|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Used by||See Users|
|Barrel length||415 mm (16.3 in)|
|Width||AK-74M: 70 mm (2.8 in)|
|Height||AK-74M: 195 mm (7.7 in)|
|Action||Gas-operated, rotating bolt|
|Rate of fire|
|Muzzle velocity||880–900 m/s (2,887–2,953 ft/s)|
|Effective firing range|
|Maximum firing range||3,150 m (3,440 yd)|
|Feed system||30-round AK-74, 45-round RPK-74 detachable box magazine or 60-round casket magazine|
|Sights||Adjustable iron sights, front post and rear notch on a scaled tangent|
The AK-74 (Russian: Автомат Калашникова образца 1974 года, tr. Avtomat Kalashnikova obraztsa 1974 goda, lit. 'Kalashnikov assault rifle model 1974') is an assault rifle designed by small arms designer Mikhail Kalashnikov in 1974. While primarily associated with the Soviet Union, it has been used by many countries since the 1970s. It is chambered for the 5.45×39mm cartridge, which replaced the 7.62×39mm cartridge of Kalashnikov's earlier automatic weapons for the Soviet armed forces.
The rifle first saw service with Soviet forces in the Afghanistan conflict from 1979. The head of the Afghan bureau of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), the intelligence agency of Pakistan, claimed that America's Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) paid $5,000 for the first AK-74 captured by the Afghan mujahideen during the Afghan-Soviet War.
As of 2021[update], most countries of the former Soviet Union use the rifle. Licensed copies were produced in Bulgaria (AK-74, AKS-74 and AKS-74U), and in the former East Germany (MPi-AK-74N, MPi-AKS-74N, MPi-AKS-74NK).
The AK-74 was designed by А. D. Kryakushin's group under the design supervision of Mikhail Kalashnikov. It is an adaptation of the 7.62×39mm AKM assault rifle and features several important design improvements. These improvements were primarily the result of converting the rifle to the intermediate-calibre high velocity 5.45×39mm cartridge. In fact, some early models are reported to have been converted AKMs, re-barreled to 5.45×39mm. Compared with the preceding AKM, the AK-74 has better effective firing range, accuracy (a main development goal), and reliability. About 50% of the parts in the AK-74 and AKM are the same (including pins, springs and screws).
The rifle's operation during firing and reloading is identical to that of the AKM. After ignition of the cartridge primer and propellant, rapidly expanding propellant gases are diverted into the gas cylinder above the barrel through a vent near the muzzle. The build-up of gases inside the gas cylinder drives the long-stroke piston and bolt carrier rearward and a cam guide machined into the underside of the bolt carrier along with an ejector spur on the bolt carrier rail guide, rotates the bolt approximately 35° and unlocks it from the barrel extension via a camming pin on the bolt. The moving assembly has about 5.5 mm (0.2 in) of free travel which creates a delay between the initial recoil impulse of the piston and the bolt unlocking sequence, allowing gas pressures to drop to a safe level before the seal between the chamber and the bolt is broken. Like previous Kalashnikov-pattern rifles, the AK-74 does not have a gas valve; excess gases are ventilated through a series of radial ports in the gas cylinder. Since the Kalashnikov operating system offers no primary extraction upon bolt rotation, the 5.45×39mm AK-74 bolt has a larger extractor claw than the 7.62×39mm AKM for increased extraction reliability. Other minor modifications were made to the bolt and carrier assembly.
The rifle received a new barrel with a chrome-lined bore and 4 right-hand grooves at a 200 mm (1:7.87 in) or 37 calibers rifling twist rate. The front sight base and gas block were redesigned. The gas block contains a gas channel that is installed at a 90° angle in relation to the bore axis to reduce bullet shear at the port hole. A pair of support brackets are cast into the gas block assembly and are used to attach a BG-15c or GP-25 underslung 40 mm grenade launcher. Like the AK-47 and AKM, the muzzle is threaded for the installation of various muzzle devices such as the standard muzzle brake or a blank-firing adaptor, while a spring-loaded detent pin held in the front sight post prevents them from unscrewing while firing. However the muzzle threads have been relocated to the front sight base for both easier and more economic replacement in case of thread damage. The distinctive standard-issue muzzle brake features a large expansion chamber, two symmetrical vertical cuts at the forward end of the brake and three non symmetrical positioned vent holes to counteract muzzle rise and climb as well as lateral shift to the right much like the AKM's offset muzzle brake. A flat plate near the end of the brake produces a forward thrust when emerging exhaust gases strike its surface, greatly reducing recoil. The muzzle brake prevents backblast from reaching the firer, although it is reported to be harsh on bystanders as the muzzle gases are dispersed to the sides. The standard-issue AK-74 muzzle brake has been subtly revised several times since the 1970s.
The AK-74 uses an adjustable notched rear tangent iron sight calibrated in 100 m (109 yd) increments from 100 to 1,000 m (109 to 1,094 yd). The front sight is a post adjustable for elevation in the field. Horizontal adjustment requires a special drift tool and is done by the armoury before issue or if the need arises by an armourer after issue. The sight line elements are approximately 48.5 mm (1.9 in) over the bore axis. The "point-blank range" battle zero setting "П" standing for постоянная (constant/consistent/permanent) the 5.45×39mm AK-74 rear tangent sight element corresponds to a 400 m (437 yd) zero, compared with the 300 m (328 yd) zero for 7.62×39mm AKs. For the AK-74 combined with the 7N6 or 7N10 service cartridges the 400 m battle zero setting point-blank range limits the apparent "bullet rise" within approximately −5 to +38 cm (−2.0 to 15.0 in) under the line of sight. At the corresponding 440 m (481 yd) maximum point-blank range the bullet will have dropped to approximately −21 cm (−8.3 in) relative to the line of sight. Soldiers are instructed to fire at any target within this range by simply placing the sights on the center of mass (the belt buckle, according to Russian and former Soviet doctrine) of the enemy target. Any errors in range estimation are tactically irrelevant, as a well-aimed shot will hit the torso of the enemy soldier.
While most Russian and CIS armed forces use the AK-74 in its basic configuration with iron sights, many magnified and non-magnified optical sights are available for designated marksmen and other special purpose troops in their respective militaries.
