ADCY2

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ADCY2
Protein ADCY2 PDB 1ab8.png
Identifiers
Aliases ADCY2, AC2, HBAC2, adenylate cyclase 2 (brain)
External IDs MGI: 99676 HomoloGene: 75133 GeneCards: ADCY2
Genetically Related Diseases
bipolar disorder[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ADCY2 213217 at fs.png

PBB GE ADCY2 217687 at fs.png

PBB GE ADCY2 213219 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_020546

NM_153534

RefSeq (protein)

NP_065433

NP_705762

Location (UCSC) Chr 5: 7.4 – 7.83 Mb Chr 13: 68.62 – 69 Mb
PubMed search [2] [3]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Adenylyl cyclase type 2 is an enzyme typically expressed in the brain of humans, that is encoded by the ADCY2 gene.[4][5] It belongs to the adenylyl cyclase class-3 or guanylyl cyclase family because it contains two guanylate cyclase domains.[6] ADCY2 is one of ten different mammalian isoforms of adenylyl cyclases. ADCY2 can be found on chromosome 5 and the "MIR2113-POU3F2" region of chromosome 6, with a length of 1091 amino-acids. An essential cofactor for ADCY2 is magnesium; two ions bind per subunit.[6]

Structure[edit]

Structurally, ADCY2 are transmembrane proteins with twelve transmembrane segments. The protein is organized with six transmembrane segments followed by the C1 cytoplasmic domain. Then another six membrane segments, and then a second cytoplasmic domain called C2. The important parts for function are the N-terminus and the C1 and C2 regions. The C1a and C2a subdomains are homologous and form an intramolecular 'dimer' that forms the active site.

This structure displays significant homology with human brain adenylyl cyclase 1(HBA C1 or ADCY1) in the highly conserved adenylyl cyclases domain found in the 3’ cytoplasmic domain of all mammalian adenylyl cyclases. Outside this domain homology is not similar suggesting that this corresponding mRNA originates from a different gene. In situ hybridization confirms a heterogeneous population of adenylyl cyclase mRNAs is expressed in the brain.[7]

Function[edit]

This gene encodes a member of the family of adenylyl cyclases, which are membrane-associated enzymes that catalyze the formation of the secondary messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) from ATP. ADCY2 has also been found to accelerate phosphor-acidification, along with glycogen synthesis and breakdown.[8] This enzyme is insensitive to Ca2+/calmodulin, and is stimulated by the G protein beta and gamma subunit complex.[5] Therefore, ADCY2 is highly regulated by G-proteins, calcium, calmodulin, pyrophosphate, and post-translational modifications.

Recently, it has been discover that ADCY2 can activated by a Raf kinase-mediated serine phosphorylation.[9] In aggregate, Raf kinase associates with adenylyl cyclases and is isoform-selective, which includes adenylyl cyclase type 2. In human embryonic kidney cells, ADCY2 is stimulated by activation of Gq-coupled muscarinic receptors through protein kinase C (PKC) to generate localized cAMP. Once the agonist binding to the Gq-coupled muscarinic receptor, A-kinase-anchoring protein (AKAP) recruits PKC to activate ADCY2 to produce cAMP. The cAMP formed is degraded by phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) activated by an AKAP-anchored protein kinase A.[10]

Clinical significance[edit]

Polymorphisms of the ADCY2 gene have been associated with COPD and lung function.[11]

Perturbations in adenylyl cyclase activity have been implicated in alcohol and opioid addiction and is associated with human diseases, including thyroid adenoma, Anthrax, precocious puberty in males and chondrodysplasia punctata diseases.[12] During these diseases, ADCY2 undergoes a super-related pathway where protein kinase A (PKA) activation occurs in glucagon signaling and IP3 signaling. This enzyme may play a role in bipolar disorder along with other brain-expressed genes including NCALD, WDR60, SCN7A, and SPAG16.[13]

Interactive pathway map[edit]

Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1]

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NicotineDopaminergic_WP1602 go to article go to article go to article Go to article go to article Go to article Go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article Go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article Go to article Go to article go to article Go to article Go to article Go to article go to article Go to article Go to article Go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article Go to article go to article Go to article Go to article go to article go to article Go to article go to article Go to article Go to article go to article
|{{{bSize}}}px|alt=Nicotine Activity on Dopaminergic Neurons edit]]
Nicotine Activity on Dopaminergic Neurons edit
  1. ^ The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "NicotineDopaminergic_WP1602". 

