A1 motorway (Romania)

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A1 motorway shield}}

A1 motorway
Autostrada A1
Route information
Maintained by Compania Națională de Autostrăzi și Drumuri Naționale din România (CNADNR)
Length: 363 km[nb 1] (226 mi)
577 km (359 mi) planned
72 km (45 mi) under construction
Major junctions
From: Bucharest
To: Nădlac
M43 (Hu) Otszogletu kek tabla.svg at the border with  Hungary
Location
Counties: Ilfov, Giurgiu, Dâmbovița, Argeș, Vâlcea, Sibiu, Alba, Hunedoara, Timiș, Arad
Major cities: Bucharest, Pitești, Sibiu, Sebeș, Orăștie, Deva, Timișoara, Arad
Highway system
Motorways in Romania
A1 motorway BucharestPitești segment – DC overpass at km 55 (westbound view)
A1 motorway Pitești bypass segment – Pitești East node at km 115 (westbound view)
A1 motorway Sibiu bypass section – A1/DN14 node at km 246 (westbound view)
A1 motorway SibiuSăliște segment – Săcel Tunnel at km 264 (westbound view)
A1 motorway SebeșOrăștie segment – Sebeș North node at km 309 (westbound view)
A1 motorway TimișoaraArad segment at km 506 (eastbound view)
A1 motorway Arad bypass segment – Arad center/airport node at km 542 (westbound view)

The A1 motorway (Romanian: Autostrada A1) is a partially built motorway in Romania, planned to connect Bucharest with the Banat and Crișana regions in the western part of the country. When completed it will be 577 kilometers long and it will span the country on the approximative south-east to north west direction. The motorway starts in the western part of Bucharest and connects the following major cities: Pitești, Sibiu, Deva, Timișoara, Arad, reaching the Hungarian M43 motorway near Nădlac.[1] As the motorway is built along the Trans-European Transport Networks Rhine-Danube Corridor[2] the construction receives 85% funding from the European Union.

As of December 2015, the combined length of the opened sections totals 363 kilometers. Other 72 kilometers are under construction and 22 kilometers from the opened sections are currently closed down for repairs. The parts of the motorway currently in service include the BucharestPitești section (109.5 km), the SibiuDeva section (132.0 km) minus the Săliște – Cunța segment (22.1 km), and the Traian VuiaNădlac section (142.3 km). Construction works are carried out between Deva and Lugoj,[3] specifically on three segments (dubbed Lugoj - Deva lots 2, 3 and 4) having a total length of 71.8 kilometers.

Sections[edit]

Bucharest – Pitești[edit]

This section of the motorway is fully operational and is composed of two segments: BucharestPitești and Pitești bypass.

The BucharestPitești segment (95.9 km) is the first motorway class road built in Romania and remained the only one for more than 15 years, until the completion of the FeteștiCernavodă segment on the A2 motorway in 1987. It was constructed between 1967 and 1972 during the communist regime.[4] Various parts of the segment underwent several major rehabilitations: between 1997 and 2000 by the FAT joint venture composed of Italian companies Federici, Astaldi and Todini, between 2002 and 2004 by the Romanian companies Albix Timişoara and Cosar Bucureşti and between 2006 and 2010 by Romanian companies PA&CO Internaţional and Euroconstruct Trading '98.[5][6] As of November 2015 this is the only segment of the motorway where in rest areas operate motels and restaurants.

The Pitești bypass segment (13.6 km) was awarded in April 2004 to a joint venture composed of Italian companies Astaldi and Italstrade. The segment was opened to traffic during November 2007, having a major role in diverting traffic from the Pitești city centre.[7] An underpass in the Bascov area (north of Pitești) was also built to resolve traffic congestion at the nearby junction of the DN7 and DN7C roads which was generating in turn problems at the Pitești motorway end. The underpass was fully completed during October 2008.[8][9]

Pitești – Sibiu[edit]

