Advanced Encryption Standard Instruction Set (or the Intel Advanced Encryption Standard New Instructions; AES-NI) is an extension to the x86 instruction set architecture for microprocessors from Intel and AMD proposed by Intel in March 2008. The purpose of the instruction set is to improve the speed of applications performing encryption and decryption using the [1 ] Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).
New instructions [ edit ]
Perform one round of an AES encryption flow
Perform the last round of an AES encryption flow
Perform one round of an AES decryption flow
Perform the last round of an AES decryption flow
Assist in AES round key generation
Assist in AES Inverse Mix Columns
Carryless multiply (
CLMUL). [3 ]
Intel and AMD x86 achitecture [ edit ]
Westmere based processors, specifically:
Sandy Bridge processors:
Desktop: all except Pentium, Celeron, Core i3,
[5 ] [6 ] Mobile: all Core i7 and Core i5. Several vendors have shipped BIOS configurations with the extension disabled;
a BIOS update is required to enable them. [7 ] [8 ] Intel
Ivy Bridge processors
All i5, i7, Xeon and i3-2115C
only. [9 ] Intel
Haswell processors. (all except i3-4000m, Pentium and Celeron) [10 ] Intel has a list of processors that support AES-NI on their website
Hardware acceleration in other architectures [ edit ]
AES support with unprivileged processor instructions is also available in the latest
SPARC processors (T4, T5, M5, and forward) and in latest ARM processors. The SPARC T4 processor, introduced in 2011, has user-level instructions implementing AES rounds. These instructions are in addition to higher level encryption commands. The [13 ] ARMv8-A processor architecture, announced in 2011, including the ARM Cortex-A53 and A57 (but not previous v7 processors like the Cortex A5,7,8,9,11,15) will also have user-level instructions which implement AES rounds. In Aug 2012 [14 ] IBM announced that the forthcoming [15 ] Power7+ architecture would have AES support. The commands in these architectures are not directly compatible with the AES-NI commands, but implement similar functionality.
IBM z9 or later mainframe processors support AES as single-opcode (KM, KMC) AES ECB/CBC instructions via IBM's CryptoExpress hardware
These single-instruction AES versions are therefore easier to use than Intel NI ones, but may not be extended to implement other algorithms based on AES round functions (such as the [16 ] Whirlpool hash function).
Supporting x86 CPUs [ edit ]
VIA x86 CPUs, AMD Geode, and Marvell Kirkwood (ARM, mv_cesa in Linux) use driver-based accelerated AES handling instead. (see Crypto API (Linux)) The following chips, while supporting AES hardware acceleration, do not support the AES-NI instruction set
ARM achitecture [ edit ]
Performance [ edit ]
AES-NI Performance Analyzed, Patrick Schmid and Achim Roos found, "... impressive results from a handful of applications already optimized to take advantage of Intel's AES-NI capability". A performance analysis using the [24 ] Crypto++ security library showed an increase in throughput from approximately 28.0 cycles per byte to 3.5 cycles per byte with AES/ GCM versus a Pentium 4 with no acceleration. [25 ] [26 ]
Supporting software [ edit ]
The following compilers and software are known to support the AES instruction set.
Compilers [ edit ]
Libraries [ edit ]
Applications [ edit ]
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ "Intel Software Network". Intel. Archived from the original on 7 April 2008 . Retrieved . 2008-04-05
^ Shay Gueron (2010). "Intel Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Instruction Set White Paper". Intel . Retrieved . 2012-09-20
^ "Carry-Less Multiplication". Intel.
^ ARK: Advanced Search
^ AnandTech - The Sandy Bridge Review: Intel Core i7-2600K, i5-2500K and Core i3-2100 Tested
^ Compare Intel® Products
^ AES-NI support in TrueCrypt (Sandy Bridge problem)
^ "Some products can support AES New Instructions with a Processor Configuration update, in particular, i7-2630QM/i7-2635QM, i7-2670QM/i7-2675QM, i5-2430M/i5-2435M, i5-2410M/i5-2415M. Please contact OEM for the BIOS that includes the latest Processor configuration update.".
