|Type||Broadcast commercial television network|
|Branding||The Kapamilya Network (Kapamilya is a Tagalog word that means a member of a family.)|
First air date
|October 23, 1953|
|Slogan||"In the Service of the Filipino Worldwide"|
|Headquarters||ABS-CBN Broadcasting Center, Diliman, Quezon City|
|Charo Santos-Concio (Chief content officer)
Maria Socorro Vidanes (Head of Free TV division)
|October 23, 1953 (first air date)
November 1966 (Color television)
February 11, 2015 (DTT)
October 3, 2015 (HDTV)
|Alto Broadcasting System|
ABS-CBN (Alto Broadcasting System - Chronicle Broadcasting Network) is a major commercial television network in the Philippines, and the oldest and the leading television network in the country with advertising revenues of almost 19 billion pesos for the fiscal year 2014. It was launched on October 23, 1953 as Alto Broadcasting System (ABS), just 3 months after the first broadcast of Nippon Television of Japan, making it one of the first commercial television broadcaster in Asia and the first in Southeast Asia.
The flagship television station of ABS-CBN is DWWX-TV. The network operates across the Philippine archipelagos through its Regional Network Group division which controls 71 television stations. Its programs are available outside the Philippines through the global subscription television channel The Filipino Channel which is now available in over three million paying households as well as terrestrially in Guam through KEQI-LP. Since 2011, the network is on test broadcast for digital terrestrial television using the Japanese standard ISDB-T in select areas in the Philippines. On October 3, 2015, ABS-CBN started to broadcast in high-definition on cable.
- 1 History
- 2 Regional Network Group
- 3 Programming
- 4 Digital transition
- 5 Competition
- 6 Controversies and scandals
- 7 References
- 8 External links
ABS-CBN traces its history to the first Philippine television station DZAQ-TV, owned by Bolinao Electronics Corporation (BEC) which was later renamed Alto Broadcasting System (ABS).
James Lindenberg, owner of BEC, was the first to apply for a license to the Philippine Congress to establish a television station in 1949. His request was granted on 14 June 1950. Because of the strict import controls and the lack of raw materials needed to open a TV station in the Philippines during the mid-20th century, Lindenberg branched to radio broadcasting instead.
Judge Antonio Quirino, brother of former President Elpidio Quirino, also tried to apply for a license to Congress, but was denied. He later purchased stocks from BEC and subsequently gained the controlling stock to rename the company from BEC to Alto Broadcasting System (ABS).
DZAQ-TV began commercial television operations on 23 October 1953; the first fully licensed commercial television station in the Philippines. The first program to air was a garden party at the Quirino residence in Sitio Alto, San Juan. After the premiere telecast, the station followed a four-hour-a-day schedule, from six to ten in the evening.
In 1955, Manila Chronicle owner Eugenio Lopez, Sr. and former Vice President Fernando Lopez, acquired a radio-TV franchise from the Congress and immediately established Chronicle Broadcasting Network (CBN) in 1956. On 24 February 1957 Lopez invited Judge Quirino to his house for breakfast and ABS was bought under a contract written on a table napkin. The corporate name was reverted to Bolinao Electronics Corporation immediately after the purchase of ABS.
With the establishment of DZXL-TV 9 of CBN in 1956, the Lopez brothers controlled both television channels in the archipelago, culminating in the first wave of expansion. The monopoly in television was broken in 1961, when DZBB-TV 7 was established by the Republic Broadcasting System (now GMA Network, Inc.) (RBS), owned by Robert Stewart, on the same year it launched the nation's first regional and provincial television station in Cebu City on 24 July.
In 1967, the company was renamed ABS–CBN Broadcasting Corporation. This company became the formal merger of the two stations DZAQ-TV 3 (ABS) and DZXL-TV 9 (CBN).
In 1966, ABS-CBN became the first TV network to broadcast certain shows in color and by 18 December 1968, ABS-CBN opened its present-day Broadcast Center complex in Bohol Avenue, Quezon City. It was among the most advanced broadcasting facility of its kind in Asia. Full color broadcasts began in 1971 (8 hours a day) on ABS-CBN 2 with the availability of more color television sets around Manila and neighboring municipalities and cities.
In 1969, DZAQ-TV transferred to channel 2 (which remains as the current positioning frequency of the flagship station in Metro Manila), while its sister station DZXL-TV transferred to channel 4. This frequency adjustment was done to make room for Kanlaon Broadcasting System (now Radio Philippines Network) to occupy the channel 9 frequency.