This section of the motorway is planned and is currently split into six segments: PiteștiCurtea de Argeș (lot 5), Curtea de Argeș – Văleni (lot 4), Văleni – Racovița (lot 3), RacovițaBoița (lot 2), BoițaSibiu (lot 1) and DN73C Ţigveni - Râmnicu Vâlcea (lot 6).[10]

This is the most difficult section of the whole motorway from construction works perspective, considering that it has to cross the Carpathian mountains, partly along the Olt river valley. The feasibility study was initially completed during late 2008 with plans to start construction works next year,[9] however the Romanian Government has continuously delayed the start of the activity until 2012, considering several options on how the motorway construction was to be funded,[11][12][13] while advancing several deadlines for the start/completion of works on the section.[12][14][15] As during early 2012 the section was accepted to be funded under European Union's Cohesion Fund,[16] the 2008 feasibility study had to be updated with several key elements required by the European Union that were previously not considered. The tender for the update was launched in April 2012 aiming to have the section finalized by 2020, as total construction costs for its 116.6 kilometers were estimated at 3.25 billion euro.[17][18] Eight months later the Romanian Government reconsidered and cancelled the tender.[19] 2013 brought much controversy, as the Romanian Government declared that the priority motorway route for crossing the Carpathian mountains will be the A3 motorway (between Comarnic and Brașov) instead of the A1 motorway (between Pitești and Sibiu) and further supported the idea of modifying the route of the Pan-European Corridor IV to pass through Brașov.[20][21] According to the same plans the A3 motorway was to be connected to the A1 motorway via another motorway between Sibiu and Făgăraș, thus creating a nearly complete motorway corridor between Bucharest and Sibiu via Brașov, while the section between Pitești and Sibiu was no longer an immediate priority.[22] This was generally regarded as a strategy to avoid a competing alternative route to the section of the A3 motorway between Comarnic and Brașov, which was planned to be built via a concession contract.[23] During the 2013 TEN-T reunion the European Union rejected the plan and officially criticized the attempt to switch priorities from constructing Pitești - Sibiu motorway, determining the Romanian authorities to reconsider the change.[24][25] After further trying unsuccessfully in December 2013 to persuade the European Union to change the route of the motorway to pass through Râmnicu Vâlcea,[26] the Romanian Government has retendered in June 2014 the update of the 2008 feasibility study for the section[27] and has signed the contract for this activity with a joint venture composed of Italian company Spea Ingegneria Europea and Romanian company Tecnic Consulting Engineering in June 2015, after an appeal from one of the bid participants.[28][29] As the Ministry of Transport has started work on the Romanian General Master Plan for Transport required to access 2014-2020 European funds, it generated further controversy by appearing to continue to try avoiding the construction of the section as a motorway, as it downgraded it to express road in an October 2014 version of the Master Plan[30] and later considered a phased express road/motorway approach in a subsequent version of the Master Plan.[31] This has prompted reactions from the European Union, the public society and the employees of the Dacia plant in Pitești,[32] and while the Romanian prime minister announced during October 2014 that the section will be included as a motorway in the final version of the Master Plan[33] the change was reflected in the document only in July 2015.

In an interview given by the general manager of CNADNR during August 2015 it was announced that possible routes for lots 1 and 5 were already discussed with the joint venture updating the feasibility study and based on that the company will hold public consultations during October 2015, where all interested parties will be invited to comment on the proposed solutions and also to contribute with knowledge regarding the potential problems CNADNR might face on the selected routes. Dependent on the issues that might be identified and their environmental impact, the bid for the construction works on these two lots might be launched as early as January 2016.[34] CNADNR has published on 7 November 2015 five alternative routes for the Pitești- Sibiu section;[35] as previously announced all interested parties are welcome to provide their opinion by 11 December 2015 on the company's Facebook page. Following these consultations, it is expected that on 15 December 2015 the company preparing the feasibility study will hand over to CNADNR the final study for lots 1 and 5.[36]

According to the approved version of the Master Plan, the section is expected to be completed until 2020 using a mix between European funds, Romanian budget and low interest loans.[37]

Sibiu bypass[edit]

This section of the motorway is fully operational.

