American Legislative Exchange Council
|Type||Tax exempt, nonprofit organization, 501(c)(3)|
|Headquarters||2900 Crystal Dr., 6th Fl.
(FYE December 2013)
The American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) is a nonprofit organization of conservative state legislators and private sector representatives who draft and share model state-level legislation for distribution among state governments in the United States.
ALEC provides a forum for state legislators and private sector members to collaborate on model bills—draft legislation that members may customize and introduce for debate in their own state legislatures. ALEC has produced model bills on a broad range of issues, such as reducing regulation and individual and corporate taxation, combating illegal immigration, loosening environmental regulations, tightening voter identification rules, weakening labor unions, and opposing gun control. Some of these bills dominate legislative agendas in states such as Arizona, Wisconsin, Colorado, Michigan, New Hampshire, and Maine. Approximately 200 model bills become law each year. ALEC also serves as a networking tool among certain state legislators, allowing them to research conservative policies implemented in other states. Many ALEC legislators say the organization converts campaign rhetoric and nascent policy ideas into legislative language.
ALEC's activities, while legal, received public scrutiny after being reported by liberal groups in 2011 and after news reports from outlets such as The New York Times and Bloomberg Businessweek described ALEC as an organization that gave corporate interests outsized influence. Resulting public pressure led to a number of legislators and corporations withdrawing from the organization.
- 1 History
- 2 Organization
- 3 Notable policies and model bills
- 3.1 'Stand Your Ground' laws
- 3.2 Voter identification
- 3.3 Immigration
- 3.4 Animal and Ecological Terrorism Act
- 3.5 Criminal sentencing and prison management
- 3.6 Energy and the environment
- 3.7 Telecommunications and information technology
- 3.8 Health care
- 3.9 Other issues
- 3.10 Outside the United States
- 4 Training and assistance
- 5 Secrecy and transparency
- 6 Corporate influence and allegations of lobbying activity
- 7 Funding
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
1973 to 2010
ALEC was founded in 1973 in Chicago as the Conservative Caucus of State Legislators a project initiated by Mark Rhoads, an Illinois state house staffer, to counter the Environmental Protection Agency, wage, and price controls, and to respond to the defeat of Barry Goldwater in the 1964 presidential election.
Conservative legislators felt the word "conservative" was unpopular with the public at the time, however, so the organization was renamed as, the American Legislative Exchange Council. In 1975, with the support of the American Conservative Union, ALEC registered as a federal nonprofit agency. Bill Moyers and Greenpeace have attributed the establishment of ALEC to the influential Powell Memorandum, which led to the rise of a new business activist movement in the 1970s.
ALEC was co-founded by conservative activist Paul Weyrich, who also co-founded The Heritage Foundation. Henry Hyde, who later became a U.S. congressman, and Lou Barnett, who later became national political director of Ronald Reagan's Political Action Committee, also helped to found ALEC. Early members included a number of state and local politicians who went on to statewide office, including Bob Kasten, Tommy Thompson, and Scott Walker of Wisconsin, John Engler of Michigan, Terry Branstad of Iowa, Mitch Daniels of Indiana, and John Boehner and John Kasich of Ohio. Several members of Congress also were involved in the organization during its early years, including Rep. Jack Kemp of New York, Sen. Jesse Helms of North Carolina, Sen. James L. Buckley of New York, Rep. Phil Crane of Illinois, and Rep Eric Cantor of Virginia.
In the 1980s, ALEC opposed U.S. disinvestment from South Africa, a movement to put pressure on the South African government to embark on negotiations with a goal of dismantling apartheid. In 1985, ALEC also published a memo that opposed "the current homosexual movement", portrayed homosexuality as a result of a conscious choice, and said that pedophilia was "one of the more dominant practices within the homosexual world". ALEC spokesman Bill Meierling discussed the document in 2013 and said that ALEC does not draft model bills on social issues, and added, "I'm also sad that the critics would not acknowledge that organizations change over time."
Duane Parde served as the executive director from December 1996 to January 2006. Lori Roman, who served in the same role from 2006 to 2008, had an imperious style that led to financial difficulties and the departure of two thirds of ALEC's staff. According to Dolores Mertz, then a Democratic Iowa state representative and chairwoman of the ALEC board, ALEC became increasingly partisan during that period, with Roman once telling Mertz "she didn't like Democrats and she wasn't going to work with them." Ron Scheberle became executive director in 2010 after acting as a lobbyist for Verizon Communications (previously GTE) and as an ALEC board member.