For the 5.45×39mm AK-74, the East German Zeiss ZFK 4×25, 1P29, Belorussian BelOMO PO 3.5×21P, PO 4×24P and the 1P78 Kashtan dedicated side rail mounted optical sights were developed. These optical sights are primarily designed for rapid target acquisition and first round hits out to 400 m, but by various means these optical sights also offer bullet drop compensation (BDC) (sometimes referred to as ballistic elevation) for aiming at more distant targets. The BDC feature compensates for the effect of gravity on the bullet at given distances (referred to as "bullet drop") in flat fire scenarios. The feature must be tuned for the particular ballistic trajectory of a particular combination of gun and cartridge at a predefined muzzle velocity and air density. Since the usage of standardized ammunition is an important prerequisite to match the BDC feature to the external ballistic behaviour of the employed projectiles, these military optical sights are intended to assist with field shooting at varying medium to longer ranges rather than precise long range shots.
The standard Russian side rail mounted optical sight was the 4×26 1P29 Universal sight for small arms. It was copied from and hence similar to the British SUIT (Sight Unit Infantry, Trilux). When mounted the 1P29 sight is positioned centered above the receiver at a height that allows the use of the iron sights. It weighs 0.8 kg, offers 4× magnification with a field of view of 8° and 35 mm eye relief. The 1P29 is issued with a canvas pouch, a lens cleaning cloth, combination tool, two rubber eyecups, two eyecup clamps and three different bullet drop compensation (BDC) cams for the AK-74/AN-94, RPK-74 and PK machine gun. The 1P29 is intended for quickly engaging point and area targets at various ranges and is zeroed for both windage and elevation at 400 m (437 yd). On the right side of the field of view a stadiametric rangefinder is incorporated that can be used to determine the distance from a 1.5 meters (4 ft 11.1 in) tall object from 400 to 1,200 m (437 to 1,312 yd). The reticle is an inverted aiming post in the top half of the field of view and is tritium-illuminated for low-light condition aiming.
The current Russian standard side rail mounted optical sight for the AK-74M is the 2.8×17 1P78 Kashtan, an aiming optic similar to the American ACOG. When mounted the 1P78 sight is positioned centered above the receiver. It weighs 0.5 kg, offers 2.8× magnification with a field of view of 13° and 32 mm eye relief. The 1P78 comes in several versions for the AK-74 (1P78-1), RPK-74 (1P78-2), AKM (1P78) and RPK (1P78-3). The 1P78 is intended for quickly engaging point and area targets at various ranges and is zeroed for both windage and elevation at 400 m (437 yd). A stadiametric rangefinder is incorporated that can be used to determine the distance for a soldier sized target from 400 to 700 m (437 to 766 yd). The reticle consist of a main 400 m "chevron" (^), a 500 m (547 yd) holdover dot and smaller additional holdover chevrons for 600 m (656 yd) and 700 m (766 yd) and is tritium-illuminated for low-light condition aiming.
The AK-74 was equipped with a new buttstock, handguard (which retained the AKM-type finger swells) and gas cylinder. The stock has a shoulder pad different from that on the AKM, which is rubber and serrated for improved seating against the shooter. In addition, there are lightening cuts on each side of the buttstock. The buttstock, lower handguard and upper heatguard were first manufactured from laminated wood, this later changed to a synthetic fiberglass-reinforced polyamide 6 colored with "kaprozol brown 4K" disperse dye, the color of which is usually referred to as "Russian Plum". The introduction of the new material was slow and impeded by very stringent hardness requirements of the military which no Western polymer furniture was able to satisfy as of 1980.
The AK-74 gas tube has a spring washer attached to its rear end designed to retain the gas tube more securely. The lower handguard is fitted with a leaf spring that reduces play in the rifle's lateral axis by keeping the wood tensioned between the receiver and the handguard retainer. The receiver remains nearly identical to that of the AKM; it is a U-shaped 1 mm (0.04 in) thick sheet steel pressing supported extensively by pins and rivets. The internal guide rails on which the bolt carrier travels are stamped and spot welded to the inside of the receiver housing. Minor changes were made to the front barrel and rear stock trunnions as well as the magazine well. All external metal surfaces are coated with a glossy black enamel paint.
Accessories supplied with the military version of the rifle include a 6H4 or 6H5 type bayonet, a quick-loading device, three spare magazines, four 15-round stripper clips, maintenance kit, cleaning rod and sling. The bayonet is installed by slipping the muzzle ring around the flash hider and latching the handle down on the bayonet lug under the front sight base. The 6H5 AK-74 bayonet introduced in 1983 represents a further refinement of the 6H4 AKM bayonet. It introduced a radical blade cross-section, that has a flat milled on one side near the edge and a corresponding flat milled on the opposite side near the false edge. The blade has a new spear point and an improved one-piece molded plastic grip making it a more effective fighting knife. It also has saw-teeth on the false edge and the usual hole for use as a wire-cutter.
Relatively small sized, light weight, high velocity military service cartridges like the 5.45×39mm allow a soldier to carry more ammunition for the same weight compared with their larger and heavier predecessor cartridges, have favourable maximum point-blank range or "battle zero" characteristics and produce relatively low bolt thrust and free recoil impulse, favouring light weight arms design and automatic fire accuracy. Tests measured the free recoil energy delivered by the 5.45×39mm AK-74 rifle at 3.39 J (2.50 ft⋅lb), compared with 7.19 J (5.30 ft⋅lb) delivered by the 7.62×39mm in the AKM.
Early 5.45×39mm ballistics tests demonstrated a pronounced tumbling effect with high speed cameras. Some Western authorities believed this bullet was designed to tumble in flesh to increase wounding potential. At the time, it was believed that yawing and cavitation of projectiles were primarily responsible for tissue damage. Martin Fackler conducted a study with an AK-74 assault rifle using live pigs and ballistic gelatin; "The result of our preset test indicate that the AK-74 bullet acts in the manner expected of a full-metal-cased military ammunition – it does not deform or fragment when striking soft tissues". Most organs and tissue were too flexible to be severely damaged by the temporary cavity effect caused by yaw and cavitation of a projectile. With the 5.45 mm bullet, tumbling produced a temporary cavity twice, at depths of 100 mm (3.9 in) and 350 mm (13.8 in). This is similar to (but more rapid than) modern 7.62×39mm ammunition and to (non-fragmenting) 5.56×45mm NATO ammunition.