When then President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law in 1972, the station was forced to shut down. The company was seized from the Lopez brothers and its newly built Broadcast Center became the home of state-run TV stations Banahaw Broadcasting Corporation (BBC Channel 2, with call sign changed to DWWX-TV), Government Television (GTV Channel 4, with call sign changed to DWGT-TV and later renamed MBS-4), Kanlaon Broadcasting System (KBS Channel 9) and Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation (IBC Channel 13).
The long hibernation of the station ended on February 1986. As the EDSA revolt broke out in the eighties, and Marcos' grip on power debilitated, the reformists in the military contended the broadcasting network would be a vital asset for victory. Thus, at 10 AM on February 24, they attacked and took the ABS-CBN Broadcast Center that was then the home of MBS-4.
When Marcos was deposed, the network was sequestered and returned Channel 2 to the Lopezes but not Channel 4. On 14 September 1986, ABS-CBN went back on the air, broadcasting from what used to be their main garage at Broadcast Center in the pre-Martial Law days. The network was forced to share space in the building that was rightfully their own with the government TV station Channel 4. At the time, money had been scarce while resources were limited; offices were used as dressing rooms and other equipment such as chairs, tables, and phones were in short supply.
In late 1986, the network was faltering, ranking last among the five stations in the Philippines and was suffering heavy losses. Eugenio "Geny" Lopez Jr. by early 1987 brought in programming whiz and ABS-CBN veteran Freddie Garcia, then working for GMA Network, and set him loose to work his magic touch.
Six months later on 1 March 1987, Channel 2 was relaunched with the live musical special, "The Star Network: Ang Pagbabalik Ng Bituin" (The Return of the Star). In 1988, ABS-CBN was topping the Mega Manila ratings, a position it had never relinquished for 16 years.
Later that year, the station launched nationwide domestic satellite programming and by 1994, expanded its operations worldwide. In 1999, Channel 2 launched its 120-kilowatt Millennium Transmitter, resulting in improved signal quality throughout Mega Manila.
In 2005, ABS-CBN re-upgraded its transmitter into a very high capacity of 346.2 kilowatts resulting on a much clearer signal in Metro Manila.
During the historic 2010 Philippine presidential election, in response to the first automation of the election in the country, ABS-CBN utilized a technology from Orad Hi Tech Systems Ltd. that utilizes the principles of augmented reality. The technology uses real-time image processing system for live broadcasts of 3D computer-generated imagery against a real set or background. ABS-CBN also utilized what is probably the biggest touch screen display to be used in a Philippine television show. A new set dubbed as the "WAR" (Wireless Audience Response) room was specifically designed for the said election coverage. The coverage of ABS-CBN became the third top trending topic worldwide on the social networking site Twitter.
Regional Network Group
The Regional Network Group (RNG) is the provincial network subsidiary of ABS-CBN. It is responsible for simultaneously airing most of the shows seen on ABS-CBN's flagship station in the provinces. The Regional Network Group has several stations in each region outside Mega Manila to ensure nationwide coverage. The local stations also produce their own newscasts which air prior to TV Patrol and other local programming which air on Sundays. Regional Network Group (RNG) glorified its roots while reaching out wider audience in 2007, consistently building on local content and developing infrastructure to deliver better service and cement its position as the top-rating regional network in the country. Regional versions of favorite TV shows were created, enabling ABS-CBN to reach out and connect with wider audiences worldwide. The launch of the local game show Kapamilya Winner Ka! in Visayas and Mindanao. Gandang Umaga, Pilipinas in Northern Luzon, and the 17th local TV Patrol in Southern Tagalog (Region IV-A & IV-B), provided more relevance to regional audiences. On 29 January 2011, Charie Villa was appointed as the new head of RNG. On 15 April 2011, RNG launched ChoosePhilippines, a new website aimed to promote tourism in the Philippines by sharing photos and stories of the most extravagant places, culture, and arts of the Philippine island.
The majority of the programs of ABS-CBN are produced by the company's entertainment group division. These include programs ranging from musical and variety shows (ASAP and It's Showtime), lifestyle, showbiz, and comedy talk shows (Gandang Gabi, Vice!, Kris TV and Tonight with Boy Abunda), sitcoms and gag shows (Home Sweetie Home, Banana Split Extra Scoop, Banana Nite, Goin Bulilit and Luv U). Soap operas and drama anthologies on the other hand are produced by either Star Creatives (such as Pangako Sa 'Yo) or Dreamscape Entertainment Television (such as On the Wings of Love, Ang Probinsyano, and Doble Kara), while news, documentaries and public affairs programs (such as Umagang Kay Ganda, TV Patrol, Bandila, News Patrol, Failon Ngayon, Sports U, S.O.C.O, and Rated K) are produced by its ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs division and by other independent production outfits (Mukha and Swak na Swak). Licensed program formats from abroad like Pinoy Big Brother, Kapamilya, Deal or No Deal, The Voice of the Philippines, The Voice Kids, Your Face Sounds Familiar, Pasión de amor and Pilipinas Got Talent are co-produced by the licensees. Around 15 percent of the program line-up of ABS-CBN are acquired programs from abroad, including animation series from Japan and United States, drama series from South Korea and Taiwan, and movies from United States, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea and Thailand. ABS-CBN also airs special events like NBA, Miss Universe, Binibining Pilipinas, Miss Earth, Oscars, Top Rank boxing, UFC and other sporting and awarding events.