By 2011, the number of ALEC legislative members had reached 2,000, including more than 25 percent of all state legislators nationwide. Approximately 1,000 bills based on ALEC language were being introduced in state legislatures every year, with approximately 20% of those bills being enacted.
2011 to present
Prior to 2011, ALEC's practices and its ties to specific pieces of legislation were little known outside of political circles. In July 2011, The Nation published a series of articles produced in collaboration with the Center for Media and Democracy (CMD) that showcased some of the ALEC model bills and described ties to the Koch family, and CMD launched a website "ALEC Exposed" that documented more than 800 of ALEC model bills, the legislators and corporations that had helped to draft them, and the states that enacted them.
The joint effort, and particularly its coverage of ALEC's push for tough voter ID laws, prompted the advocacy group Color of Change to launch a public campaign to pressure corporations to withdraw their ALEC memberships.
The criticism among media outlets and political opponents was that ALEC was secretly subverting democratic institutions to further the aims of its corporate benefactors. Oregon state representative and ALEC member Gene Whisnant said in December 2011, "We're getting a lot of attention saying we're trying to destroy the earth and everything on it." ALEC staff and members promoted the organization as promoting public-private partnerships for the advancement of free market principles. ALEC senior director of membership and development Chaz Cirame said, "The hook about some conspiracy or some secret organization is a lot better story than one about bringing state legislators together to talk about best practices around the country."
The shooting of Trayvon Martin on February 26, 2012 led to increased public attention on "Stand-your-ground" gun laws that ALEC had supported. Color of Change launched a new campaign in April to pressure ALEC corporate members to withdraw. More than sixty corporations and foundations, including Coca-Cola, Wendy's, Kraft Foods, McDonald's, Amazon.com, General Electric, Apple, Procter & Gamble, Walmart, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the medical insurance group Blue Cross and Blue Shield dropped support of ALEC in the ensuing weeks or let their memberships lapse. Thirty-four legislative members also left ALEC.
ALEC responded by releasing a statement describing efforts by its critics as a "campaign launched by a coalition of extreme liberal activists committed to silencing anyone who disagrees with their agenda". Conservative political commentator Ben Shapiro wrote that liberals intimidated ALEC by "wielding the corpse of Trayvon Martin" as part of a broader anti-capitalist push. Doug Clopp of Common Cause credited ALEC Exposed for the successful campaign, saying that "for 40 years you couldn't get the kind of accountability we're seeing now because ALEC, its members, its legislators, its bills were secret."
In late 2014, a number of technology-oriented companies such as Google, Microsoft, Facebook, Ebay, and Yahoo! announced that they were ending their ties to ALEC. Multiple companies cited environmental concerns as a point of contention with the organization.
In response to the departure of Northrop Grumman, an ALEC spokesperson said, "Like any other membership group, membership in ALEC ebbs and flows, and in 2014 we gained far more private-sector members than we lost." T-Mobile and BP severed ties with ALEC in 2015.
As of December 2013, ALEC had more than 85 members of Congress and 14 sitting or former governors who were considered "alumni". The majority of the ALEC legislative members belong to the Republican Party. Membership statistics presented at an ALEC board meeting in 2013 indicated that the 1,810 members represented 24% of all state legislative seats across the U.S., and that ALEC members represented 100% of the legislative seats in Iowa and South Dakota. It also has approximately 300 corporate, foundation, and other private-sector members. The chairmanship of ALEC is a rotating position, with a new legislator appointed to the position each year. As of 2012[update], 28 out of 33 of its chairs had been Republicans.
ALEC has nine "task forces" that generate model bills that members may customize and introduce for debate in their own state legislatures. Private sector members effectively have veto power over model bills drafted by the task forces.
The ALEC Public Safety and Elections Task Force, which promoted stand your ground gun laws and voter identification requirements, was disbanded in April 2012. Thereafter, the National Center for Public Policy Research announced the creation of a voter ID task force to replace the one discontinued by ALEC.