The original steel-reinforced 30-round AK-74 detachable box magazine was similar to that of the AKM, except for minor dimensional changes required by the 5.45×39mm cartridge. These rust-colored magazines are often mistakenly identified as being made of Bakelite (a phenolic resin), but were actually fabricated from two-parts of AG-4S molding compound (a glass-reinforced phenol-formaldehyde binder impregnated composite), assembled using an epoxy resin adhesive. Noted for their durability, these magazines did however compromise the rifle's camouflage and lacked the small horizontal reinforcing ribs running down both sides of the magazine body near the front that were added on all later AK-74 magazine generations. A second generation steel-reinforced dark-brown (color shades vary from maroon to plum to near black) 30-round magazine was introduced in the early 1980s, fabricated from ABS plastic. The third generation steel-reinforced 30-round AK-74 magazine is similar to the second generation, but is darker colored and has a matte nonreflective surface finish. With the introduction of the AK-74M the fourth generation of steel-reinforced matte true black nonreflective surface finished 30-round AK-74 magazines was introduced. All AK-74 magazines have a raised horizontal rib on each side of the rear lug to prevent their use in a 7.62×39mm AK. The magazines can be quickly recharged from stripper clips. The empty weight of a 30-round AK-74 box magazine is 230 g (8.1 oz). The 45-round plastic box magazine of the RPK-74 light machine gun is also interchangeable with that of the AK-74. The empty weight of a 45-round RPK-74 box magazine is 300 g (11 oz). Further 60-round and later 50-round quad-stack 5.45×39mm casket magazines were developed.
The transition to mainly plastic magazines and the relatively small sized, light weight, high velocity 5.45×39mm cartridge yielded a significant weight reduction and allow a soldier to carry considerably more rounds for the same weight compared with the previous Soviet AK-47 and AKM and later 7.62×39mm chambered AK platform assault rifles.
|Rifle||Cartridge||Cartridge weight||Weight of empty magazine||Weight of loaded magazine||Max. 10.12 kg (22.3 lb) ammunition load*|
|AK-47 (1949)||7.62×39mm||16.3 g (252 gr)||slab-sided steel
430 g (0.95 lb)
916 g (2.019 lb)
|11 magazines for 330 rounds|
10.08 kg (22.2 lb)
|AKM (1959)||7.62×39mm||16.3 g (252 gr)||ribbed stamped-steel
330 g (0.73 lb)
819 g (1.806 lb)
|12 magazines for 360 rounds|
9.83 kg (21.7 lb)
|AK-103 (1994)||7.62×39mm||16.3 g (252 gr)||steel-reinforced plastic
250 g (0.55 lb)
739 g (1.629 lb)
|13 magazines for 390 rounds|
9.61 kg (21.2 lb)
|AK-74 (1974)||5.45×39mm||10.7 g (165 gr)||steel-reinforced plastic
230 g (0.51 lb)
551 g (1.215 lb)
|18 magazines for 540 rounds|
9.92 kg (21.9 lb)
Note: All, 7.62×39mm AK magazines are backwards compatible with older AK variants.
Note *: 10.12 kg (22.3 lb) is the maximum amount of ammo that the average soldier can comfortably carry. It also allows for best comparison of the three most common 7.62×39mm AK platform magazines and the 5.45×39mm AK-74 magazine.
The AK-74 series is also available in several "night-fighting" configurations, equipped with a side dovetail rail for mounting optical sights. These variants, the AK-74N, AKS-74N and AKS-74UN can be used in conjunction with NSPU and NSPU-3 (1PN51) night sights, as well as optical sights such as the USP-1 (1P29). The variants designated AK-74N2 and AKS-74N2 can use the multi-model night vision sight NSPUM (1PN58).
The AKS-74 ("S"—Russian: складной; Skladnoy, or "folding"), is a variant of the AK-74 equipped with a side-folding metal shoulder stock, designed primarily for use with air assault infantry and developed alongside the basic AK-74. Unlike the AKMS's somewhat fragile underfolding stock (modeled after the MP 40 submachine gun stock), the AKS-74 stock is fabricated from stamped sheet metal struts, machine pressed into a "U" shape and assembled by punch fit and welding.
The stock has a triangular shape; it lacks the folding shoulder pad found on the AKMS stock and is folded to the left side of the receiver. The hinged stock is securely locked in its extended position by a spring-loaded button catch located at the rear of the receiver. When folded, the stock is held closed by a spring-loaded capture hook situated on the left side at the front of the receiver housing. A rear-mounted sling swivel is also provided on the right side at the beginning of the stock frame. It retains the pistol grip reinforcement plate the AKMS used, though due to the less complex rear trunnion, only has one riveting hole in place of the three on the AKMS.
In 1991 the Izhmash factory in the city of Izhevsk began full-scale production of a modernised variant of the AK-74—the AK-74M ("М"—Russian: Модернизи́рованный, tr. Modernizírovanny, lit. 'modernised') assault rifle that offers more versatility compared with its predecessor. Apart from several minor improvements, such as a lightened bolt and carrier assembly to reduce the impulse of the gas piston and bolt carrier during firing, the rifle features a new glass-filled polyamide stock that retains the shape of the original AK-74 fixed laminated wood stock, but side-folds to the left like the skeletonised AKS-74 buttstock. As a result, pistol grip reinforcement plates that were once exclusively used on the folding stock variants are standard on all AK-74Ms. Additionally the AK-74M features an improved muzzle device with extended collar and threads to reduce play and a machine cut beneath to allow easier cleaning rod removal, a reinforced smooth dust cover and a redesigned guide rod return spring retainer that allows firing the GP-25, GP-30 and GP-34 underslung grenade launchers without having to use the previously necessary additional receiver cover fastener. To reduce production costs, barrel hardware, such as the front sight base and gas block, are dimple pressed on to the barrel instead of pinned on (commercial semi-auto variants are still pinned on to maintain user serviceability).
