|Classification and external resources|
AA amyloidosis is a form of amyloidosis, a disease characterized by the abnormal deposition of fibers of insoluble protein in the extracellular space of various tissues and organs. In AA amyloidosis, the deposited protein is serum amyloid A protein (SAA), an acute-phase protein which is normally soluble and whose plasma concentration is highest during inflammation.
AA amyloidosis is a complication of a number of inflammatory diseases and infections, although only a small portion of patients with these conditions will go on to develop AA amyloidosis. A natural history study of AA amyloidosis patients published in the New England Journal of Medicine reported a number of conditions associated with AA amyloidosis. The most common presentation of AA amyloidosis is renal in nature, including proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome and progressive development of renal insufficiency leading to End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and need for renal replacement therapy (e.g. dialysis or renal transplantation).
- Autoimmune diseases
- Chronic infections
- Autoinflammatory diseases
- Chronic foreign body reaction
In a healthy individual, the median plasma concentration of SAA is 3 mg per liter. This can increase to over 2000 mg per liter during an acute phase response and a sustained overproduction of SAA is required for the creation of the AA deposits that define AA amyloidosis. High levels of SAA, however, is not a sufficient condition for the development of systemic AA amyloidosis and it remains unclear what triggers the accumulation of AA.
The AA protein is mainly deposited in the liver, spleen and kidney, and AA amyloidosis can lead to nephrotic syndrome and ESRD. Natural history studies show, however, that it is the renal involvement that drives the progression of the disease. In general, old age, reduced serum albumin concentration, end stage renal failure, and sustained elevated SAA concentration are all associated with poor prognosis.
There are currently no approved treatments for systemic AA amyloidosis. The current standard of care includes treatments for the underlying inflammatory disease with anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressive agents or biologics. AA amyloidosis patients are also receiving treaments to slow down the decline of their renal function, such as angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.
Current Clinical Research
Kiacta - (eprodisate disodium) is currently being evaluated as a protector of renal function in AA amyloidosis. Kiacta, inhibits the formation and deposition of the amyloid A fibrils into the tissues.
Transmission of amyloidosis
There is evidence that eating amyloid fibers may lead to amyloidosis. This evidence is based on studies in cattle, chickens, mice, and cheetahs. Thus, in a sense, SAA amyloidosis may be considered a contagious disease, although whether this occurs or is important in the development of naturally occurring amyloidosis remains unknown. Nevertheless, because amyloid fibers can be detected in muscle in low amounts, it raises some concern about whether people could develop amyloidosis as a result of ingesting meat from an animal with the disease.
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