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PDB 1bxs EBI.jpg
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases ALDH1A1, ALDC, ALDH-E1, ALDH1, ALDH11, HEL-9, HEL-S-53e, HEL12, PUMB1, RALDH1, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A1
External IDs MGI: 1353450 HomoloGene: 110441 GeneCards: 216
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 9: 72.9 – 73.08 Mb Chr 19: 20.6 – 20.64 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
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Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1, also known as ALDH1A1 or retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (RALDH1), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALDH1A1 gene.[1][2]


This protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenases family of proteins. Aldehyde dehydrogenase is the second enzyme of the major oxidative pathway of alcohol metabolism. Two major liver isoforms of this enzyme, cytosolic and mitochondrial, can be distinguished by their electrophoretic mobilities, kinetic properties, and subcellular localizations. Most Caucasians have two major isozymes, while approximately 50% of East Asians have only the cytosolic isozyme, missing the mitochondrial isozyme. A remarkably higher frequency of acute alcohol intoxication among East Asians than among Caucasians could be related to the absence of the mitochondrial isozyme. This gene encodes the main cytosolic isoform, which has a lower affinity for aldehydes than the mitochondrial enzyme.[3]

ALDH1A1 also belongs to the group of corneal crystallins that help maintain the transparency of the cornea.[4]


  1. ^ Pereira F, Rosenmann E, Nylen E, Kaufman M, Pinsky L, Wrogemann K (March 1991). "The 56 kDa androgen binding protein is an aldehyde dehydrogenase". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 175 (3): 831–8. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(91)91640-X. PMID 1709013. 
  2. ^ Hsu LC, Tani K, Fujiyoshi T, Kurachi K, Yoshida A (June 1985). "Cloning of cDNAs for human aldehyde dehydrogenases 1 and 2". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82 (11): 3771–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.82.11.3771. PMC 397869. PMID 2987944. 
  3. ^ "Entrez Gene: ALDH1A1". 
  4. ^ Jester JV, Moller-Pedersen T, Huang J, Sax CM, Kays WT, Cavangh HD, Petroll WM, Piatigorsky J (March 1999). "The cellular basis of corneal transparency: evidence for 'corneal crystallins'". J. Cell. Sci. 112. ( Pt 5): 613–22. PMID 9973596. 

Further reading[edit]

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.