Other economic changes include omission of lightening cuts on the front sight block and gas piston as well as a stamped gas tube release lever, replacing the milled one. The bullet guide and bolt guide were also separated, with the bolt guide becoming a simple bump held in place on the left side of the receiver with an additional rivet (often called a "bump rivet" because of this) making it easier to replace in case of wear. Each AK-74M is fitted with a side-rail bracket for mounting optics that is a simplified version of the 74N mount with less machining cuts. The AK-74M would have been adopted by the Soviet Union as the standard service rifle, and has been accepted as the new service rifle of the Russian Federation.
AK-74M UUK (Universal Upgrade Kit)
An AK-74M universal upgrade kit consisting of a new safety, dust cover and furniture featuring improved ergonomics and rails to attach accessories like aiming optics, optoelectronic sights, laser sights, weapon lights and vertical fore grips and a new muzzle device had its official debut on 9 May 2015 in Moscow as part of the 2015 Moscow Victory Day Parade. The Kalashnikov Concern has further developed three sets of additional equipment for the modernization of 5.45×39mm and 7.62×39mm chambered AK-pattern assault rifles for normal military units, reconnaissance units, and special forces units.
The Kalashnikov Concern announced it has a contract with the Russian Ministry of Defence to deliver upgrade kits for their AK-74M assault rifles.
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Used by||See Users|
Tajikistan Civil War
First Chechen War
Second Chechen War
War in Afghanistan
Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017)
Syrian Civil War
War in Donbas
|Manufacturer||Tula Arms Plant|
|Mass||2.7 kg (6.0 lb)|
|Length||730 mm (28.7 in) (stock extended)|
490 mm (19.3 in) (stock folded)
|Barrel length||206.5 mm (8.1 in)|
|Action||Gas-operated, rotating bolt|
|Rate of fire||Cyclic: 650–735 rounds/min|
Automatic: 100 rounds/min
Semi-auto: 40 rounds/min
|Muzzle velocity||735 m/s (2,411 ft/s)|
|Effective firing range||300–400 m (330–440 yd)|
|Feed system||20-, 30-round AK-74, 45-round RPK-74 detachable box magazine or 60-round casket magazine|
|Sights||Adjustable iron sights, front post and U-shaped flip rear notch|
Soviet planners drew from the unsolicited design AO-46 built in 1969 by Peter Andreevich Tkachev, which weighed only 1.9 kg. The TTT specifications required a weight no greater than 2.2 kg (4.9 lb), a length of 75 cm (29.5 in)/45 cm (17.7 in) with the stock unfolded/folded, and an effective firing range of 500 m (547 yd). The competition was joined by designs of M.T. Kalashnikov (PP1), I.Y. Stechkin (TKB-0116), S.G. Simonov (AG-043), A.S. Konstantinov (AEK-958), and Yevgeny Dragunov (who called his model "MA"). Kalashnikov also presented an additional design (A1-75) which differed from PP1 by having a modified muzzle for flash and noise suppression.
In 1977, the GRAU decided to adopt Kalashnikov's model, which was largely a shortened AKS-74, because its performance was no worse than the competition, and promised significant production cost savings by utilizing existing equipment for the AK-74 line. A final round of large scale testing with Kalashnikov's model was performed by airborne divisions in the Transcaucasian Military District in March 1977. The AKS-74U ("U"—Russian: укороченный; Ukorochenniy, or "shortened") was officially adopted in 1979, and given the official, but seldom used GRAU designation 6P26. In 1993 production stopped.
The AKS-74U bridges the tactical deployment gap between a submachine gun and an assault rifle. It was intended for use mainly with special forces, airborne infantry, rear-echelon support units, helicopter and armored vehicle crews. It has been augmented and replaced by various submachine guns, and the less compact AK-105 carbine in Russian military service. It is commonly used by law enforcement; for example, each urban police foot patrol is issued at least one.
The rifle's compact dimensions, compared with the AKS-74, were achieved by using a short 206.5 mm (8.1 in) barrel (this forced designers to simultaneously reduce the gas piston operating rod to an appropriate length). Due to the shortening of the operating mechanism the cyclic rate of fire rose slightly to around 700-735 rounds per minute. In order to effectively stabilize projectiles, the barrel's twist rate was increased from 200 mm (1:7.87 in) or 37 calibers rifling twist rate to 160 mm (1:6.3 in) or 29.6 calibers rifling twist rate to adapt the AKS-74U for muzzle velocities of 720 m/s (2,362 ft/s) and higher. A new gas block was installed at the muzzle end of the barrel with a muzzle booster, which features an internal expansion chamber inside the cylindrical section of the booster while the conical end acts as a nozzle to increase net pressure inside the gas chamber by supplying an increased amount of propellant gases from the barrel. The chrome-lined muzzle booster also burns any remaining propellant, which would normally reduce muzzle blast. However, due to the extremely short barrel and conical end of the booster, the muzzle blast is nevertheless extremely large and visible. The muzzle device locks into the gas block with a spring-loaded detent pin and features two parallel notches cut into the edge of the flash hider cone, used for unscrewing it using the cleaning rod. Unlike most Kalashnikov variants there is no provision to store the cleaning rod under the barrel. The front sight was integrated into the gas block/forward sling loop.
The sight height above the bore axis is also approximately 3 mm (0.1 in) higher than the AK-74, due to the combined front sight/gas block, rear sight configuration. The AKS-74U has a different rear sight composed of a U-shaped flip sight on the top cover instead of the standard sliding notch tangent rear sight. This rear sight has two settings: "П" standing for постоянная (constant) corresponding to a 350 m (383 yd) "point-blank range" battle zero setting and "4-5" (used for firing at distances between 400–500 m (437–547 yd)). The rear sight is housed in a semi-shrouded protective enclosure that is riveted to the receiver's spring-loaded top cover. This top cover hinges from a barrel trunnion (hinging where the rear sight on a normal AK74 is located), pivoting forward when opened, which also works to unlock the gas tube cover. Both the gas tube and handguard are also of a new type and are wider and shorter than the analogous parts in the AKS-74.
For the AKS-74s combined with the 7N6 or 7N10 service cartridges the 350 m battle zero setting limits the apparent "bullet rise" within approximately −5 to +42 cm (−2.0 to 16.5 in) relative to the line of sight. Soldiers are instructed to fire at any target within this range by simply placing the sights on the center of mass (the belt buckle) of the enemy target. Any errors in range estimation are tactically irrelevant, as a well-aimed shot will hit the torso of the enemy soldier.
