A431 cells

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A431 cells are a model human cell line (epidermoid carcinoma) used in biomedical research.[1] More specifically, they are used in studies of the cell cycle and cancer-associated cell signalling pathways since they express abnormally high levels of the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). As such they are often used as a positive control for EGFR expression. They contain no functional p53, a potent tumor suppressor gene, and so are highly sensitive to mitogenic stimuli. A431 cells were established from an epidermoid carcinoma in the skin/epidermis of an 85- year-old female patient.

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of A431 cells induces rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular signalling proteins which control cellular processes such as growth, proliferation and apoptosis. At low (picomolar) concentrations EGF promotes cell growth of A431 cells whereas at higher (nanomolar) concentrations it inhibits growth by causing the cells to terminally differentiate. Treatment of A431 cells with bradykinin reduces basal and EGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation.[2] Treatment with sertoli cell secreted growth factor (SCSGF) strongly induces cell proliferation.[3][4] Stimulation of A431 cells with phorbol esters induces expression of interleukin 1-related protein IL1H.


  1. ^ "A431 - Cytokines and Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia". 
  2. ^ Graness A, Hanke S, Boehmer FD, et al. (April 2000). "Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-mediated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transinactivation and EGF receptor-independent stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by bradykinin in A431 cells". Biochem. J. 347 (Pt 2): 441–47. PMC 1220976Freely accessible. PMID 10749673. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3470441. 
  3. ^ Buch JP, Lamb DJ, Lipshultz LI, Smith RG (April 1988). "Partial characterization of a unique growth factor secreted by human Sertoli cells". Fertil. Steril. 49 (4): 658–65. PMID 3350161. 
  4. ^ Lamb DJ, Spotts GS, Shubhada S, Baker KR (August 1991). "Partial characterization of a unique mitogenic activity secreted by rat Sertoli cells". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 79 (1-3): 1–12. PMID 1936536. doi:10.1016/0303-7207(91)90089-B. 

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