Bills drafted by the task forces must be approved by the ALEC board of directors, composed exclusively of legislators, before they are designated as model bills. ALEC also has a "Private Enterprise Advisory Council", which meets whenever the board of directors meets. Council members include representatives from prominent corporations such as ExxonMobil, Pfizer, AT&T, SAP SE, State Farm Insurance, and Koch Industries. ALEC statements assert that the council provides advice to the board of directors. Former ALEC co-chairman Noble Ellington said in 2011, "I really kind of think of us as one board," although he added, "It’s certainly not our goal to sit there and do everything that business wants to have done."
Day-to-day operations are run from ALEC's Arlington, Virginia, office by an executive director and a staff of approximately 30. ALEC's bylaws specify that, "... full membership shall be open to persons dedicated to the preservation of individual liberty, basic American values and institutions, productive free enterprise, and limited representative government, who support the purposes of ALEC, and who serve, or formerly serve, as members of a state or territorial legislature, the United States Congress, or similar bodies outside the United States."
ALEC also has a "Board of Scholars" that advises staff and members. The board is composed of Arthur Laffer, an economist who served on Ronald Reagan's Economic Policy Advisory Board; Victor Schwartz, chair of Public Policy at Shook, Hardy & Bacon; Richard Vedder, economics professor emeritus at Ohio University and adjunct scholar at the American Enterprise Institute; and Bob Williams, founder of the Evergreen Freedom Foundation.
ALEC also has ties to the State Policy Network (SPN), a national association of conservative and libertarian think-tanks. SPN is a member of ALEC, and ALEC is an associate member of the SPN. SPN encourages its members to join ALEC, and many members of SPN are also members of ALEC. Some of the think tanks in the SPN write model legislation, which then is introduced at ALEC private meetings. ALEC is "SPN's sister organisation" according to The Guardian.
ALEC is registered as a charity in 37 states.
In 2003, Donald Ray Kennard, then a Louisiana state representative and ALEC national chairman, said, "We are a very, very conservative organization... We're just espousing what we really believe in." Craig Horn, a North Carolina state representative and ALEC member, said of ALEC in 2013, "It's a lightning rod organization because it has a decidedly conservative bent—there’s no doubt about it."
Notable policies and model bills
The ALEC website states that its goal is to advance "the fundamental principles of free-market enterprise, limited government, and federalism". In 2003, Donald Ray Kennard, then a Louisiana state representative and ALEC national chairman, said, "We are a very, very conservative organization... We're just espousing what we really believe in." Craig Horn, a North Carolina state representative and ALEC member, said of ALEC in 2013, "It's a lightning rod organization because it has a decidedly conservative bent—there’s no doubt about it."
Although ALEC originally focused on social issues such as abortion, which it opposed, in more recent years the group has focused more on business and regulatory matters. According to John Nichols of The Nation, ALEC's agenda "seems to be dictated at almost every turn by multinational corporations. It's to clear the way for lower taxes, less regulation, a lot of protection against lawsuits, [and] ALEC is very, very active in [the] opening up of areas via privatization for corporations to make more money, particularly in places you might not usually expect like public education."
A Brookings Institution study of state legislation introduced in 2011–2012 found that ALEC model bills that became law were linked most often to controversial social and economic issues. The study concluded that this phenomenon has hurt ALEC because, "Dirtying its hands with social issues undermines ALEC's ability to exercise influence over fiscal ones."
'Stand Your Ground' laws
'Stand Your Ground' gun laws expanded to 30 states through the support of ALEC, after Florida passed its law in 2005. After the Florida law had been passed, ALEC adopted a model bill with the same wording. In the wake of the shooting of Trayvon Martin in 2012, ALEC's support for Stand Your Ground laws ultimately led to the departure of high-profile corporate members such as Coca-Cola, Microsoft, Bank of America, and General Motors.
Prior to 2012, legislation based on ALEC model bills was introduced in many states to mandate or strengthen requirements that voters produce state-issued photographic identification. The bills were passed and signed into law in six states. Voter identification bills introduced in 34 states would have made voting more difficult for students, the elderly, and the poor.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2014)
The "Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act", an Arizona law commonly known as "SB 1070", was drafted during an ALEC meeting in December 2009 and became an ALEC model bill. Enacted in 2010, SB 1070 was described as the toughest illegal immigration law in the U.S. Portions of SB 1070 were held by the Supreme Court to be preempted by federal law in 2012.