The AKS-74U is significantly more maneuverable in tight quarters than the AKS-74; however, the significant decline in muzzle velocity to 735 m/s (2,411 ft/s) resulted in a 100 m (109 yd) reduction in effective range to 400 m (437 yd) (the effective hitting distance for a "running"-type silhouette target was reduced from 625 m (684 yd) to 360 m (394 yd)). The AKS-74U cannot mount a bayonet or standard under-barrel grenade launcher. However, a suppressed 30 mm BS-1 grenade launcher was developed specifically for that platform that fires a high-explosive dual purpose (HEDP) grenade. The grenades for the BS-1 are launched by special blank cartridges that are inserted into the grenade launcher via a detachable magazine. The majority of AKS-74U carbines were manufactured at the Tula Arms Factory rather than Izhmash. There were some accessories produced for the AKS-74U including a plastic thigh holster and (shorter than standard) 20-round AK-74 type magazines. The rifle utilizes a proprietary 25 mm wide sling that differs from the standard 35 mm AK sling also in construction. The AKS-74U also exists in a version featuring modernized synthetic furniture made from a black, glass-filled polyamide. The AKS-74U was also used as the basis for several other unique weapons, including the bullpup OTs-14 Groza specialist carbine which is now in limited service in the Russian military, and the Gepard series of multi-caliber submachine guns (none of which evolved past prototype stage).
In the United States, the AKS-74U is often called a "Krinkov". The origin of this term is uncertain. A hypothesis was circulating that the name came from the Mujahideen who supposedly had captured a high-ranking Soviet officer armed with an AKS-74U, and that they had named it after him. However, investigation by Patrick Sweeney could not confirm this hypothesis, for no Soviet officer with a resembling name was captured in Afghanistan. US journalist C. J. Chivers reported that the gun was nicknamed "the Osama" in jihadist circles, after Osama bin Laden was photographed next to an AKS-74U. Research by The Firearm Blog published in 2016 suggests that the name "Krinkov" is a Pashtun invention that came to the United States with accounts of the Mujahideen.
The AKS-74U is approximately 3 oz (85 g) lighter than the NATO equivalent XM177, and 10.2 in (260 mm) shorter with the stock folded.
The AKS-74UB ("B"—Russian: бесшумный; Besshumniy or "silent") is a sound-suppressed variant of the AKS-74U adapted for use with the PBS-4 suppressor (used in combination with subsonic 5.45×39mm Russian ammunition).
Post AK-74M developments and successors
The modernised variant of the AK-74 — the AK-74M — was used as the technical basis for the new Russian AK-100 family of Kalashnikov firearms:
Even with the differences in the above table all of these firearms are made to similar specifications.
These original AK-100 series firearms were introduced in 1994 and are categorized by all having black polymer handguards, folding polymer stocks, and use of AK-74M internal systems. Parts are highly interchangeable. The AK-101, AK-102, AK-103 and AK-104 are destined primarily for export, while the AK-105 was developed for replacing the shorter barreled AKS-74U. The AK-105 is used by the Russian Army and Ministry of Internal Affairs.
Additionally, the 5.45×39mm AK-107, 5.56×45mm NATO AK-108 and 7.62×39mm AK-109 assault rifles were developed. These have a technically differing balanced recoil system to reduce felt recoil and muzzle rise. This balanced recoil system designed by Yuriy K. Alexandrov for Kalashnikov-pattern rifles is a significant change to the Kalashnikov operating system of the 1940s. The operating system of these new rifles was derived from the AL-7 experimental rifle of the early 1970s. Since their development, these rifles met little commercial success.
The AK-100M/AK-200 rifle family was initially conceived around 2009 as an improved variant of the basic AK-100 series. Most improvements centered on ergonomic improvements and mounting systems for accessories. The development of the AK-100M/AK-200 family was stopped around 2011, but resumed around 2016. In 2017, Kalashnikov unveiled the modernised versions of the AK-100 family of rifles. The AK-200 series are based on the AK-100 series and the AK-12. They can be chambered in 5.45×39mm, 5.56×45mm NATO and 7.62×39mm, and use a barrel and gas system assembly similar to that of the AK-74M/AK-100 rifle family. Improvements added from the AK-12 include Picatinny rails, a new pistol grip, a new adjustable buttstock and a new flash hider. They feed from 30-round magazines, and are compatible with drum magazines from the RPK and RPK-74. After 2017 these arms were assigned AK-200 series designations.
In 2010, the AK-12 series of proposed prototype models were unveiled. They differed in weight, introduced a new recoil compensation technology and improved ergonomics. The rear iron sight element was rail-mounted and moved to the back of the upper receiver to lengthen the sight line, and the full length of the weapon featured a Picatinny rail for mounting accessories such as aiming optics on top. The hand guard features Picatinny rails on both sides and its underside for mounting accessories like tactical lights, laser sights and grenade launchers. Throughout its development and evaluation stage the multiple modifications were applied to meet Russian military standards, as well as to improve upon the "range of defects" that were discovered on prototype models and to address concerns regarding the cost of earlier prototypes. In September 2016 the prototype models were replaced by the final production models of the AK-12 (chambered in 5.45×39mm) and AK-15 (chambered in 7.62×39mm) assault rifles.
Parallel developments are the RPK-16 light machine gun and the AM-17 compact assault rifle (both chambered in 5.45×39mm). The AK-12, AK-15 and RPK-16 technically strongly resembles the AK-74M, AK-100 series and RPK-74M than the earlier prototypes and the arms manufacturer Kalashnikov concern hopes they will replace these Russian service guns.
In late 2016 it was reported the AK-12 production model was undergoing troop trials with the Russian Army, where it competes against the Degtyarov A-545 balanced action assault rifle in Ratnik program trials. The AK-12 completed its operational testing and passed military field tests in June 2017, paving the way to Russian Army adoption, potentially under the Ratnik program. Both AK-12 and AK-15 completed testing in December 2017. In January 2018 it was announced that the AK-12 and AK-15 have been adopted by the Russian military.
- Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan: Nicknamed the "Kalakov".
- Azerbaijan: AK-74M manufactured under license by the Ministry of Defence Industry of Azerbaijan.