The contract for the whole section (17.5 km) forming a partial beltway around Sibiu was initially signed during 2003 with Italian company Todini, with the actual construction work starting during 2004 and scheduled to finish during 2007. This plan suffered multiple delays and eventually in September 2006 CNADNR decided to terminate the contract.[38] Following this, the section was split into two segments. The first segment (km 0-14) was awarded in May 2008 to a joint venture composed of Geiger, Max Bögl and Comtram.[39][40] The second segment (km 14-17) was awarded in September 2009 to the Romanian company Vectra Service and included also the upgrade of 3.3 kilometers of road connecting the motorway with DN1 that was designated DN1T.[41] Works started on the first segment during July 2008 and on the second during February 2010 and were scheduled to be fully completed during 2011, but as a result of the authorities insisting on the bypass being finished sooner the section was opened for traffic in December 2010.[42][43][44]

Sibiu – Orăștie[edit]

This section of the motorway is partially operational and partially closed down for repairs and is split into four segments: SibiuSăliște (lot 4), Săliște – Cunța (lot 3), Cunța – Sebeș (lot 2) and SebeșOrăștie (lot 1).[45]

The bid for the design & build contracts for all four segments that are part of this section was launched by CNADNR during December 2010.[46] The CunțaSăliște segment (22.1 km), which includes the 1,100-metre (3,600 ft) long Aciliu viaduct was awarded to Italian company Impregilo in May 2011,[47] while the OrăștieSebeș segment (24.1 km) was awarded to Austrian company Strabag, the Sebeș – Cunța segment (19.7 km) was awarded to a joint venture composed of Romanian companies Straco and Studio Corona and the Săliște – Sibiu segment (16.1 km) was awarded to Italian company Astaldi, all in June 2011.[48] Construction works on all four segments have started in October 2011 and were planned to finish in April 2013.[49] After several delays, lots 1, 2 and 4 were opened in December 2013,[50][51] while lot 3 was eventually opened at the end of November 2014.[52][53] As of November 2015 construction works are still ongoing on lot 3 with physical progress at 96%,[3] as there are multiple issues on this lot generated by a combination of ignoring the terrain instability identified by the feasibility study, the low quality of the construction works and the Romanian Government pressuring for electoral reasons for the segment to open before a number of critical road elements were completed.[54][55][56][57] Another aspect that has surfaced and is generating controversy is related to the fact that while there are multiple disputes awaiting resolution between CNADNR and Impregilo and during the construction of the segment there were around 300 non-conformity reports issued, CNADNR has paid to Impregilo the works executed.[58] Following this, during August 2015 the general manager of CNADNR has given a number of interviews during various TV shows defending the company and putting all the blame for the issues on lot 3 on the poor quality of execution of Impregilo.[59][34]

Regardless of the statements from both parties, the problems on lot 3 are serious enough so that they required CNADNR to close down the traffic on the affected lanes during August 2015, while having both the company's experts and Impregilo's ones looking for the technical solutions to address the issues. As those solutions were discussed and agreed, lot 3 was closed down to traffic, initially for about one month and a half, just nine months after it was inaugurated.[60] According to information surfacing from various sources about one kilometer from the motorway will need to be completely rebuilt from the ground while other issues that appeared will be addressed as well.[61] During October and November 2015 the conflict between CNADNR and Impregilo seems to have taken a turn for worse as after the promised one month and a half term passed no substantial progress has been made on fixing the identified problems, the construction works on the lot were completely stopped and CNADNR announced it made a penal complaint against Impregilo.[62][63] Six months after the closing, come the spring of 2016, the CNADNR decided to fix the problems itself with its own workforce and rented equipment; part of the financing of these repairs was to come from the 90 million lei guarantee posted for the project by Impregilo, which was to be blacklisted for two years in which it would not be allowed to obtain contracts from the Romanian government.[64]

Orăștie – Deva[edit]

This section of the motorway is fully operational and is composed of two segments: OrăștieSimeria and SimeriaDeva.