Model organisms[edit]

Model organisms have been used in the study of ADCY2 function. A conditional knockout mouse line called Adcy2tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi was generated at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.[14] Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen[15] to determine the effects of deletion.[16][17][18][19] Additional screens performed: - In-depth immunological phenotyping[20] - in-depth bone and cartilage phenotyping[21]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Diseases that are genetically associated with ADCY2 view/edit references on wikidata". 
  2. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ Stengel D, Parma J, Gannagé MH, Roeckel N, Mattei MG, Barouki R, Hanoune J (Dec 1992). "Different chromosomal localization of two adenylyl cyclase genes expressed in human brain". Human Genetics. 90 (1–2): 126–30. doi:10.1007/BF00210755. PMID 1427768. 
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: ADCY2 adenylyl cyclase 2 (brain)". 
  6. ^ a b "Adenylate cyclase type 2". UniProt Consortium. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  7. ^ Stengel D, Parma J, Gannagé MH, Roeckel N, Mattei MG, Barouki R, Hanoune J (Sep–Oct 1992). "Different chromosomal localization of two adenylyl cyclase genes expressed in human brain". Human Genetics. 90 (1–2): 126–30. doi:10.1007/BF00210755. PMID 1427768. 
  8. ^ Li YX, Jin HG, Yan CG, Ren CY, Jiang CJ, Jin CD, Seo KS, Jin X (Jun 2014). "Molecular cloning, sequence identification, and gene expression analysis of bovine ADCY2 gene". Molecular Biology Reports. 41 (6): 3561–8. doi:10.1007/s11033-014-3167-9. PMID 24797538. 
  9. ^ Ding Q, Gros R, Gray ID, Taussig R, Ferguson SS, Feldman RD (Oct 2004). "Raf kinase activation of adenylyl cyclases: isoform-selective regulation". Molecular Pharmacology. 66 (4): 921–8. doi:10.1124/mol.66.4.921. PMID 15385642. 
  10. ^ Shen JX, Cooper DM (Oct 2013). "AKAP79, PKC, PKA and PDE4 participate in a Gq-linked muscarinic receptor and adenylate cyclase 2 cAMP signalling complex". The Biochemical Journal. 455 (1): 47–56. doi:10.1042/BJ20130359. PMC 3968274Freely accessible. PMID 23889134. 
  11. ^ "Testing GWAS SNPs for COPD and lung function in a Polish cohort with severe COPD". Retrieved 2012-12-30. 
  12. ^ "Adenylate Cyclase 2 (Brain)". Weizmann Institute of Science. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  13. ^ Xu W, Cohen-Woods S, Chen Q, Noor A, Knight J, Hosang G, Parikh SV, De Luca V, Tozzi F, Muglia P, Forte J, McQuillin A, Hu P, Gurling HM, Kennedy JL, McGuffin P, Farmer A, Strauss J, Vincent JB (2014). "Genome-wide association study of bipolar disorder in Canadian and UK populations corroborates disease loci including SYNE1 and CSMD1". BMC Medical Genetics. 15: 2. doi:10.1186/1471-2350-15-2. PMC 3901032Freely accessible. PMID 24387768. 
  14. ^ Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: high throughput characterisation of knockout mice". Acta Ophthalmologica. 88: 925–7. doi:10.1111/j.1755-3768.2010.4142.x. 
  15. ^ a b "International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium". 
  16. ^ Skarnes WC, Rosen B, West AP, Koutsourakis M, Bushell W, Iyer V, Mujica AO, Thomas M, Harrow J, Cox T, Jackson D, Severin J, Biggs P, Fu J, Nefedov M, de Jong PJ, Stewart AF, Bradley A (Jun 2011). "A conditional knockout resource for the genome-wide study of mouse gene function". Nature. 474 (7351): 337–42. doi:10.1038/nature10163. PMC 3572410Freely accessible. PMID 21677750. 
  17. ^ Dolgin E (Jun 2011). "Mouse library set to be knockout". Nature. 474 (7351): 262–3. doi:10.1038/474262a. PMID 21677718. 
  18. ^ Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9–13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247. 
  19. ^ White JK, Gerdin AK, Karp NA, Ryder E, Buljan M, Bussell JN, Salisbury J, Clare S, Ingham NJ, Podrini C, Houghton R, Estabel J, Bottomley JR, Melvin DG, Sunter D, Adams NC, Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project, Tannahill D, Logan DW, Macarthur DG, Flint J, Mahajan VB, Tsang SH, Smyth I, Watt FM, Skarnes WC, Dougan G, Adams DJ, Ramirez-Solis R, Bradley A, Steel KP (2013). "Genome-wide generation and systematic phenotyping of knockout mice reveals new roles for many genes". Cell. 154 (2): 452–64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207Freely accessible. PMID 23870131. 
  20. ^ a b "Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping (3i) Consortium". 
  21. ^ "OBCD Consortium". 


External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]