- Bulgaria: AR-M1 (variation of AK-74) and AKS-74U are manufactured locally.
- Burundi: Used by Burundian rebels.
- Cyprus: AK-74M used by the Cypriot National Guard
- Georgia: In use alongside the M4 carbine in service in Georgia. Being phased out by AR-15 platform rifles.
- Ivory Coast:
- Lebanon: Used by police.
- Myanmar: Some received from Russia, possibly supplied for trials
- North Korea: Manufactured locally as the Type-88. Sources suggest that it was made with technical assistance from China.
- Romania: Manufactured locally as the PA md. 86.
- Russia: AK-74M is currently the main service rifle in the Russian Army, and being supplemented by the newer AK-12.
- Somalia: AK-74
- Syria: AK-74M, AKS-74U, AKS-74 and AK-74. Most AK-74s given to the Syrian Armed Forces by Russian forces deployed in Syria.
- United Arab Emirates: Bulgarian AR-M9s
- Croatia: MPi-AKS-74N used by Croatian Armed Forces.
- East Germany: Manufactured locally as the MPi-AK-74N, MPi-AKS-74N, and MPi-AKS-74NK. 171,925 AK-74s in 1991.
- Soviet Union: First used during the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979.
States with limited recognition
- Donetsk People's Republic
- Luhansk People's Republic
- South Ossetia
- Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam: During the Sri Lankan Civil War between 1983 and 2009.
- Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; Used by Islamic State terrorists (also seen in many Islamic State Propaganda videos)
- Lord's Resistance Army
- Provisional IRA 
- "Presentation of the unique Kalashnikov small arms collection in the Moscow Kremlin Museum". Izhmash. 2 December 2005. Archived from the original on 4 August 2011.
- Small Arms Survey (2003). "Dangerous Supply: Small Arms and Conflict in the Republic of Georgia". Small Arms Survey 2003: Development Denied. Oxford University Press. p. 197. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 August 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- Mullins, Julie (10 September 1992). "Arms cache may contain Russian – AKS-74 automatic rifles". Graphic News.
- "The Commanding Officer assigned to Kilo/Company, 3rd Battalion, 23rd Marine Regiment (Kilo 3/23), US Marine Corps Reserve (USMCR), examines an 7.62mm AK-47 assault rifle at Blair Field in al Kut, Iraq, during Operation IRAQI FREEDOM". Omnia. 21 August 2003.
- "АВТОМАТЫ" [Automatic Weapons]. Militaryparitet.com (in Russian). Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "AK74 / AKS74 / AK74M". Modern Firearms. 27 October 2010. Archived from the original on 25 October 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "5.45 mm Kalashnikov assault rifles AK74M, AK105". Izhmash. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- OPFOR Worldwide Equipment Guide (PDF) (Report). Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: TRADOC DCSINT Threat Support Directorate. September 2001. pp. 1–3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 April 2015 – via fas.org.
- Woźniak, Ryszard (2001). Encyklopedia najnowszej broni palnej — tom 1 A-F [Encyclopedia of the Latest Firearms — Volume 1 A-F] (in Polish). Warsaw: Bellona. p. 25. ISBN 978-8-31109-149-8.
- Chivers, C. J. (12 October 2010). The Gun. Simon & Schuster. pp. 382–383. ISBN 978-1-4391-9653-3. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
- Cutshaw, Charlie (1998). The New World of Russian Small Arms & Ammo. Boulder, Colorado: Paladin Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-87364-993-3.
- McNab, Chris (2001). The AK47. Weapons of War. Staplehurst, UK: Spellmount Publishers. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-86227-116-6.
- "Presentation of the unique Kalashnikov small arms collection in the Moscow Kremlin Museum". Izhmash. 2 December 2005. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
AK-74 – Kalashnikov assault rifle, caliber 5.45 mm. In 1967, pursuant to the Resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers, a competition was organized to design an assault rifle fit to use the new 5.45-mm cartridge. The AK-74 was designed by А. D. Kryakushin's group under the designer supervision of M. T. Kalashnikov. Based on the competition results, this assault rifle was included in the inventory in 1974 as part of the 5.45-mm small arms complex. The cartridge used in the AK-74 weighs 1.5 times less as compared with the 7.62-mm cartridge. The soldier can carry 1.5 times more cartridges without increasing the weight of the portable reserve ammunition. In addition, the bullet speed of the 5.45-mm caliber is higher.
- Kokalis, Peter G. (2001). Weapons Tests and Evaluations: The Best of Soldier of Fortune. Boulder, Colorado: Paladin Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-58160-122-0.
- "Firearms E-book" (PDF). Military-Today.com. 2010. p. 25. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2015.
The AK-74 has improved firing accuracy over the AKM. This weapon retains all advantages and disadvantages of Kalashnikov design, including reliability, ruggedness, simplicity of operation and maintenance. This weapon do not jams or misfires in worst conditions possible. Also it has reliable extraction even with dirty chamber and cases. Its drawbacks are poor balance and ergonomics, as well as inferior firing accuracy to most Western weapons.
- "AK-74 Assault rifle". Military-Today.com. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015.
The AK-74 has improved firing accuracy over the AKM. This weapon retains all advantages and disadvantages of Kalashnikov design, including reliability, ruggedness, simplicity of operation and maintenance. This weapon do not jams or misfires in worst conditions possible. Also it has reliable extraction even with dirty chamber and cases. Its drawbacks are poor balance and ergonomics, as well as inferior firing accuracy to most Western weapons.
- Woźniak, p. 26.
- Kokalis, p. 46.
- Hogg, Ian & Weeks, John (2000). Military Small Arms of the 20th Century (7th ed.). Iola, Wisconsin: Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-824-7.
- "AK-74 Muzzle Brakes/Compensators". K-VAR Corp. Archived from the original on 10 January 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- Rottman, Gordon (24 May 2011). The AK-47: Kalashnikov-series Assault Rifles. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. p. 42–. ISBN 978-1-84908-835-0. Archived from the original on 3 January 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- "Using a 400 meter zero with 5.45x39". RussianOptics.net. 2010. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "5.45x39 Optics". RussianOptics.net. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- "Red Dot and Collimator Optics". RussianOptics.net. Archived from the original on 25 March 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- "1P29 4.0x Magnification". RussianOptics.net. Archived from the original on 4 December 2013.