^ ARK: Advanced Search
^ "Following Instructions". AMD. November 22, 2010 . Retrieved . 2011-01-04
^ Dan Anderson (2011). "SPARC T4 OpenSSL Engine". Oracle . Retrieved . 2012-09-20
^ Richard Grisenthwaite (2011). "ARMv8-A Technology Preview" (PDF). ARM . Retrieved . 2012-09-20
^ Timothy Prickett Morgan (2012). "All the sauce on Big Blue's hot chip: More on Power7+". The Register . Retrieved . 2012-09-20
^ "IBM System z10 cryptography". IBM . Retrieved . 2014-01-27
^ "AMD Geode™ LX Processor Family Technical Specifications". AMD.
^ "VIA Padlock Security Engine". VIA . Retrieved . 2011-11-14
^ a b Cryptographic Hardware Accelerators on OpenWRT.org
^ "VIA Eden-N Processors". VIA . Retrieved . 2011-11-14
^ "VIA C7 Processors". VIA . Retrieved . 2011-11-14
^ "Using the XMEGA built-in AES accelerator" (PDF) . Retrieved . 2014-12-03
^ Security System driver status
^ P. Schmid and A. Roos (2010). "AES-NI Performance Analyzed". Tom's Hardware . Retrieved . 2010-08-10
^ T. Krovetz, W. Dai (2010). "How to get fast AES calls?". Crypto++ user group . Retrieved . 2010-08-11
^ "Crypto++ 5.6.0 Pentium 4 Benchmarks". Crypto++ Website. 2009. Archived from the original on 19 September 2010 . Retrieved . 2010-08-10
^ a b c Rott, Jeffrey (2 February 2012). "Intel Advanced Encryption Standard Instructions (AES-NI)". Intel Developer Blog . Retrieved . 25 September 2015
^ "FAQ - Botan".
^ "Crypto.go AES-NI assembly implemention".
^ "Information Security Corp., Cryptographic Development Kits (CDKs)".
^ "Intel Advanced Encryption Standard Instructions (AES-NI)". Intel. March 2, 2010. Archived from the original on 7 July 2010 . Retrieved . 2010-07-11
^ "High-performance cryptography for the JVM".
^ "AES-NI enhancements to NSS on Sandy Bridge systems". 2012-05-02 . Retrieved . 2012-11-25
^ "System Administration Guide: Security Services, Chapter 13 Solaris Cryptographic Framework (Overview)". Oracle. September 2010 . Retrieved . 2012-11-27
^ "AES-NI enabled for SynCrypto".
^ Tom's Hardware: AES-NI Performance Analyzed (Benchmark Results: 7-Zip)
^ Tom's Hardware: Four Compression And Archiving Solutions Compared (7-Zip 9.1 Beta)
^ Conceal- Encrypting Data just got better
^ "Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: the Ars Technica review". Ars Technica. 2011-07-20 . Retrieved . 2012-01-03
^ "Intel and McAfee Endpoint Encryption" (PDF) . Retrieved . 2014-03-07
^ "FreeBSD 8.2 Release Notes". FreeBSD.org. 2011-02-24 . Retrieved . 2011-12-18
^ OpenSSL: CVS Web Interface
^ "Transparent Data Encryption". Oracle. January 17, 2011 . Retrieved . 2011-01-17
^ "PGP Desktop 10.1.x for Windows Release Notes". Symantec. 2011-02-01.
^ "Symantec PGP Desktop 10.2 for Mac OS X Release Notes". Symantec. 2011-07-29.
^ "Porticor Virtual Private Data". October 9, 2012.
^ "Information Security Corp., SecretAgent 6".
^ "SecureDoc Full Disk Encryption". April 8, 2011.
External links [ edit ]