava, Olomouc, Brno, Bratislava and Prague

See also[edit]


  1. ^ News on GDDKiA official web portal
  2. ^ biznes.onet.pl article Jan. 23, 2009 Archived January 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Ostre hamowanie A1 w Pyrzowicach
  4. ^ a b c d e biznes.onet.pl article, 15 December 2009 Archived 12 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b c Announcement on official www.gddkia.gov.pl
  6. ^ constructionpoland.com article on abandonment, 20 May 2013
  7. ^ "Minister: autostrada A1 do Łodzi dopiero za rok". Archived from the original on 2012-09-10. Retrieved 2012-09-07.
  8. ^ Walsh, John (September 14, 2012). "Sisk to sue Poland over road project". Irish Examiner.
  9. ^ Salini dokończy budowę A1. Umowy podpisane
  10. ^ "Gazeta Wyborcza". Archived from the original on 2013-12-21. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
  11. ^ Umowa na budowę odcinka autostrady A1 w kierunku Katowic
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-10-24. Retrieved 2012-10-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "Autostrada A1. Bez szans na oddanie w terminie". Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
  14. ^ "Budowa autostrady A1. Kiedy dokończą obwodnicę Łodzi?". Archived from the original on 2014-01-29. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
  15. ^ http://wbj.pl/final-piece-of-a1-to-be-completed-by-budimex-and-strabag-for-pln-327-mln/
  16. ^ "Autostrada A1 - obwodnica Częstochowy w końcu gotowa!". AutoŚwiat.pl. 2019-12-22. Retrieved 2019-12-22.
  17. ^ "Autostradowy cud przed świętami. GDDKiA w poniedziałek otworzy A1 wokół Częstochowy". Forsal.pl. 2019-12-20. Retrieved 2019-12-20.
  18. ^ "Przybyło nam kolejne 28 km autostrad". Bankier.pl. 2012-06-01. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  19. ^ GDDKiA official announcement
  20. ^ Autostrada A1 otwarta z Maciejowa do Sośnicy!
  21. ^ Autostrada A1. Nie zdążą przed Euro 2012 Archived April 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Naprawa mostu na autostradzie A1 wystraszyła inwestorów. Gmina załamana
  23. ^ Alpine Bau nie dokończy mostu w Mszanie na autostradzie A1
  24. ^ A1 do samej granicy? Wiemy kiedy będzie gotowa

External links[edit]