A1 autostrada (Poland)

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Autostrada A1 shield}}
Autostrada A1
Autostrada Bursztynowa
Route information
Part of E75
Length545 km (339 mi)
566.6 km (352 mi) planned
Major junctions
FromS6-PL.svg S6 near Gdańsk
Major intersectionsS5-PL.svg S5 near Grudziądz (planned)

S10-PL.svg S10 near Toruń
A2-PL.svg A2 near Stryków
S8-PL.svg S8 near Tuszyn
S8-PL.svg S8 and S12-PL.svg S12 (planned) near Piotrków Trybunalski
S1-PL.svg S1 near Katowice International Airport in Pyrzowice
S11-PL.svg S11 near Tarnowskie Góry (planned)

A4-PL.svg A4 near Gliwice
ToCZ traffic sign IS16a - D1.svg D1 border with Czech Republic
Location
CountryPoland
Major citiesGdańsk, Grudziądz, Toruń, Łódź, Piotrków Trybunalski, Częstochowa, Gliwice
Highway system
A50 A2
A1 near Grudziądz, northern (Gdańsk - Grudziądz) section.
2005 photo of partially completed bridge over the Vistula river in Toruń-Czerniewice on the Torun bypass, with only one carriageway finished and pillars for the planned second one. The bridge was opened with dual carriageways in fall of 2011 and became part of A1.
Southern part of the Gliwice-Sośnica interchange of A1 motorway, A4 motorway, national road 44 and voivodeship road 902, the largest motorway junction in Europe,[1] opened 2009-2010
800 meter bridge in Knurow near Gliwice
400 meter bridge in Mszana near Wodzisław Śląski

The autostrada A1, officially named Amber Highway (Polish: Autostrada Bursztynowa) in Poland is a north–south motorway, partly under construction, that runs through central Poland, from Gdańsk (on the Baltic Sea) through Łódź and the Upper Silesian Industry Area (to the west of Katowice) to the Polish-Czech border in Gorzyczki/Věřňovice, where it is connected with the Czech motorway D1. Except for its southernmost section, the motorway is a part of European route E75.

The total planned length is 566.6 km (352.1 mi). As of January 2022, 545 km (339 mi) are opened to traffic. The section from Gdańsk to Toruń is tolled (see Tolls).

On the last 21.6 km (13.4 mi), an existing dual-carriageway national road 1 is under reconstruction to motorway standard. The first opened carriageway carries bidirectional traffic, with 4 lanes (2 lanes per direction) available on the whole length, and no at-grade intersections. The second carriageway will be completed by October 2022.

History of construction[edit]

The construction of the A1 motorway has been a highly politicized issue in Poland, as it is perceived to be an economically vital road that would connect the country's major ports on the Baltic coast with both central and southern Poland. One short fragment (17 km) was constructed in years 1978 – 1989, one of the first motorway stretches built under communist regime. Since 1989 various governments and political parties have supported an accelerated construction schedule for this motorway, without results.

After many delays, caused mainly by lack of funding, construction started in 2005. The main part of the motorway was constructed in years 2005 – 2014: about 395 km (70% of the route's length) have been built within this period. By July 2016 (when a delayed Łódź bypass section was finished), the route has been completed except for those sections where the old national road 1 had already been a dual carriageway, allowing for a significantly lower priority of constructing a motorway on this remaining stretch compared to construction of other highways.

The section from Częstochowa to Pyrzowice is being constructed in years 2016 – 2020. The remaining section from Tuszyn to Częstochowa is being constructed in years 2019 – 2022, which also includes an upgrade of the 17 km long pre-1989 stretch.

Gdańsk to Stryków[edit]

This section was built in stages between 2005 and 2014. First, a 25 km (16 mi) section was opened on 22 December 2007, near Gdańsk, extending the S6 bypass expressway, and a remaining 65 km (40 mi) opened on 17 October 2008. The 62 km extension of the motorway to Toruń opened on 14 October 2011. In November 2012 a 75 km (47 mi) long section from Kowal to Łódź Północ interchange in Stryków was opened, followed by 45 km (28 mi) extension from Toruń to Włocławek in December 2013. Missing Włocławek-Kowal section was completed in April 2014.

Stryków to Pyrzowice[edit]

The oldest section of this segment, a 17.5 km (11 mi) stretch as the Piotrków Trybunalski bypass, was built between 1978 and 1989. This was one of the very few stretches of motorway built in Poland under the Communist regime. In addition, the section from Częstochowa to Piotrków Trybunalski was built in the 1970s as a dual carriageway road on a motorway alignment. However, it lacked motorway interchanges, and instead had standard intersections with no grade separation, regulated by traffic lights.