- "1P29 Universal sight for small arms". NPZ Novosibirsk Instrument-Making Plant. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "1P29". ra.spetsnaz.su. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Dedicated 5.45x39 Optics". RussianOptics.net. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "1P78 Kashtan 2.8× Magnification". RussianOptics.net. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013.
- "1P78 rifle sight". NPZ Novosibirsk Instrument-Making Plant. Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- Cobb, Ralph E. (29 December 2013). "AK Bayonets 101 – The Four Basic Types". Worldbayonets.com. AK74 Bayonet. Archived from the original on 24 March 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- Williams, Anthony G. (November 2014). "Assault Rifles and Their Ammunition: History and Prospects". Military Guns & Ammunition. Archived from the original on 5 November 2017. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- Bodinson, Holt (1 September 2008). "The Russians are coming! The Russians are coming! Or maybe the Polish". Guns. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014 – via The Free Library.
- Korać, Želimir; Kelenc, Dubravko; Mikulić, Danko; Vuković, Dragan & Hančević, Janko (December 2001). "Terminal ballistics of the Russian AK 74 assault rifle: Two wounded patients and experimental findings". Military Medicine. 166 (12): 1065–1068. doi:10.1093/milmed/166.12.1065. PMID 11778406. Archived from the original on 10 March 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- Fackler, Martin L.; Surinchak, John S.; Malinowski, John A. & Bowen, Robert E. (March 1984). "Wounding Potential of the AK-74 Assault Rifle" (PDF). The Journal of Trauma. 24 (3): 263–266. doi:10.1097/00005373-198403000-00014. PMID 6708147. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- Kokalis, Peter G. (May 2005). "Kalashnikovs 3 of the best" (PDF). Shotgun News. Vol. 59, no. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
- "A Brief History of the Kalashnikov Magazine Part 2: Synthetic Magazines". The Firearm Blog. 18 September 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Grezin, V. M. (March 1966). "Elastic characteristics of AG-4S glass-reinforced plastic under short-time and long-time loads". Polymer Mechanics. 2 (2): 188–190. Bibcode:1966PoMec...2..188G. doi:10.1007/BF00867112. S2CID 135895271.
- Kokalis, p. 49.
- "A Guide to 5.45mm Kalashnikov Magazine Types". The Shooter Gallery. 2007. Archived from the original on 6 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "AK74 Quad Stack 50 round magazine". RussianOptics.net. Archived from the original on 29 May 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
- Dockery, Kevin (2007). Future Weapons. New York City: Berkley Caliber. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-425-21750-4.
- "AK 47 Technical Description Manual". Scribd.com. 30 September 2010. Archived from the original on 28 March 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- Dockery (2007), p. 102.
- "AKM (AK-47) Kalashnikov modernized assault rifle, caliber 7.62mm". Izhmash. 2 September 2001. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- Изделие 1ПН51 Техническое Описание И Инструкция По Эксплуатации [Product 1PN51 Technical Description and Operating Instructions] (in Russian). January 1992. p. 11.
- Изделие 1ПН58 Техническое Описание И Инструкция По Эксплуатации [Product 1PN58 Technical Description And Operating Instructions] (in Russian). February 1991. pp. 5, 13.
- "Kalashnikov to show off upgraded AK-74M at Victory Day parade". Russia Beyond. TASS. 7 May 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- "An improved Kalashnikov rifle will be on display at the Victory Day Parade". Rostec. 6 May 2015. Archived from the original on 11 May 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- "Russian Armed Forces Upgrade Kit for AK-74M". PredatorBDU.com. 17 June 2015. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- By Soviet TTT (тактико-технические требования) order number 008407 from 19.17.1973.
- "The Krinks that never were, AKSU trial rifles". The Firearm Blog. 27 April 2016. Archived from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
- Monetchikov, pp. 165–177.
- "Experimentation, use, and variants of the Russian AKS74U". The Firearm Blog. 12 February 2016. Archived from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
- "AKS-74U Kalashnikov shortened assault rifle". Firearms Russia. Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- Pike, Travis (24 December 2021). "What is a Krinkov?: A Guide to the AKS-74U". Pew Pew Tactical. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
- Sweeney, Patrick (13 January 2009). The Gun Digest Book of the AK & SKS: A Complete Guide to Guns, Gear and Ammunition. Gun Digest Books. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-89689-678-9. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- "Krinkov: The definite origin". The Firearm Blog. 18 January 2016. Archived from the original on 20 January 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
- Cutshaw, p. 19-20.
- "AK-100". Weaponsystems.net. 2014.
- "AK-100 series Assault rifle". Military Today.
- Rozin, Igor (25 November 2020). "Why the AK-107 never became a Russian service weapon". Russia Beyond.
- "Kalashnikov Concern Renames the 100M-Series of AK Rifles to 200-Series". thefirearmblog.com. 8 June 2018.
- "200 series Kalashnikov assault rifle: AK-200, AK-201, AK-202, AK-203, AK-204, AK-205 (Russia)". modernfirearms.net. 7 June 2018.
- "Rosoboronexport starts promoting new series of Kalashnikov assault rifles". Rostec State Corporationwebsite=thefirearmblog.com. 8 February 2019.
- "Russian National Guard Orders New AK-200 Series Rifles". thefirearmblog.com. 19 September 2018.
- Russian National Guard modernizes firearm, vehicle and boat inventory
- "Russia Starts Promoting the New Kalashnikov AK200 Series". thefirearmblog.com. 26 February 2019.
