|ARJ21-700 in flight at the Zhuhai Air Show (2010).|
|Designer||AVIC I Commercial Aircraft Company (ACAC)|
|First flight||28 November 2008|
|Introduction||28 June 2016 with Chengdu Airlines|
|Status||In production, in service (Deliveries began)|
|Primary user||Chengdu Airlines|
The development of the ARJ21 (Advanced Regional Jet) is a key project in the "10th Five-Year Plan" of China. It began in March 2002 and was led by the state-owned ACAC consortium. The maiden flight of the ARJ21 was initially planned to take place in 2005 with commercial service beginning 18 months later. The programme became eight years behind schedule. The design work was delayed and the final trial production stage did not begin until June 2006. The first prototype (serial number 101) rolled out on 21 December 2007, with plans for a maiden flight in March 2008. This was first delayed to 21 September 2008 and finally took place on 28 November 2008 at Shanghai's Dachang Airfield. The aircraft completed a long-distance test flight on 15 July 2009, flying from Shanghai to Xi'an in 2 hours 19 minutes, over a distance of 1,300 km. The second ARJ21 (serial number 102) completed the same test flight route on 24 August 2009. The third aircraft (serial number 103) similarly completed its first test flight on 12 September 2009. The fourth aircraft (CN 104) flew by November 2010. By August 2011, static, flutter and crosswind flight tests had been completed. Deliveries to customers were expected to begin in late 2010, starting with Chengdu Airlines.
Further delays and first flight
In November 2010, an ARJ21 wing failed to reach the predicted load rating during static testing. The wing's failure then led the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) to limit the aircraft’s flight envelope during its flight test program. The new delivery date was then set at the end of 2011.
On 19 August 2011, it was reported that the first delivery of the ARJ21 would likely to be delayed by up to a year or more after problems surfaced during the flight testing programme. On 24 August 2011, it was reported that two components of the testing program had not been completed; icing tests were underway but delayed, and stall speed tests had not yet begun. According to an anonymous source within the program, this could lead to delays in obtaining type certification, which could in turn lead to delays in delivery.
On 8 June 2012, a COMAC official told Reuters that the ARJ21 was unlikely to receive regulatory approval before 2013, without giving an official reason for the five-year delay. A Reuters investigation suggested that problems with wing cracks, wiring and avionics had contributed to the delay.
Earning a United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) type certification is a precondition for the ARJ21-700 to enter the global aviation market. Since 2003, the aviation authorities of China and the USA had been negotiating the ARJ21-700 application for FAA type certification and shadow certification. As a result, the FAA will accept a type certification application for the AVIC I Commercial Aircraft Company’s ARJ21-700 that will be sent by the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC). The FAA also decided to develop a shadow certification for the ARJ21-700 under current standards and established the CAAC Technology Support Office in Shanghai and Beijing. At the meeting, Luo Ronghuai, assistant general manager of AVIC 1 and general manager of ACAC, said ACAC would follow the strict airworthiness standards of the CAAC and FAA.
On 28 June 2012, the ARJ21-700 travelled at high speed on a specially constructed test lane at Xi'an Yanliang airport. Since 22 June, the aircraft has undergone ten tests on taxiing, takeoff and landing at different speeds on a flooded runway. The tests ensure that the aircraft is able to taxi, take off and land despite having water on the runway. Since the aircraft entered the validation flight test phase in February 2012, it has been scheduled to undergo 1,500 hours of validation flight tests involving 280 subjects. It has since completed the airspeed calibration, natural icing, engine nacelle anti-icing and crosswind validation tests and is preparing for a stall flight test.
In July 2012, Comac's chief financial officer Tian Min said at the Farnborough Airshow that he expected the aircraft to receive certification from both the US FAA and the Civil Aviation Administration of China in 2013, with the first delivery to launch customer Chengdu Airlines, to occur around the end of 2013. He told the press that "The programme is now undergoing certification tests and flights. There have been some problems but that's part of the process and progress is good. There are no serious issues".