On 22 January 2009 a contract was signed for the construction of the 180 km (110 mi) section from Stryków (junction with motorway A2) to Pyrzowice.[2] Under the terms of the contract, the segment from Stryków to Częstochowa (123 km (76 mi)) was to be finished by May 2012, while the remaining segment from Częstochowa to Pyrzowice (57 km (35 mi)) was to be finished by January 2014 (60 months after the signing of the contract). The motorway was to be built within a Private-Public Partnership framework by company Autostrada Południe. The contract included the rebuilding of an already existing stretch of A1 motorway (opened in 1989) as well as the upgrade of the existing dual-carriageway road between Piotrków Trybunalski and Częstochowa. On 23 January 2010 the contract was cancelled as the company was not able to secure financing.[3] It carried out the design project of the motorway however, which according to the Polish government was to make it possible for construction to begin in 2010 by new contractors, and be finished by 2012. However, the design project turned out to be full of flaws and needed to be redone.[4]

The section from Łódź Północ interchange to Tuszyn interchange was opened in 2016. The section from Pyrzowice to Częstochowa began construction in 2016, and was finished in 2020. Reconstruction of the remaining dual-carriageway stretch from Częstochowa to Piotrków Trybunalski began in 2019, with completion of 3 sections contracted for 2021 and 2 sections: for 2022.

Pyrzowice to border with Czech Republic[edit]

At the southern end of the motorway, construction of a 15.5 km (9.6 mi) section from Gliwice-Sośnica to Bełk, part of the southernmost section from the junction with the A4 motorway at Sośnica district of Gliwice to the Czech border, began on 26 March 2007 and was completed in December 2009. The remainder of the 48 km (30 mi) long section from A4 to the border was opened in different stages from 2009 till 2014. Construction of the 43 km (27 mi) section from Pyrzowice to Gliwice-Sośnica began in 2009 and was fully completed by June 2012. The section from Pyrzowice to Piekary Śląskie has quickly deteriorated into very poor condition due to the materials used for its foundation, and is planned to be repaired.[5]

On 15 December 2009 the Polish government announced the cancelling of the contract for building the Świerklany - Gorzyczki (Czech border) section, citing the unacceptably slow pace of construction by Alpine Bau GmbH.[6] The government solicited new bids for this section in April 2010[6] and the bid was won by the same company that lost the original contract, and construction resumed in October 2010.[7] The original plan was for the road to be ready in the Summer of 2010,[6] and according to the new contract it was to be ready in April 2012, in time for Euro 2012 championships. Alpine Bau GmbH abandoned their second effort to finish this section in May 2013.[8] It was finally opened in May 2014.

Sections of the motorway[edit]

Motorway section Length Constructed Note
Gdańsk - Grudziądz 90 km 2005 – 2008 Opened October 17, 2008; toll motorway.
Grudziądz - Toruń 62 km 2008 – 2011 Opened October 14, 2011; toll motorway.
Toruń - Kowal 64 km 2010 – 2014 Construction interrupted in September 2012, as companies involved have been ejected from the contract.[9][10] (the ejected companies have sued the Polish authorities). New contractors have been selected in April 2013 and the road opened to traffic in December 2013 (45 km) and April 2014 (19 km).[11][12]
Kowal - Stryków/Łódź 75 km 2010 – 2012 Opened November 13, 2012.
Stryków/Łódź - Tuszyn 37.3 km 2012 – 2016 Design-build contract signed in December 2010, completion originally planned in 32 months,[13] then delayed to June 2014,[14] then later plans had it completed in Summer of 2015. [15] However, the contractor abandoned the contract in January 2014.[16] New contractors have been appointed fall 2014.[17] Opened July 2016.
Tuszyn - Piotrków Trybunalski 16 km 1978 – 1989;
2019 – 2021
Reconstruced and widened to 3 lanes per direction in years 2019 – 2021.
Piotrków Trybunalski - Kamieńsk 24 km 2019 – 2022 Reconstruction of an existing dual-carriageway road constructed in the 1970s (with some motorway features) into a motorway. Widening to 3 lanes per direction.

Currently the first opened carriageway carries bidirectional traffic, with two lanes per direction available on the whole length, and no at-grade intersections. Second carriageway is opened on the first short fragment (2.4 km) and is to be completed by October 2022.