Digital terrestrial television
ABS-CBN Corporation initially applied for a license from the National Telecommunications Commission to operate a digital terrestrial television service in the country back in 2007. ABS-CBN planned to utilize multiplex to offer ABS-CBN, ABS-CBN Sports+Action and 5 additional specialty TV channels. The conglomerate is expected to spend at least 1 billion pesos annually for the next 5 years for its DTT transition. ABS-CBN utilized UHF channel 51 Manila (695.143 MHz), later UHF Channel 43(647.143 MHz), for test broadcasts in the DVB-T format. ABS-CBN was expected to begin digital test broadcasts in January 2009.
In June 2010, the NTC announced that it would formally adopt the Japanese standard ISDB-T for digital broadcasting and issued a circular commanding all the country's television networks to switch-off their analog services on 31 December 2015 at 11:59 p.m. Philippine Standard Time (UTC+8). But due to delay of the release of the implementing rules and regulations for digital television broadcast, the target date was moved to 2020.
In April 2011, the conglomerate announced further details about its DTT plans, which would offer ABS-CBN and Studio 23 (currently ABS-CBN Sports+Action). In addition, four new channels which will be exclusively available to its digital users will be offered once the digital broadcast start. The specialty TV channel line-up will include one news channel, one youth-oriented channel, an educational channel, and a movie channel. The conglomerate is also planning to utilize the 1seg (one segment) broadcast standard for handheld devices.
On February 11, 2015, ABS-CBN formally launched its DTT service under the name ABS-CBN TVplus in a formal switch-over ceremony held at the ABS-CBN Broadcasting Center. The ABS-CBN TVplus service has four exclusive TV channels which are free of charged, these are movie channel Cine Mo!, news channel DZMM TeleRadyo, educational channel Knowledge Channel, and kids channel Yey!. In addition to ABS-CBN and ABS-CBN Sports + Action, all non-encrypted digital terrestrial broadcast within the area is also carried by the service. ABS-CBN TVplus also provides pay per view, EWBS, and BML services. As of September 2015, ABS-CBN TVplus has sold over half a million units of its set-top boxes.
In 2007, ABS-CBN produced the first ever Filipino TV series to be shot in high-definition. This was Rounin, a fantasy series created by Erik Matti. Prior to this, big budget series like Esperanza, Mula Sa Puso, Pangako Sa 'Yo, and Kay Tagal Kang Hinintay were shot in 16mm film while low budget series were shot in smaller formats. Beginning with Be Careful With My Heart in 2012, all of ABS-CBN's TV series were all shot using high-definition format although it was only until October 3, 2015 that these were broadcast in HD. On the other hand, the first ever locally produced live entertainment program to be broadcast in HD is ASAP 20.
On April 19, 2009, Sony announced the acquisition of ABS-CBN of 24 units of its Sony high-definition professional video cameras through a press release released on Sony's official website. On July 11, 2009, ABS-CBN launched a high definition feed of Balls in SkyCable under the name Balls HD, the first local high-definition TV channel in the history of Philippine television. In the same day, Balls HD broadcast the first locally produced coverage of an event in high-definition, the UAAP Season 72 basketball game which was produced by ABS-CBN Sports. In addition, two of its three news helicopters are capable of transmitting high-definition live feeds from its 5 axis gimbal HD camera mounted on the aircraft.
On April 20, 2010, Ikegami, a Japanese manufacturer of professional and broadcast television equipment announced the acquisition of ABS-CBN of 75 units of Ikegami high-definition professional video cameras for electronic news gathering.
On October 3, 2015, ABS-CBN launched a high-definition feed in SkyCable and Destiny Cable under the name ABS-CBN HD. This marked the Philippines' first commercial television network to be launched in high-definition. The said channel will broadcast selected shows of ABS-CBN in true high-definition picture while the remaining shows will be broadcast in upscaled standard definition picture with pillarbox to preserve its original 4:3 aspect ratio.