However, in September 2013, COMAC announced that it hoped the ARJ21-700 would achieve CAAC certification during 2014, and enter service by the end of 2014. The launch customer, Chengdu Airlines, was due to receive its first aircraft by the end of 2011, but ongoing delays in the certification process has caused this to be postponed. After the first production aircraft flew on 18 June 2014, it was announced that production of two aircraft was planned for 2014, with five, eight, 15 and 20 aircraft in 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 respectively.
Key flight tests and CAAC certification
ARJ21-700 AC104 of Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China, Ltd. (COMAC) returned to China safely on April 28, 2014 after successfully completing natural icing flight testing in North America. This was the first time a turbofan-powered regional jet independently developed by China had flown abroad to carry out flight tests in special weather conditions. In the meantime, the fleet of ARJ21-700 test aircraft has achieved a global flight log of more than 30,000 km across Asia, America, Europe, and the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. This success of the ARJ21-700 in natural icing flight testing has cleared another obstacle toward airworthiness certification, and proven access and feasibility for China’s civil aircraft to carry out flight testing abroad.
ARJ21-700 AC104 successfully completed one flight of supplementary applicant flight test for compliance of airspeed calibration on October 30, 2014, which led to an entire completion of all flight tests undertaken by AC104 before Type Certification (TC).
Since the first flight on April 13, 2010, AC104 has undertaken and completed major flight tests of stall, high-speed characteristic, noise, simulated icing, minimum flight crew, etc., and has realized global flight and natural icing flight test successfully in this year. Over the years, ARJ21-700 AC104 has accumulated 711 flights in 1,442 hours and 23 minutes, and accomplished 468 test points (74 tests) of applicant flight test for compliance and 420 test points (63 tests) of certification flight test. AC104 becomes the first test aircraft which completes all the flight tests before TC.
ARJ21-700 AC105 returned to Yanliang airport at 12:32 on December 16, 2014 from Xi'an Xianyang International Airport after the last flight for function and reliability flight test, which indicates that the function and reliability flight test of ARJ21-700 aircraft has been completed successfully, and also indicates that all the flight tests before airworthiness certification of the aircraft have been completed successfully.
Function and reliability flight test is the last major special flight test before the issuance of Type Certificate (TC). ARJ21-700 aircraft has conducted the function and reliability flight test strictly in accordance with flight test plan and successfully completed the special inspection of various systems. Since the flight test was officially started on October 29, AC105 has successively conducted 83 flights in the routes among ten airports in Chengdu, Guiyang, Guilin, Haikou, Fuzhou, Zhoushan, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Yinchuan and Xianyang to simulate operations in routes. The cumulative flight time was 173 hours and 55 minutes.
The ARJ21-700 advanced regional jet received its Type Certification under Chapter 25 of the Chinese civil aviation regulations from the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC), on December 30, 2014.
ARJ21-700 completed the final demonstration flight on 12 September 2015 prior to delivery.
On 29 November 2015, COMAC delivered the first ARJ21-700 to Chengdu Airlines. The first commercial flight took off from Chengdu Shuangliu Airport on June 28, 2016, landing in Shanghai two hours later. one day after its commercial flight was approved by the CAAC.
During the remaining summer schedule period, i.e. until October 29, 2016, the ARJ21-700 was scheduled to operate three weekly rotations between Chengdu and Shanghai Hongqiao. Of these 108 planned flight segments, 85 were operated by ARJ21 (81 by B-3321, four by B-3322), 22 by Airbus A319 and one was cancelled. Since the beginning of the winter schedule period 2016/2017 on October 30, 2016, no passenger flights were scheduled nor conducted.
In early July of 2017, the CAAC certified the ARJ21 for mass production.  Five ARJ21s will be handed over in 2017 while in September two have entered service since its first delivery in November 2015 but production should reach 15 in 2018, then 20 in 2019 and 25 in 2020; the full rate of 30-50 aircraft a year could be reached with a second, 30 per year production line being set up at Shanghai Pudong International Airport.