Kamieńsk - Częstochowa 41 km 2019 – 2021 3 lanes per direction. Constructed in place of a dual-carriageway road (with at-grade intersections but a motorway-like geometry) opened in the 1970s.
Częstochowa bypass 20.3 km 2015 – 2019 Contract signed in October 2015. In April 2019, Salini Impregilo was ejected from the contract for extensive delays. In August 2019, completion of the section was awarded to Budimex, Strabag and Bud-Pol. The section was opened to traffic on 23 December 2019,[18] while the construction works continued till June 2020.
"Częstochowa Blachownia" - Pyrzowice 36.6 km 2015 – 2019 Opened 2 August 2019. The fragment from "Częstochowa Blachownia" to "Częstochowa Południe" remained closed to traffic until 23 December 2019, when the adjacent section was opened.[19]
Pyrzowice - "Zabrze Północ” 31 km 2009 – 2012 Opened 1 June 2012.[20]
"Zabrze Północ” - "Gliwice Sośnica" 14.1 km 2009 – 2011 Opened in September[21] / December[22] 2011. 3 lanes per direction.
"Gliwice Sośnica" - Bełk 15.5 km 2007 – 2009 Opened in December 2009. 3 lanes per direction.
Bełk - Świerklany 14.1 km 2008 – 2011 Bełk - Rowień opened in December 2010. 3 lanes per direction.
Rowień - Świerklany opened in April 2011 (delayed because of floods).
Świerklany - Gorzyczki (Czech border) 18.4 km 2007 – (2012 / ) 2014 Construction interrupted in late 2009 due to contract dispute,[6] then resumed[7] in October 2010. Was to be opened in July 2012,[23] but a problem with one of the bridges then moved the planned opening until August, 2013.[24] Section Mszana - Gorzyczki was opened in November 2012, but only light vehicles were allowed to use it until completion of the remaining fragment.

In May, 2013 the contractor abandoned the project, citing disagreement with Polish government agencies.[25] A new contractor to finish the bridge was selected in June 2013, and the road fully opened to traffic on May 23, 2014.

Exit list[edit]

CountryVoivodeshipLocationkmmiExitNameDestinationsNotes
PolandPomeranian VoivodeshipRusocin, Pomeranian Voivodeship1.20.75Rusocin DK 6 / E28 / E75Gdańsk, Gdynia, Szczecin / Pruszcz Gdański
DW 226Nowa Karczma, Kościerzyna
Actual terminus of A1 is placed north from this exit – road continues as expressway S6; north end of E 75 overlap
Stanisławie17.210.7Stanisławie DW 224Tczew / KościerzynaToll junction
Swarożyn25.515.8Swarożyn DK 22Malbork / CzłuchówToll junction
Ropuchy36.922.9Pelplin DW 229Pelplin / Starogard GdańskiToll junction
Kopytkowo, Pomeranian Voivodeship59.236.8Kopytkowo DW 231Skórcz / KwidzynToll junction
Kuyavian-Pomeranian VoivodeshipPłochocinek74.246.1Warlubie DW 214Warlubie / KościerzynaToll junction
Nowe Marzy89.655.7Nowe Marzy S5 (under construction)
DK 5 / E261Świecie, Bydgoszcz, Poznań
DK 91 – Świecie, Toruń, Łódź / Tczew, Pruszcz Gdański, Gdańsk
Toll junction
Pieńki Królewskie97.360.5GrudziądzGrudziądzToll junction; access through unsigned national road 95
Lisewo113.170.3Lisewo DW 548Stolno / WąbrzeźnoToll junction
Rogowo, Toruń County135.784.3Turzno DK 15Olsztyn / ToruńToll junction; access through partially signed national road 96
Lubicz Dolny14288Lubicz DK 10Warszawa
DK 80 – Toruń
Toll junction; north-east end of S10 overlap
Brzoza, Toruń County152.494.712Toruń Południe S10 – Toruń, BydgoszczSouth-west end of S10 overlap; exit number as part of "experimental signage"
Odolion13Ciechocinek DW 266Aleksandrów Kujawski / CiechocinekAccess to national road 91 through road 266 in direction of Ciechocinek; exit number as part of "experimental signage"
Brzezie, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship187.9116.814Włocławek Północ DW 252Inowrocław / WłocławekExit number as part of "experimental signage"
Pikutkowo196.5122.115Włocławek Zachód DK 62 – Poznań / WłocławekExit number as part of "experimental signage"
Dąbrówka, Gmina Kowal216.2134.316Kowal DK 91Łódź / WłocławekExit number as part of "experimental signage"
Łódź VoivodeshipSójki244.7152.0Kutno Północ DK 60Płock / Kutno
Sokół253.7157.6Kutno Wschód DK 92 – Kutno / Warszawa
Broników, Łęczyca County272.7169.4Piątek DW 703Łęczyca / Łowicz
Stryków293.8182.620Łódź Północ interchange A2 / E30Warszawa / Poznań, Łódź, Łódź AirportExit number as part of "experimental signage"; part of Łódź Ring Road
Natolin, Łódź Voivodeship305.5189.821Brzeziny DK 72 – Łódź-Bałuty / Rawa MazowieckaBałuty is a former dzielnica of Łódź, abolished in 1993; part of Łódź Ring Road; eit number as part of "experimental signage"
Łódź311.5193.622Łódź Wschód DW 713 – Łódź-Centrum, Łódź Airport / Tomaszów MazowieckiCentrum means centre; exit number as part of "experimental signage"; part of Łódź Ring Road
Wola Rakowa319.7198.723Łódź Górna DW 714 – Łódź-Górna; / Tomaszów MazowieckiGórna is a former dzielnica of Łódź, abolished in 1993; exit number as part of "experimental signage"; part of Łódź Ring Road
Modlica, Łódź Voivodeship323.9201.324Łódź Południe S8 / E67Wrocław
DK 91 – Łódź, Łódź Airport
Exit number as part of "experimental signage"; part of Łódź Ring Road; north-west end of S8 and E 67 overlap; access to national road 91 through S8
Gołygów Drugi334.5207.825Tuszyn DK 12Sieradz / Piotrków Trybunalski
DK 91 – Łódź; / Piotrków Trybunalski
• Incomplete junction: no exit ramp Katowice → Piotrków Trybunalski; no entry ramp Piotrków Trybunalski → Katowice