Bills similar to SB 1070 were passed in Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, and Utah, and have been introduced in 17 other states.
Animal and Ecological Terrorism Act
One of ALEC's model bills is the "Animal and Ecological Terrorism Act", which classifies certain property destruction, acts of intimidation, and civil disobedience by environmental and animal rights activists as terrorism. This model bill appeared across the U.S. in various forms since it was drafted in 2003. The federal "Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act" has notable similarities, and at points almost verbatim language, to ALEC's model "Animal and Ecological Terrorism Act". The Senate version of the "Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act" was sponsored by Senator James Inhofe, a long-time member of ALEC.
Many ag-gag bills are also similar to ALEC's model "Animal and Ecological Terrorism Act", which would make it against the law to film, videotape, or take photographs on livestock farms in order to "defame the facility or its owner". People found to be in violation would be put in a "terrorist registry".
Criminal sentencing and prison management
According to Governing magazine, "ALEC has been a major force behind both privatizing state prison space and keeping prisons filled." ALEC has developed model bills advancing "tough on crime" initiatives, including "truth in sentencing" and "three strikes" laws. Critics argue that by funding and participating in ALEC's Criminal Justice Task Force, private prison companies directly influence legislation for tougher, longer sentences. Corrections Corporation of America and Wackenhut Corrections, two of the largest for-profit prison companies in the U.S. (as of 2004[update]), have been contributors to ALEC. ALEC also has worked to pass state laws to allow the creation of private-sector for-profit prisons.
Marie Gottschalk, professor of political science at the University of Pennsylvania, said that ALEC has played a major role in "liberating the private sector to employ penal labor and expand the privatization of corrections." Economist Paul Krugman wrote in 2012 that ALEC had "a special interest in privatization—that is, on turning the provision of public services, from schools to prisons, over to for-profit corporations," and as such played a significant role in the "penal–industrial complex". As an example, Krugman wrote that the American Bail Coalition had declared publicly that ALEC was its "life preserver."
ALEC disbanded the task force that favored harsh sentencing and now says it supports reducing prison overcrowding and lowering the costs associated with the criminal justice system. It now promotes investing taxpayer money in alternatives to incarceration, such as electronic monitoring.
Energy and the environment
ALEC pushed for deregulation of the electricity industry in the 1990s. Maneuvering between two private sector members, the former energy trader, Enron, and the utilities trade association, Edison Electric Institute (EEI), resulted in EEI withdrawing its ALEC membership. Enron's position on the matter was adopted by ALEC and subsequently, by many state legislatures.
In 2011, ALEC adopted model legislation having to do with public "right to know" laws regarding what fluids are used in hydraulic fracturing (also known as "fracking") that was promoted as a victory for the right of consumers to know about potential drinking water contaminants, in spite of the fact that the bill contained "loopholes that would allow energy companies to withhold the names of certain fluid contents, for reasons including that they have been deemed trade secrets".
ALEC has promoted a model bill that called plans in 2011 by the federal Environmental Protection Agency to regulate greenhouse gas emissions, a "train wreck" that would harm the economy, and it has supported efforts by various states to withdraw from regional climate change compacts. In 2013, their resolution stated "Alec is very concerned about the potential economic impact of greenhouse gas regulation on electricity prices and the harm EPA regulations may have on the economic recovery". ALEC also has promoted a model bill that would call on the federal government to approve the proposed Keystone XL project, which would extend a synthetic crude oil pipeline from oil sands in Alberta, Canada to Nebraska.
In 2013, ALEC planned legislation that would weaken state clean energy regulations and penalize homeowners who install their own solar panels and redistribute the electricity back into the grid, whom ALEC has described as "freeriders" because they do not pay for the infrastructure costs of recirculating their generated power.
Also in 2013, ALEC adopted a model bill saying that the role of human activity in causing climate change was uncertain, that man-made climate change could be "deleterious, neutral or possibly beneficial," and that the cost of regulating greenhouse gas emissions could cause "great economic dislocation." ALEC also has invited climate change skeptics, such as Craig Idso, to speak at its national meetings. In 2015 Common Cause and the League of Conservation Voters pointed to such behavior to accuse ALEC of denying climate change. ALEC responded by threatening legal action, denying that ALEC supports climate change denial, and saying it has more recently welcomed debate on the subject and supported renewable energy and carbon tax policies to curb global warming.