Different sources claim the ARJ21 closely resembles either the McDonnell Douglas MD-80 or the MD-90 which were license-produced in China. Chinese factories producing parts for the MD-90 went on to produce the ARJ21 using tooling retained after the end of the MD-80/MD-90 licensed production program.. China claims that the ARJ21 is a completely indigenous design in spite of the fact that production drawings seen for the fuselage during development were simply McDonnell Douglas drawings with the identifying legend overlaid with a Chinese legend. The ARJ21's development did depend heavily on foreign suppliers, including engines and avionics from the United States. The ARJ21 features an all-new supercritical wing having a sweepback of 25 degrees and designed by Ukraine’s Antonov Design Bureau. It is fitted with winglets to improve aerodynamic performance. Antonov also assisted the project with geometrical determination and integral analysis of the construction strength of ARJ21. Some of China's supercomputers have been used to design parts for ARJ21.
Members of the ACAC consortium, which was formed to develop the aircraft, will manufacture major components of the aircraft:
- Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group: construction of the nose
- Xi'an Aircraft Company: construction of the wings and fuselage; wing designed by Antonov State Company in the Ukraine.
- Shenyang Aircraft Corporation: construction of the empennage
- Shanghai Aircraft Company: final assembly
- General Electric: CF-34 turbofan 
- Rockwell Collins: Avionics
- Various domestic and international suppliers of component's suppliers.
- Baseline model which has a capacity of 70 to 95 passengers.
- Stretched fuselage model based on the ARJ21-700, which will have a capacity of 95 to 105 passengers.
- Planned dedicated freighter version of the ARJ21-700. It will have a capacity of five LD7 containers or PIP pallets, with a maximum payload of 10,150 kg.
- Planned business jet version of the ARJ21-700. A typical configuration would cater for 20 passengers.
Two aircraft in service with one airline as of October 2016:
Orders and deliveries
As of 2015, six ARJ21-700 have been built and one aircraft delivered to Chengdu Airlines, currently (as of 22 February 2016) performing proving runs/training flights. The actual entry-into-service (Revenue Service) date was 28 June 2016. There was a further order of 40 aircraft by an unnamed leasing firm during China Air Show 2016.
According to Reuters, Comac has received almost 350 orders for the ARJ21.
|September 2003||Shanghai Airlines||5|
|Shenzhen Financial Leasing||20|
|March 2004||Xiamen Airlines||7|
|December 2007||Henan Airlines||100|
|December 2007||Lao Airlines||2|
|January 2010||Chengdu Airlines||30||1||1||1|
|May 2010||Merkukh Enterprises||9|
|November 11, 2014||Republic of Congo||3|
|March 9, 2015||ICBC Leasing||30|
Thailand City Airways ordered 10 ARJ21 
An Indonesia Airliners will fly with entire fleet with 60 ARJ21 planes 
- Entries shaded in pink have been announced, but have not yet signed a firm contract.