Bids for the construction works for this section were launched by CNADNR during 2006[65] and subsequently during September 2009,[66] but they were both cancelled due to problems related to the selection criteria.[65] The bid was launched again during March 2010[67] and the whole section (32.8 km) was finally awarded to the Austrian company Strabag in November 2010, after appeals from the competing companies.[68][65] Construction works have started in April 2011 and were planned to finish in April 2013.[49] The SimeriaDeva segment (15.4 km) was opened during December 2012,[69][70] while the OrăștieSimeria segment (17.4 km) was opened during May 2013.[71][72]

Deva – Lugoj[edit]

This section of the motorway is partially operational and partially under construction and is split into four segments: ȘoimușIlia (lot 4), IliaCoşeviţa (lot 3), CoşeviţaDumbrava (lot 2) and DumbravaȘanovița (lot 1).[73]

The bid for the design & build contract for lot 1 was launched by CNADNR during December 2010.[74] The contract included also the first segment of the A6 motorway (11.4 km) that is branching off from the A1 motorway near the village of Balinț and connecting the city of Lugoj.[75] The ȘanovițaDumbrava segment (27.4 km) was awarded to a joint venture composed of Italian companies Tirrena Scavi, Societa Italiana per Condotte D’Acqua and Cossi Construzioni in May 2011, after an appeal from one of the bid participants.[76] Construction works on lot 1 have started in October 2011 and were planned to finish in April 2013.[49] After several delays, the segment was eventually opened during December 2013, but only between the junction with the A6 motorway and Dumbrava.[77] As of July 2015 the remaining part of lot 1 is still not usable, as the next segment containing an exit (TimișoaraLugoj lot 2) is not opened for traffic. The idea of building a temporary exit at the western end of the segment near Șanovița was discussed but never implemented.[78] Another option discussed, considering that TimișoaraLugoj lot 2 was awarded to the same joint venture of companies was a partial opening from Șanovița to Topolovățu Mare interchange with DJ572 (6.02 km),[79] but this wasn't pursued either.

The bid for the design & build contracts for the remaining three segments that are part of this section was launched by CNADNR during April 2012.[80] After more than one year after the bid was launched, the IliaȘoimuș segment (22.1 km) was awarded to a joint venture composed of Romanian companies Spedition UMB and Tehnostrade in July 2013,[81][82] while the DumbravaCoşeviţa segment (28.6 km) was awarded to a joint venture composed of Italian companies Salini Impregilo and Secol[83] and the CoşeviţaIlia segment (21.1 km) was awarded to the Romanian company Teloxim Con,[84] both in October 2013.[85] Constructions works for lots 2, 3 and 4 are planned to finish in May 2016, however the lots are faced with multiple issues: a revision of the environmental study imposed a number of changes to structures among which the requirement for a number of ecoducts for protecting the large carnivore fauna in the area,[86] requiring most probably an additional bid to cover for the changes; on lot 4 an illegal cemetery was discovered on the path of the motorway and was relocated, the motorway route was passing by too close to a cave near Brănișca which was supposedly housing a significant bat population protected by law and there were discussions between Spedition UMB and CNADNR regarding a potential change of the technical solution in the area of the Mintia ash and clay deposit.[87] In an interview given by the general manager of CNADNR during August 2015 it was announced that the problems on lot 4 were now cleared and Spedition UMB was praised for their approach and pace of work on the segment, the appreciation being that if the issues hadn't surfaced most probably the works would have been completed by end of 2015.[34]

As of July 2016 the physical progress is at 42,64% on lot 2, 51,5% on lot 3 and 47,2% on lot 4,[3] versus the 39%, 43,08% and 44,7% that were reported in May 2016; progress on all lots was limited due to the problems each of them face.

Lugoj – Timișoara[edit]

This section of the motorway is fully operational and is composed of two segments: GiarmataIzvin (lot 1) and IzvinȘanovița (lot 2).