- "Russia completes trials of newest assault rifle for 'soldier of the future' combat gear". TASS. 20 June 2017. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
- "Kalashnikov AK-12 Assault Rifle Passes Field Trials". Defense World. 5 July 2017. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
- Wilk, Remigiusz (4 July 2017). "AK-12 assault rifle passes field tests". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
- "BREAKING: Russian Army Adopts AK-12, AK-15, AEK-971, and AEK-973 Rifles for Military Service (For Real This Time)". The Firearm Blog. 30 January 2018. Archived from the original on 4 June 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
- "Krinkov: The definite origin". The Firearm Blog. 18 January 2016. Archived from the original on 5 December 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- Jones, Richard D. (27 January 2009). Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010 (35th ed.). Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
- Suleymanov, Rashad (7 July 2011). "Azerbaijan starts serial production of AK-74M assault rifles basing on Russian license". Azeri Press Agency. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- "Azerbaijan begins AK-74M production". United Press International. 12 July 2011. Archived from the original on 12 July 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Azerbaijan starts production of Kalashnikovs". News.az. 7 July 2011. Archived from the original on 18 March 2012. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Arsenal Co Kazanlak 5.45 mm assault rifle AR-M1 (Bulgaria), Sub-machine guns". IHS Jane's. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- Small Arms Survey (2007). "Armed Violence in Burundi: Conflict and Post-Conflict Bujumbura" (PDF). The Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City. Cambridge University Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-521-88039-8. Archived from the original on 27 August 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- Jenzen-Jones, N.R. (September 2012). "The 100-Series Kalashnikovs: A Primer". Small Arms Review. Vol. 16, no. 3. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- Anders, Holger (June 2014). Identifier les sources d'approvisionnement: Les munitions de petit calibre en Côte d'Ivoire (PDF) (in French). Small Arms Survey and United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire. p. 15. ISBN 978-2-940-548-05-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2018. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
- McManners, Hugh (2003). Ultimate Special Forces. New York City: DK Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-7894-9973-8.
- Berman, Eric G. (March 2019). Beyond Blue Helmets: Promoting Weapons and Ammunition Management in Non-UN Peace Operations (PDF). Small Arms Survey/MPOME. p. 43. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 June 2019.
- Scarlata, Paul (May 2012). "The military rifle cartridges of Burma/Myanmar". Shotgun News. Archived from the original on 28 November 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- US Department of Defense. "AK-74 Assault Rifle" (PDF). North Korea Country Handbook 1997, Appendix A: Equipment Recognition. p. A-75. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 August 2000.
- "North Korean Small Arms (Democratic People's Republic of Korea)". Small Arms Review. Vol. 16, no. 2. June 2012. Archived from the original on 2 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
- Iannamico, Frank (11 September 2018). "DPRK's AKs: Inside the Shadowy World of North Korean AK Rifles". Tactical Life.
- "Kalashnikov AK-74, AKS-74 and AK-74M assault rifles (USSR/Russia)". Modern Firearms. Archived from the original on 14 September 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Advanced Kalashnikov assault rifles accepted for service in Russian troops". TASS. 29 January 2018. Archived from the original on 4 February 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
- "AK-74M, Т-72Б и "Солнцепек": какое российское оружие замечено в Сирии" [AK-74M, T-72B and "Solntsepek": what Russian weapons are seen in Syria]. Tut.By (in Russian). 19 December 2015. Archived from the original on 4 May 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Small Arms Survey (2015). "Trade Update: After the 'Arab Spring'" (PDF). Small Arms Survey 2015: weapons and the world (PDF). Cambridge University Press. p. 107. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- Jenzen-Jones, N.R. (31 January 2016). "Bulgarian AR-M9 & AR-M9F rifles supplied by UAE to allied forces". Armament Research Services (ARES).
- SALW Guide: Croatia, Country report (PDF) (Report). Bonn International Centre for Conflict Studies. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 October 2020.
- "Автомат (штурмовая винтовка) серии MPi-K / MPi-AK" [Automatic (assault rifle) MPi-K / MPi-AK series]. Weaponland.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 1 May 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Small Arms Survey (2015). "Half a Billion and Still Counting: Global Firearms Stockpiles" (PDF). Small Arms Survey 2011: Profiling the Problem. Oxford University Press. p. 75. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- Marchington, James (2004). The Encyclopedia of Handheld Weapons. Miami: Lewis International. ISBN 1-930983-14-X.
- Bemil (17 October 2008). 신생 압하지야공화국 군의 퍼레이드 [Parade of the forces of the new Abkhaz Republic]. The Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- Ferguson, Jonathan & Jenzen-Jones, N.R. (November 2014). "Raising Red Flags: An Examination of Arms & Munitions in the Ongoing Conflict in Ukraine" (PDF). Armament Research Services (ARES). Retrieved 26 October 2021.
- "Putin Gives Green Light For Incorporating Some South Ossetian Units Into Russian Army".
- "The Victory Day Parade That Everyone Forgot".
- "Dossier on LTTE Weapons | Military Technology | Projectile Weapons". Scribd. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
- "From Russia with Love, Syria's AK-74Ms". Bellingcat. 19 February 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
- "IS leader appears in video for first time in 5 years". AP News. 30 April 2019. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
- Small Arms Survey (2006). "Fuelling Fear: The Lord's Resistance Army and Small Arms". Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business. Oxford University Press. p. 283. ISBN 978-0-19-929848-8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 August 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- "AK-74 Kalakov infographic". Graphic News. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
- Cutshaw, Charlie (1998). The New World of Russian Small Arms & Ammo. Boulder, Colo.: Paladin Press. ISBN 978-0-87364-993-3.
- Kokalis, Peter (2001). Weapons Tests and Evaluations: The Best of Soldier of Fortune. Boulder, Colo.: Paladin Press. ISBN 978-1-58160-122-0.
- McNab, Chris (2001). The AK47 (Weapons of War). Staplehurst, UK: Spellmount Publishers. ISBN 978-1-86227-116-6.
- Walter, John (2006). Rifles of the World (3rd ed.). Iola, Wis.: Krause Publications. ISBN 978-0-89689-241-5.
- Woźniak, Ryszard (2001). Encyklopedia najnowszej broni palnej – tom 1 A-F (in Polish). Warsaw, Poland: Bellona. pp. 25–29. ISBN 978-83-11-09149-8.
- Monetchikov, Sergei (2005). История русского автомата [The History of Russian Assault Rifle] (in Russian). St. Petersburg: Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps. ISBN 978-5-98655-006-0.
- Kalashnikov Concern/Izhmash—manufacturer's website 5.45 mm Assault Rifle AK74M
- Tula Arms Plant—makers of the AKS-74U carbine
- Modern Firearms – AK-74/AKS-74/AK-74M
- Modern Firearm – AKS-74U
- Zastava M92
- Technical data, instructional images and diagrams of the AK-47M (in Russian)
- russianguns.ru Archived 2016-08-08 at the Wayback Machine