|Seating capacity||90 (1-class)
|Seat pitch||31 in (1-class), 36 & 32 in (2-class)|
|Length||33.46 m (109 ft 9 in)||36.35 m (119 ft 3 in)|
|Wingspan||27.28 m (89 ft 6 in)|
|Wing area||79.86 m2 (859.6 sq ft)|
|Wing sweepback||25 degrees|
|Height||8.44 m (27 ft 8 in)|
|Cabin width||3.14 m (10 ft 4 in)|
|Cabin height||2.03 m (6 ft 8 in)|
|Aisle width||48.3 cm (19.0 in)|
|Seat width||45.5 cm (17.9 in)|
|Typical empty weight||24,955 kg (55,016 lb)||26,270 kg (57,920 lb) STD
26,770 kg (59,020 lb) ER
|Maximum take-off weight||40,500 kg (89,300 lb) STD
43,500 kg (95,900 lb) ER
|43,616 kg (96,157 lb) STD
47,182 kg (104,019 lb) ER
|Cargo capacity||20.14 m3 (711 cu ft)||-|
|Take off run at Maximum takeoff weight||1,700 m (5,600 ft) STD
1,900 m (6,200 ft) ER
|1,750 m (5,740 ft) STD
1,950 m (6,400 ft) ER
|Service ceiling||11,900 m (39,000 ft)|
|Max. operating speed||Mach 0.82 (870 km/h, 470 kn, 541 mph)|
|Normal cruise speed||Mach 0.78 (828 km/h, 447 kn, 514 mph)|
|Range fully loaded||1,200 NM (2,200 km; 1,400 mi) STD
2,000 NM (3,700 km; 2,300 mi) ER
|1,200 NM (2,200 km; 1,400 mi) STD
1,800 NM (3,300 km; 2,100 mi) ER
|Maximum fuel load||10,386 kg (22,897 lb)||-|
|Powerplants (2x)||General Electric CF34-10A|
|Engine thrust||75.87 kN (17,057 lbf)||82 kN (18,500 lbf)|
- Notes: Data are provided for reference only. STD = Standard Range, ER = Extended Range
- Sources: ARJ21 Series, ICAS
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- "Airbus, Boeing Jostle for China Friendship, and Aircraft Orders". chinaaviationdaily.com. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- "PICTURES: Chengdu Airlines takes delivery of first ARJ21". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- "COMAC ARJ21 production list". rzjets.net. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- Comac ARJ21 : Complete list at airfleets.net
- "'Flying Phoenix' is China's second homegrown commercial aircraft, the first being the Shanghai Y-10". TheRecord.com. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2010-01-17. Retrieved 2007-12-24.
- "China-Made ARJ21 Feeder Plane to Appear at Zhuhai Aviation Show". People's Daily. Retrieved 2002-11-04.
- C919 Inches Toward Flight-Testing, ARJ21 Toward Upgrade, Aviationweek, 3. November 2014
- "Self-developed jet to fly maiden trip". XINHUA. Archived from the original on 2006-11-10. Retrieved 2006-06-01.
- "China's ARJ21 Regional Jet made first flight". Huanqiu. Retrieved 2008-11-28.[permanent dead link]
- "Third Chinese ARJ-21-700 takes off (in Spanish)". CCTV. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
- "China's ARJ21 falls behind on flight test schedule". Flightglobal.com. 24 August 2011. Archived from the original on 28 August 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "China's United Eagle renamed Chengdu Airlines".
- information on COMAC's website[permanent dead link] (Chinese)
- Latest delays due to wing problems Information (English)
- "ARJ21 first delivery likely delayed". Flightglobal.com. 19 August 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- "Wing cracks, other flaws delay China jet manufacture". Reuters. 8 June 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- "FAA to accept type certification on ARJ21-700". Spring 2012. Retrieved Spring 2012. Check date values in:
- "Comac ARJ21 undergoes water ingestion tests". 29 Jun 2012. Retrieved 29 Jun 2012.[permanent dead link]
- "FARNBOROUGH: ARJ21 first delivery pushed to end 2013". 11 Jul 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- Comac aims to deliver first ARJ21 by end-2014 at flightglobal.com
- Chengdu Airlines now hoping to launch ARJ21 operations in late 2014 at ch-aviation.ch
- "China-made ARJ21 aircraft completes natural icing flight test and achieves a global flight of 30,000km".
- "ARJ21-700 AC104 completes all flight tests before TC". comac.cc. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- "ARJ21-700 AC105 completes function and reliability flight test successfully". comac.cc.
- Perrett, Bradley. "China Certifies Comac ARJ21-700". AviationWeek. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
- "China's COMAC delivers first ARJ21 jet plane to domestic airline". Reuters. Nov 28, 2015.