The Timișoara bypass (9.5 km, also referred to as the Timișoara – Lugoj lot 1) was awarded in April 2011 to the Romanian company Spedition UMB.[88] It was opened to traffic in October 2012.[89]

The stretch between Timișoara and Lugoj (25.6 km, referred to as the Timișoara – Lugoj lot 2) has been re-auctioned in August 2012, after appeals from participants at the previous auction.[90] It has been awarded to the joint venture between the Italian companies Tirrena Scavi and Societa Italiana Per Condotte D'Acqua in December 2013.[91] Construction works have been completed seven months earlier than the contractual deadline and the segment became operational in December 2015.[92]

Timișoara – Arad[edit]

This section of the motorway is fully operational and is composed of two segments: TimișoaraArad and Arad bypass.

Works for the Arad bypass (12.25 km) were awarded in March 2009 to the joint venture between the Spanish company FCC Construccion and the Austrian company Porr.[93] The segment was opened in on a single carriageway December 2011, and on both carriageways in June 2012.[94]

The 32.25 km section of motorway between Arad and Timișoara was awarded in December 2008 to the joint venture between the Spanish company FCC Construccion and the Italian company Astaldi.[93] It was opened along with the Arad bypass in December 2011.[94]

Arad – Nădlac[edit]

The construction of the 38.8 km section between Nădlac and Arad was split into two parts. The first part, between Nădlac and Pecica (22.2 km),[95] was awarded in April 2011 to a consortium led by the Romanian company Romstrade, while the second section, between Pecica and Arad (16.6 km),[95] was to be constructed by the Austrian company Alpine. Works started in October 2011 and were due to be finalized in April 2013.[96]

However, the contract for the first part of the section was terminated by the Romanian government in November 2012, due to low construction progress recorded by the Romstrade company (approximately 15–20%) and potential fraud by the company owner.[97][98] Also, the contract for the second part (construction progress approximately 85%)[99] was terminated in July 2013, because the Austrian company filed for bankruptcy.[100] The first segment was re-auctioned in April 2013,[101] and awarded in December 2013 to the joint venture of Astaldi and Max Bögl.[102] Works should be completed until the end of 2014.[102][103] A tender for the remaining works on the second segment was announced in June 2014,[104] and the section was finally awarded to the same joint venture of Astaldi and Max Bögl.

The section between Nădlac and Pecica and 6.30 km of the section between Pecica and Arad ware opened ahead of schedule on December 19, 2014.[105] The remainder of the Pecica – Arad segment (10.3 km) was opened on 11 July 2015.

At the western end, the motorway connects with Hungary's M43 motorway, which further connects with the M5 motorway, that runs from the border with Serbia to the capital city of Budapest.[106] A connecting road between the motorway (near the border crossing) and the town of Nădlac (approximately 7 km southbound), designated as DN7G, has also been built.[107]

Openings timeline[edit]

  • BucharestPitești (95.9 km) was opened in 1972.[4]
  • Pitești bypass (13.6 km) was opened on 19 November 2007.[7]
  • Sibiu bypass (17.5 km) was opened on 1 December 2010.[44]
  • AradTimișoara (44.5 km) was opened on 17 December 2011. Arad bypass (12.25 km) was initially opened on a single carriageway and completed on 6 June 2012.[94]
  • TimișoaraLugoj lot 1 (9.5 km) was opened on 23 October 2012.[89]
  • DevaSimeria segment (15.4 km) was opened on 21 December 2012.[70]
  • SimeriaOrăștie segment (17.4 km) was opened on 30 May 2013.[72]
  • OrăștieSibiu lots 1, 2 and 4 (59.9 km) were opened on 19 December 2013.[51]
  • LugojDeva lot 1 (17.4 km) was opened on 23 December 2013, between the interchange with the A6 motorway (near Balinț) and the exit at Dumbrava.[77]
  • OrăștieSibiu lot 3 (22.1 km) was opened on 14 November 2014, [53] but closed down completely for repairs on 7 September 2015. [60]
  • NădlacArad lot 1 and 6.30 km of lot 2 (28.5 km) were opened on 19 December 2014.[105]
  • NădlacArad remainder of lot 2 (10.3 km), junction with Hungarian M43 motorway and border control facility were opened on 11 July 2015.[108]
  • TimișoaraLugoj lot 2 (25.6 km) along with LugojDeva remainder of lot 1 (10 km) were opened on 23 December 2015.[92]
  • Next scheduled openings: LugojDeva lot 2 (15.1 km) in September 2016.