In 2007, in preparation for digital and high-definition television broadcasting, ABS-CBN acquired server and post production technologies developed by EVS Broadcast Equipment, making ABS-CBN the first broadcaster in Southeast Asia to go tapeless. EVS provided ABS-CBN a 100 percent digital and non-linear editing system and post production workflow as well as wireless access through a media access management system servers installed in outside broadcasting van. This will be integrated to technologies developed by Avid Technology, Snell, and Ruckus Wireless.
ABS-CBN Corporation started digitizing its content in 2004. In 2007, the conglomerate invested 4 million dollars for a Media Asset Management System (MAMS) from IBM Corporation that includes a hardware infrastructure support and a 2 petabytes (2000 terabytes) of digital storage that is expected to grow by 36% over the years as ABS-CBN is already generating over 700 hours of content a month. The MAMS will be integrated to the million dollar Dalet Digital Media Systems and Avid Unity ISIS (Infinitely Scalable Intelligent Storage) that will enable ABS-CBN to digitize and store its over 200,000 hours of television content and its library of over 2000 films.
Since its inception in 1953 until 1961, ABS-CBN (then Alto Broadcasting System) was the only commercial television network in the country. It was only until the 1960s that television became common and at that time, although audience measurement has not yet invented, ABS was favored by giant companies such as Procter and Gamble, Colgate-Palmolive, Unilever, Nestlé, The Coca-Cola Company, Pepsico and Caltex. ABS-CBN was the only Philippine television network to air commercials and was only the advertising partner of Colgate-Palmolive products from 2000 until 15 years later in 2015, when all networks returned to air the Colgate-Palmolive commercials including rivals GMA Network and TV5. When the martial law was declared, ABS-CBN and other television networks were forced to shut-down and held control by the Government. When it was re-established in 1986 as a commercial television, it had failed to regain its glory days and was ranked behind among the five television networks. It was not until 1987, when it was re-branded as "The Star Network" that it had slowly regained its foothold in TV ratings. In 1992, AGB Nielsen Philippines was founded and a new pace in television history was introduced. In 2007, TNS Philippines started to offer media research through Kantar Media Philippines (formerly Kantar/TNS). In 2008, AGB Nielsen Philippines released the all-time highest rating shows in the Philippines, with 7 of the top 10 highest rating shows all from ABS-CBN with the shows like The Battle: Pacquiao vs. Morales, Rosalinda, Esperanza, Meteor Garden, Pangako sa 'Yo, Miss Universe 1994, and Maria Mercedes. At the turn of the first decade of the century, competition was up against its closest competitor GMA Network and TV5. Moreover, the data released by AGB Nielsen show the Mega Manila data, which favors GMA in the Mega Manila ratings while Kantar Media releases the Total Philippines ratings (National Urban and Rural Households), which favors ABS-CBN.
Controversies and scandals
In recent years, ABS-CBN has been involved in several controversies and scandals involving its subsidiaries and programming.
Wowowee scandals and incidents
Two major incidents involving ABS-CBN have involved the networks' variety show Wowowee. Demand for tickets to a one-year anniversary episode of the show at the PhilSports Arena in 2006 caused a deadly stampede killing 76 people. Over a year later in August 2007, the show became entrenched in another scandal involving the possibility of a new game on the show being rigged as evident by a "mechanical glitch" which occurred during an episode, which grew greater after Eat Bulaga! host Joey de Leon and Wowowee host Willie Revillame started exchanging attacks on-air against each other during their respective and competing shows. The incident later lead to a probe by the Department of Trade and Industry led by senator Mar Roxas (which was jokingly suggested by Joey during a speech he made on Eat Bulaga! in reference to the Hello Garci scandal, dubbing it "Hello Pappy")
Nielsen TV ratings scandal
In late 2007, ABS-CBN accused AGB Nielsen Philippines of tampering with the ratings during their 2007 ratings surveys. On 8 January 2008, Quezon City regional trial court (RTC) junked ABS-CBN's case against AGB Nielsen saying it was prematurely filed.
Writ of Amparo
On 22 January 2008, Asia-Pacific Director Jacqueline Park of the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) supported the petition for writ of amparo filed by the ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation's 11 employees (led by Ces Oreña-Drilon) with the Supreme Court to rule on the legality of journalists' arrests concerning the failed Manila Peninsula rebellion. It stated: "We support employees from ABS-CBN in standing up for their democratic rights to work free from harassment and intimidation, especially from government officials and authorities." Meanwhile, the Supreme Court required the respondents to file comment to the amparo petition within 10 days. Further, Harry Roque, National Union of Journalists of the Philippines (NUJP)'s lawyer announced its filing of a class lawsuit for injunction with damages (Article 33, New Civil Code of the Philippines) against the Philippine National Police, among others.
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