- Wong, Chun Han, First Chinese-built passenger jet goes into service, Wall Street Journal, June 29, 2016, p.B7
- "China's first domestically manufactured passenger jet takes off". Shanghai Daily. June 28, 2016.
- Matthew Miller and Fang Cheng (9 July 2017). Himani Sarkar, ed. "China Certifies COMAC to Mass Produce ARJ-21 Regional Jets: Xinhua". Reuters.
- Bradley Perrett (Sep 28, 2017). "Comac Plans Volume Production Of ARJ21". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
- "With ARJ21-700 Certified, Focus Shifts To Support". aviationweek.com. 20 January 2015.
- Vertesy, Daniel; Szirmai, Adam. "Interrupted innovation: Innovation system dynamics in latecomer aerospace industries".
- "Xinhua – English". News.xinhuanet.com. 2006-06-01. Archived from the original on 2009-02-09. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "我国已具备生产大型民用飞机的能力". News.eastday.com. 2007-03-30. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "中国首架自主知识产权新支线飞机-上海频道-东方新闻-东方网". Sh.eastday.com. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "Website "Antonov": News".
- "ARJ21-A". AINonline. Archived from the original on 2006-02-04. Retrieved 2006-06-23.
- "Chinese ARJ21-700 Airliner Roll-Out".
- Davis, Bob (23 March 2012), "China's Not-So-Super Computers", The Wall Street Journal, retrieved 25 March 2012
- "CF3410APowered ARJ21 Regional Jet Certified by CAAC". General Electric Company. December 30, 2014.
- "COMAC ARJ21 – program supplier guide". Airframer.com. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- Wong, Chun Han, China's first jetliner set to take off after delays, Wall Street Journal, p.B2
- Flight International. 11–17 October 2016. p. 10. Missing or empty
- Toh, Mavis. "Comac working toward November ARJ21 delivery". flightglobal.com. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- Govindasamy, Siva; Miller, Matthew. "China-made regional jet set for delivery, but no U.S. certification". Reuters. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- "Three carriers place ARJ21 orders". Flight International. Reed Business Information. 2003-09-23. Retrieved 2006-07-03.
- "ARJ21 orderbook climbs to 41 as Xiamen signs up". Flight International. Reed Business Information. 2004-08-03. Retrieved 2006-07-03.
- Although the Xiamen order for six was reported in some press as firm, ACAC's own web site still shows them as "options".
- "Ceremony inaugurates Chinese jet". Flight International. Reed Business Information. 2007-11-21. Retrieved 2008-01-02.
- AVIC announced a new order for 100 planes from Kunpeng Airlines, a Sino-US joint venture, raising the total number of orders to date to 170.
- "Building a future: The AVIC I ARJ21-700 programme". Flight International. Reed Business Information. 2007-08-07. Retrieved 2009-04-08.
- K.K. Chadha. "China lays plans for ARJ21-900". AINonline. Retrieved 2010-10-25.[permanent dead link]
- "GE Commercial Aviation Services Announces Purchase of Five ARJ21-700ER Regional Jet Aircraft from Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China, LTD (COMAC); Options for Additional 20 Aircraft". R. 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2010-07-20.
- "China Eastern, AVIC I launch Joy Air". Flight International. Reed Business Information. 2008-04-01. Archived from the original on 2008-10-07. Retrieved 2008-04-01.
- "China exporting ARJ21s and other aircraft to Indonesia". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "The Republic of Congo announces to order three ARJ21-700 aircraft". comac.cc.
- "I.C.B.C. Leasing orders thirty ARJ21-700 aircraft". comac.cc.
- https://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/thailands-city-airways-signs-for-10-c919s-10-arj21-416780/. Missing or empty
- http://www.scmp.com/business/article/1989044/indonesian-airline-will-be-first-fly-fleet-entirely-arj21s. Missing or empty
- "ARJ21 Series page". Archived from the original on 2009-07-13.
- ARJ21-700 Specifications at icas.org
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Comac ARJ21.|