Several corporations have announced that their affiliations with ALEC will be allowed to lapse over disagreement with the group's opposition to action on climate change. These include Ford Motor Company, British Petroleum, Microsoft, Google, and Royal Dutch Shell. A statement by Shell said "its stance on climate change is clearly inconsistent with our own...We have long recognized both the importance of the climate challenge and the critical role energy has in determining quality of life for people across the world." An ALEC spokesperson responded "Climate change activists have conflated our opposition to the government picking winners and losers as climate change denial."
In December 2016 Tesla Motors (not an ALEC member) hosted an ALEC event in Washington, D.C., where ALEC promoted its "Energy Innovation Project", that was partly funded by the ClearPath Foundation. The project guides states toward innovation and entrepreneurship surrounding U.S. energy resources.
Telecommunications and information technology
AT&T and Verizon drafted ALEC model legislation prohibiting public broadband services and "sunsetting" the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).[unreliable source?] Names of its 172-member task force, the agenda of a December 2010 meeting, and its minutes that included a resolution regarding traffic pumping were published by Common Cause. In February 2014, Senate Bill 304 in Kansas was introduced, "prohibiting cities and counties from building public broadband networks and providing internet service to businesses and citizens". The bill contains an "underserved area" exemption for public wi-fi, but the exemption criterion is not met anywhere in Kansas. The city of Chanute, Kansas, which has led broadband development since the 1980s, financed through its public electricity company, including free wi-fi in its college, hospital, and public spaces, and a 4g mobile data network, felt under attack by the bill. The bill failed.
ALEC opposes the individual health insurance mandate enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (commonly known as the "ACA" or "Obamacare"). ALEC filed an amicus brief in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, urging the Supreme Court to strike down the individual mandate of the ACA. In 2011 ALEC published the "State Legislators Guide to Repealing ObamaCare", which has served as a road map for repeal efforts. ALEC also has drafted a variety of model bills designed to block implementation of the law.
In August 2013, ALEC approved the "Health Care Freedom Act" as a model bill that aims to strip health insurers of their licenses to do business at the federal health care exchanges of ACA if they accepted any subsidies under the system. Sean Riley, the head of the ALEC Health and Human Services task force, said the aim of the proposed legislation was to protect businesses from the ACA's employer mandate. Slate journalist David Weigel has called the bill a "sneak attack" on the ACA. Health insurance experts have predicted that if the bill were widely adopted by Republican-controlled states, it would seriously disrupt the exchange and threaten the ACA. Wendell Potter, former health insurance executive and CMD fellow, said, "You cannot build the healthcare system based on the free market unless you have subsidies. If they are taken away the whole thing collapses."
In 1989, ALEC published the draft "HIV Assault Act", which made it a crime for someone who is knowingly infected with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) to have sex with a person who is not infected, without disclosing the HIV infection. The bill made having such sex without disclosure a criminal offense, even when HIV was not transmitted. Alan Smith, who worked on the draft, said the proposed law was a response to worries that people with AIDS were deliberately infecting others, "to make sure more people got it so more research money could be devoted to curing it".
It has provided model legislation that led to the enactment of aggressive personal and corporate income tax cuts in Kansas in 2012. Governor Sam Brownback, who promoted and signed the legislation, was advised by the supply-side economist and ALEC board member, Arthur Laffer, who said at the time that the cuts would pay for themselves and lead to increased growth. By fall 2014, however, the tax cuts had led to the depletion of a $700 million budget surplus, and although Kansas had experienced 6.6% job growth from 2010 to 2013, that figure lagged behind the nation's overall 8.8% job growth for the same period.
Outside the United States
In July 2012, The Guardian ran an article reporting that ALEC had taken action to oppose plain cigarette packaging laws outside the United States. It is contacting governments that are planning to introduce bans on cigarette branding, including the UK and Australia. ALEC's actions in funding and advising these efforts against "plain packaging" of tobacco products was cited as partial motivation for an academic study on the effectiveness of plain packaging, which found that "plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use."