Exit list[edit]

Exits and buildings (Northbound)
Bucharest – Pitești (110 km)
Motorway km 10 Iuliu Maniu Boulevard, Bucharest
Exit km 11 Bucharest Ring Road CB opened 1972
Exit km 13 Ciorogârla DJ601
Interchange km 18 Chitila, Otopeni / Domnești, 1 Decembrie A0-RO.svg planned
Exit km 22 Bolintin Deal
Service area km 30 Lukoil, Motel, Restaurant
Exit km 30 Bolintin Vale DJ401A opened 1972
Bridge km 35 Argeș River
Service area km 36 Petrom, Restaurant, Parking
Service area km 42 Lukoil northbound only
Exit km 44 Vânătorii Mici DC162 opened 1972
Service area km 49 OMV / Agip
Exit km 49 Corbii Mari DJ711A
Service area km 56 Restaurant northbound only
Service area km 59 Gazprom opened 2013
Exit km 63 Olteni DC75
Exit km 70 Găești DN61 opened 1972
Exit km 73 Găești DN61 northbound entrance, southbound exit
Service area km 80 MOL, Motel, Restaurant, Parking
Exit km 86 Teiu DJ702A opened 1972
Service area km 94 Petrom, Motel, Restaurant
Exit km 94 Căteasca DJ703B opened 1972
Exit km 97 Cireșu DC105
Exit km 102 Oarja DJ503 opened 1972
Interchange km 104 Slatina, Craiova A12-RO.svg planned
Exit km 106 Pitești South / Slatina, Craiova DN65BDN65 opened 1972, rebuilt 2007 as exit
Service area km 109 Parking
Bridge km 110 Argeș River
Exit km 115 Pitești East / Mioveni, Câmpulung, Bucharest DN7DN73 opened 2007
Bridge km 118 Argeș River
Exit km 120 Pitești North / Curtea de Argeș, Râmnicu Vâlcea DN7DN7C opened 2007
Sibiu – Deva (132 km)
Motorway km 238 Sibiu South / Tălmaciu DN1DN7 opened 2010
Exit km 243 Sibiu East / Agnita DJ106 opened 2010
Exit km 244 Sibiu City Centre opened 2010
Exit km 247 Sibiu North / Mediaș DN14 opened 2010
Exit km 254 Sibiu West, Sibiu Airport, Ocna Sibiului DN1T opened 2010, rebuilt 2013 as exit
Service area km 260 Parking opened 2014
Exit km 264 Săcel Tunnel opened 2013
Exit km 269 Săliște Traffic Sign GR - KOK 2009 - K-20.svg DN1DN7 opened December 2013; segment between Săliște and Cunța closed down as of 7 September 2015
Bridge km 271 Aciliu Viaduct Traffic Sign GR - KOK 2009 - K-20.svg opened November 2014; segment between Săliște and Cunța closed down as of 7 September 2015
Exit km 281 Apoldu de Jos Traffic Sign GR - KOK 2009 - K-20.svg DJ143B opened November 2014; segment between Săliște and Cunța closed down as of 7 September 2015
Exit km 293 Cunța Traffic Sign GR - KOK 2009 - K-20.svg DN1DN7 opened December 2013; segment between Săliște and Cunța closed down as of 7 September 2015
Service area km 296 Parking opened 2014
Exit km 304 Sebeș East DN1DN7 southbound only, opened December 2013
Interchange km 308 Turda, Cluj-Napoca A10-RO.svg under construction
Exit km 309 Sebeș North / Alba Iulia DN1 opened December 2013
Exit km 312 Sebeș West DN7 opened December 2013
Service area km 316 Parking opened 2014
Exit km 335 Orăștie DN7 opened 2013
Service area km 340 Parking opened 2013
Exit km 353 Simeria, Călan DN7DN66 opened 2012
Bridge km 355 Mureș River opened 2012
Exit km 367 Deva / Șoimuș DN7DN76 opened 2012
Traian Vuia – Nădlac (142 km)
Motorway km 441 Traian Vuia DN68A opened December 2013
Service area km 447 Parking opened 2014
Interchange km 458 Lugoj A6-RO.svg opened December 2013
Bridge km 465 Timiș - Bega Channel opened December 2015
Bridge km 467 Bega River opened December 2015
Service area km 471 Parking opened December 2015
Exit km 474 Lipova, Buziaș DJ572 opened December 2015
Service area km 481 Parking under construction
Exit km 494 Timișoara East, Timișoara Airport / Lugoj DN6 opened 2012
Service area km 500 Parking opened 2012
Exit km 503 Timișoara North / Lipova DJ691 opened 2011
Exit km 516 Orțișoara / Seceani DJ693 opened 2013
Service area km 530 Parking opened 2014
Exit km 536 Arad South DN69 opened 2011
Exit km 538 Arad / Zădăreni, Sânnicolau Mare DJ682 opened 2012
Bridge km 540 Mureș River opened 2011
Exit km 542 Arad City Centre, Arad Airport DJ682F opened 2012
Interchange km 545 Arad North, Oradea A11-RO.svg opened 2011, reconfigured in July 2015 as interchange
Exit km 556 Pecica DN7 opened December 2014
Service area km 559 Parking opened 2015
Exit km 582 Nădlac DN7G opened December 2014, last exit in Romania
Service area km 584 Parking opened July 2015
Border control km 584 Nădlac - Csanádpalota border crossing M43 (Hu) Otszogletu kek tabla.svg opened July 2015