• Exit numbering: in direction of Katowice exit ramp towards Łódź signed with number 25A, exit ramp towards Piotrków Trybunalski signed with number 25B; in direction of Łódź exit signed with number 25


Exit numbering as part of "experimental signage"
Piotrków Trybunalski347.6216.026Piotrków Trybunalski Zachód S8 / E67 – Warszawa, Tomaszów Mazowiecki
DK 74Kielce
South-east end of S8 and E 67 overlap; north-east end of DK 74 overlap; exit number as part of "experimental signage"
350.5217.827Piotrków Trybunalski Południe DK 74Bełchatów
local road to Piotrków Trybunalski
South-west end of DK 74 overlap; exit number as part of "experimental signage"
Kamieńsk375.5233.328Kamieńsk DW 484 – Bełchatów / KamieńskRoadworks on the junction as part of upgrading Piotrków Trybunalski–Częstochowa section of national road 1 to motorway; exit number as part of "experimental signage"; access to national road 91 through road 484 in direction of Kamieńsk
Radomsko391.2243.1(29)Radomsko DK 42 – Radomsko / KluczborkAccess to national road 42 through local road; unsigned exit number
Silesian VoivodeshipMykanów46228730Mykanówlocal roadExit number as part of "experimental signage"
Rząsawy418.9260.331Częstochowa Północ DK 91 – Częstochowa, KatowiceAccess to national road 91 through local road; exit number as part of "experimental signage"
Lgota, Silesian Voivodeship428.8266.432Częstochowa Jasna Góra DK 43 – Częstochowa / WieluńExit number as part of "experimental signage"
Wyrazów437.1271.633Częstochowa Blachownia DK 46 – Częstochowa / OpoleExit number as part of "experimental signage"
Wygoda, Silesian Voivodeship441.9274.634Częstochowa Południe DW 908 – Częstochowa / Tarnowskie GóryExit number as part of "experimental signage"
Woźniki458.6285.035Woźniki DW 789Kalety / Woźniki, KoziegłowyExit number as part of "experimental signage"
Celiny, Tarnowskie Góry County475.3295.3(36)Pyrzowice S1 / E75Bielsko-Biała, Zwardoń, Cieszyn, Katowice, Katowice AirportSouth end of E 75 overlap; exit number not signed
Piekary ŚląskiePiekary Śląskielocal road to Piekary Śląskie-Centrum
DW 911Świerklaniec / Bytom
Centrum means centre; unknown kilometrage – distance markers show distance of local section
BytomBytomlocal road to Bytom
DK 11Tarnowskie Góry / Poznań
Unknown kilometrage – distance markers show distance of local section
ZabrzeZabrze Północ DK 78 – Tarnowskie Góry / Gliwice
DK 94 – Bytom / Opole
Unknown kilometrage – distance markers show distance of local section; access to national road 94 through road 78
Czekanów, Silesian VoivodeshipZabrze Zachód DK 78 – Tarnowskie Góry / GliwiceUnknown kilometrage – distance markers show distance of local section
GliwiceGliwice Wschód DK 88Strzelce Opolskie, Gliwice / Bytom, ZabrzeUnknown kilometrage – distance markers show distance of local section
Gliwice Sośnica interchange A4 / E40Katowice / Wrocław
DK 44Tychy
DW 902 – Katowice / Gliwice-Centrum
Centrum means centre; unknown kilometrage – distance markers show distance of local sections
KnurówKnurów DW 921Gierałtowice / KnurówUnknown kilometrage – distance markers show distance of local section
DębieńskoDębieńskolocal road – Orzesze / Czerwionka-LeszczynyUnknown kilometrage – distance markers show distance of local section
