AAA (video game industry)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from AAA Gaming industry)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

AAA (pronounced and sometimes written Triple-A) is an informal classification used for video games produced and distributed by a mid-sized or major publisher, typically having higher development and marketing budgets. AAA is analogous to the film industry term "blockbuster".[1]

In the mid 2010s, the term "AAA+" began to be used to describe AAA type games that generated additional revenue over time in a similar fashion to MMOs by using software as a service (SaaS) methods, such as season passes or expansion packs. The similar construction "III" (Triple-I) has also been used to describe indie game companies' works of very high quality.

History[edit]

The term "AAA" began to be used in the late 1990s, when some development companies started using the expression at gaming conventions in the US.[2]

By the seventh generation of video game consoles (late 2000s) AAA game development on the Xbox 360 or PlayStation 3 game consoles typically cost in the low tens of millions of dollars ($15m to $20m) for a new game, with some sequels having even higher total budgets – for example Halo 3 is estimated to have had a development cost of $30m, and a marketing budget of $40m.[3] According to a whitepaper published for EA games (Dice Europe) the seventh generation saw a contraction in the number of video game developing houses creating AAA level titles, reducing from an estimated 125 to around 25, but with a roughly corresponding fourfold increase in staffing required for game development.[4]

During the seventh generation, AAA (or "blockbuster") games had marketing at a similar level to high-profile films, with television, billboard and newspaper advertising; a corresponding increasing reliance on sequels, reboots, and similarly franchised IP was also seen, in order to minimize risk. Costs at the end of the generation had risen as high as the hundreds of millions of dollars – the estimated cost of Grand Theft Auto V was approximately $265m. The same conditions also drove the growth of the indie game scene at the other end of the development spectrum, where lower costs enabled innovation and risk-taking.[5]

At around the period of transition from seventh to eighth generation of consoles the cost of AAA development was considered by some to be a threat to the stability of the industry.[6][7] The failure of a single game to meet production costs could lead to the failure of a studio – Radical Entertainment was closed by parent Activision despite selling an estimated 1 million units on console in a short period after release.[6][8] Ubisoft game director Alex Hutchinson described the AAA franchise model as potentially harmful, stating he thought it led to either focus group tested products aimed at maximizing profit, and or a push towards ever higher graphics fidelity and impact at a cost of depth or gameplay.[9]

The eighth generation of video game consoles (PlayStation 4, Xbox One, Wii U) saw further increases in costs and staffing – at Ubisoft, AAA game development involved 400 to 600 persons for open world games, split across multiple locations and countries.[10]

AAA game development has been identified as one environment where crunch time and other working pressures that negatively affect the employees are particularly evident.[11][12]

Related terms[edit]

The console video game industry lacks the equivalent of a B movie, made-for-TV, or direct-to-video scene. However, games with very low production costs that are not critically well-received are sometimes referred to as "bargain bin" or "shovelware"[failed verification] titles.[7]

AAA+[edit]

In general use, the term "AAA+" (Triple-A-Plus) may refer to a subset of AAA games that are the highest selling or have the highest production values. However, there are at least two more specific meanings.

The first describes AAA games with additional methods of revenue generation, generally through purchases in addition to the cost of the base game.[13] The desire for profitability has caused publishers to look at alternative revenue models, where players continued to contribute revenue after the initial purchase, either by premium models, DLC, online passes, and other forms of subscription.[7] In the mid 2010s large publishers began a focus on games engineered to have a long tail in terms of revenue from individual consumers, similar to the way MMO games generate income – these included those with expansion or season pass content such as with Destiny, Battlefield, and the Call of Duty series; and those which generated revenue from selling in-game items, sometimes purely cosmetic, such as Overwatch or League of Legends.[13] Titles of this type are sometimes referred to as "AAA+". In 2016, Gameindustry.biz described AAA+ games as products that "combine AAA production values and aesthetics with Software as a Service (SaaS) principles to keep players engaged for months or even years".[14]

AAAA[edit]

Microsoft coined the use of "AAAA" (or quad-A) games in 2012, and subsequently used to describe some of the games being developed through its Xbox Game Studios.[15] While no exact definition exists, the term has been implied to represent games of AAA quality or better, developed as platform exclusives by the first-party developers for Microsoft or Sony.[16]

III[edit]

"III" (Triple-I) has been used to refer to independently funded ("indie") games that meet an analogous quality level in their field; i.e., indie games that have relatively high budget, scope, and ambition but still developed by smaller teams compared to triple-A studios. Often these games are from studios formed by former staff at AAA studios, having the experience to produce high-quality products. Examples of such games classified as triple-I include Hellblade: Senua's Sacrifice and The Witness.[17][18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Steinberg, Scott (2007). The definitive Guide: Videogame Marketing and PR (1st ed.). iUniverse. ISBN 978-0-59543-371-1.
  2. ^ Demaria, Rusel; Wilson, John (2002). High Score!: The Illustrated History of Electronic Games (1st ed.). McGraw-Hill Osborne Media. ISBN 0-07-222428-2.
  3. ^ Zackariasson, Peter; Wilson, Timothy L., eds. (2012). The Video Game Industry: Formation, Present State, and Future. Routledge. p. 4.
  4. ^ Robinson, Andy (4 July 2013), "Triple-A console studios 'declined by 80% this gen', says EA exec", ComputerAndVideoGames.com, archived from the original on 8 July 2013
  5. ^ "Why video games are so expensive to develop", The Economist, 24 September 2014
  6. ^ a b Usher, William (2012), "AAA Games Could Lead to Mainstream Crash", CinemaBlend.com
  7. ^ a b c "The State of Games: State of AAA", Polygon.com, 2 July 2012
  8. ^ Usher, William (2012), "Radical Entertainment Goes Bust; Prototype Franchise Is No More", CinemaBlend.com
  9. ^ Makuch, Eddie (8 March 2012), "Pursuit of AAA is a 'cancerous growth' – AC3 Dev", GameSpot, archived from the original on 9 March 2012
  10. ^ Weber, Rachel (28 February 2013), "On Reflections: First interview with the Ubisoft studio's new MD", GamesIndustry.biz
  11. ^ Kerr, Chris (7 October 2016), "AAA game dev lifestyle is 'unwinnable,' says veteran game designer Amy Hennig", Gamasutra
  12. ^ Strickland, Derek (22 January 2016), "Ex-Ubisoft dev reveals the grim reality of AAA games development", TweakTown.com
  13. ^ a b Fahey, Rob (25 November 2016), "Weak AAA launches are a precursor to industry transition", GamesIndustry.biz
  14. ^ Fahey, Rob (9 December 2016), "Final Fantasy XV and The Last Guardian: The Last of their Kind", GamesIndustry.biz
  15. ^ Purchase, Robert (March 19, 2012). "Microsoft hiring for "a major Xbox AAAA console title"". Eurogamer. Retrieved November 15, 2019.
  16. ^ Skrebels, Joe (November 20, 2018). "Sunset Overdrive Director Joins Microsoft's New 'AAAA' Studio". IGN. Retrieved November 15, 2019.
  17. ^ Lemme, Bengt (23 January 2016), "The Triple-I Revolution", GameReactor.eu
  18. ^ Handrahan, Matthew (May 2, 2018). "An era of "triple-I" development is almost here". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved November 15, 2019.