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sibiu – Orăștie lot 3 (22.1 km), opened in November 2014, was closed in September 2015 and is not included in this figure.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Nadlac II – Csanadpalota border checkpoint inaugurated". The Romania Journal. 11 July 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  2. ^ "Trans-European Transport Corridors - Rhine-Danube Corridor" (PDF). European Commission. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c "Stadiul lucrarilor pe fiecare autostrada din Romania. Ce autostrada are sanse sa fie deschisa pana la finalul anului" (in Romanian). 11 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  4. ^ a b "Iptana, 50 de ani de proiectare pentru infrastructura transporturilor" (PDF) (in Romanian). Iptana.ro. 10 September 2003. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  5. ^ "Autostrada meșterului Manole" (in Romanian). Evenimentul Zilei. 9 June 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  6. ^ "Studiu de caz: Cea mai veche autostradă din România" (in Romanian). Ziarul Financiar. 31 October 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  7. ^ a b "S-a inaugurat centura de ocolire a Piteștiului" (in Romanian). Realitatea.net. 19 November 2007. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  8. ^ "Deschiderea traficului prin Pasajul Bascov" (PDF) (in Romanian). CNADNR. 22 October 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  9. ^ a b "A fost inaugurat pasajul subteran de la Bascov. Orban a taiat panglica" (in Romanian). Pro TV. 22 October 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  10. ^ "Revision/Update of the Feasibility Study for Pitești – Sibiu motorway" (PDF) (in Romanian). CNADNR. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  11. ^ "Transporturile le propun chinezilor să facă autostradă" (in Romanian). Ziarul Financiar. 16 August 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  12. ^ a b "Anca Boagiu: Autostrada Sibiu - Piteşti va fi finalizată până în 2016" (in Romanian). Realitatea.net. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  13. ^ "Autostrada Piteşti-Sibiu: licitaţie la toamnă, fonduri de la Uniunea Europeană" (in Romanian). Automarket. 19 January 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  14. ^ "Constructorul autostrăzii Comarnic-Brașov-Făgăraș va fi selectat anul viitor" (in Romanian). Buna Ziua Brasov. 17 December 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  15. ^ "Transporturile vor să construiască în trei ani autostrada Sibiu - Piteşti" (in Romanian). Ziarul Financiar. 7 March 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  16. ^ "Autostrada Pitești-Sibiu se licitează în toamnă. UE ne dă bani s-o facem" (in Romanian). RTV.net. 19 January 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
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