Bełk, Silesian VoivodeshipRybnik DW 925Ruda Śląska / RybnikUnknown kilometrage – distance markers show distance of local section
ŻoryŻory DW 935Pszczyna, Żory / RybnikUnknown kilometrage – distance markers show distance of local section
ŚwierklanyŚwierklany DW 932 – Żory / Wodzisław ŚląskiUnknown kilometrage – distance markers show distance of local section
MszanaMszana DW 933 – Wodzisław Śląski / Jastrzębie-ZdrójUnknown kilometrage – distance markers show distance of local section
Łaziska, Silesian VoivodeshipGorzyczkilocal road – Gorzyce / GodówUnknown kilometrage – distance markers show distance of local section; access to national road 78 through local road in direction of Gorzyce
Gorzyczki, Silesian VoivodeshipCzech Republic–Poland border D1Border with Czech Republic; road continues as the Czech D1
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Podpisano umowę na największy węzeł autostradowy w Europie :: Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad - Serwis informacyjny". www.gddkia.gov.pl. Retrieved 2020-07-12.
  2. ^ News on GDDKiA official web portal
  3. ^ biznes.onet.pl article Jan. 23, 2009 Archived January 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Ostre hamowanie A1 w Pyrzowicach
  5. ^ "Odwierty na odcinku autostrady A1. Co się stało?".
  6. ^ a b c d biznes.onet.pl article, 15 December 2009 Archived 12 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ a b Announcement on official www.gddkia.gov.pl
  8. ^ constructionpoland.com article on abandonment, 20 May 2013
  9. ^ "Minister: autostrada A1 do Łodzi dopiero za rok". Archived from the original on 2012-09-10. Retrieved 2012-09-07.
  10. ^ Walsh, John (September 14, 2012). "Sisk to sue Poland over road project". Irish Examiner.
  11. ^ Salini dokończy budowę A1. Umowy podpisane
  12. ^ "Gazeta Wyborcza". Archived from the original on 2013-12-21. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
  13. ^ Umowa na budowę odcinka autostrady A1 w kierunku Katowic
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-10-24. Retrieved 2012-10-22.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ "Autostrada A1. Bez szans na oddanie w terminie". Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
  16. ^ "Budowa autostrady A1. Kiedy dokończą obwodnicę Łodzi?". Archived from the original on 2014-01-29. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
  17. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-10-07. Retrieved 2014-10-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ "Autostrada A1 - obwodnica Częstochowy w końcu gotowa!". AutoŚwiat.pl. 2019-12-22. Retrieved 2019-12-22.
  19. ^ "Autostradowy cud przed świętami. GDDKiA w poniedziałek otworzy A1 wokół Częstochowy". Forsal.pl. 2019-12-20. Retrieved 2019-12-20.
  20. ^ "Przybyło nam kolejne 28 km autostrad". Bankier.pl. 2012-06-01. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  21. ^ Autostrada A1 otwarta z Maciejowa do Sośnicy!
  22. ^ GDDKiA official announcement
  23. ^ Autostrada A1. Nie zdążą przed Euro 2012 Archived April 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Naprawa mostu na autostradzie A1 wystraszyła inwestorów. Gmina załamana
  25. ^ Alpine Bau nie dokończy mostu w Mszanie na autostradzie A1

External links[edit]