Karla Jones, a task force director for ALEC, told participants at a meeting that proposed laws in Canada, the UK, and Australia would prohibit branding of tobacco products. She said that the brands were the corporations' most valuable assets. ALEC wrote to the Australian government stating that U.S. legislators opposed the requirements for plain packaging. ALEC also has stated that generic cigarettes increase cigarette consumption, rather than reducing it.
Training and assistance
In addition to providing a forum for the drafting of model legislation that may be adapted easily, ALEC also provides assistance and training to its legislative members. The Oregon co-chairman of ALEC, Gene Whisnant, described the organization in 2012 as a "great resource" for part-time legislators with limited staff resources. Mark Pocan, a Democratic congressman from Wisconsin and former member of the Wisconsin Assembly, said in 2012 that ALEC advises members, "'Don't just introduce a single piece of legislation, introduce 14.' That way people can't oppose any one bill." At one ALEC meeting, media experts gave messaging advice and taught legislators how to use Twitter to move ALEC bills through their chambers. Attendants also offered to write op-ed articles in local newspapers for the legislators and to put lawmakers in touch with other subject matter experts.
Secrecy and transparency
Although Governing Magazine reported in 2003 that ALEC meetings traditionally had been open to the public, news organizations have reported since then, that many meetings are held in private. ALEC policy seminars are open to reporters and other nonmembers, but public conference agendas, unlike those distributed to members, do not include the names of presenters, the lists of legislative and private-sector board chairs, nor the corporate sponsors of the seminars. Task force meetings and bill-drafting sessions are held behind closed doors. Bloggers from ThinkProgress and AlterNet were removed from conferences for attempting to take photographs of such sessions and tweeting the names of ALEC members who participated. In 2013, Washington Post columnist Dana Milbank was turned away from the ALEC annual "policy summit" and told by spokesperson Bill Meierling that subcommittee meetings and task force meetings were closed-door. Meierling said ALEC was introducing transparency gradually, but it "can't just kick the doors open". Shortly after the Milbank incident, the Brookings Institution reported that ALEC's activities during its closed-door meetings are "still a mystery", and that "ALEC could have a tremendous influence over lawmaking in the American states, or it could have none at all—we just don't know." In 2014, Nebraska legislator and former ALEC member Jeremy Nordquist described ALEC as a "faceless organization", saying, "It's allowing these corporate interests to just duck and cover, and hide from really stepping into the public square and putting their ideas forward."
ALEC does not disclose its membership list nor the origins of its model bills. Lawmakers generally propose ALEC-drafted bills in their states without disclosing the ALEC authorship. For instance, in 2012 The Star-Ledger analyzed more than 100 bills and regulations previously proposed by the administration of New Jersey governor Chris Christie and found a pattern of similarities with ALEC model bills that was "too strong to be accidental". The connections were based "not on similarity of broad ideas, but on specific numbers, time frames, benchmarks and language". Legislative staffers in the Christie administration had "mined ALEC for advice on budgetary matters, Medicaid changes and privatizing government services...beginning in the earliest days of Christie's governorship". William Schluter, vice chairman of the New Jersey Ethics Commission and a former Republican state senator, said there was a "clear connection between ALEC and the proposed New Jersey legislation". A Christie spokesperson denied any connection between the two.
One exception to this pattern came in November 2011, when former Florida State Representative Rachel Burgin introduced legislation to call on the federal government to reduce its corporate tax rate. She mistakenly included the boilerplate "WHEREAS, it is the mission of the American Legislative Exchange Council to advance Jeffersonian principles of free markets, limited government, federalism, and individual liberty..." When the inclusion of the ALEC mission statement was discovered, the bill was withdrawn and resubmitted without the phrase. The American Prospect journalist Abby Rapoport wrote that the incident "seems to confirm what many have assumed was occurring in state legislatures—and while Burgin's bill was hardly a major piece of legislation, ALEC's reach in important policy areas seems hard to overestimate."
Critics sometimes argue that by adopting ALEC model bills without disclosure, state officials are handing off the duty of doing their own work to a business-centered lobby. In early 2012, Democratic lawmakers in Arizona and Wisconsin introduced the "ALEC Accountability Act of 2012", which would have required corporations to disclose ALEC funding. Arizona House of Representatives Assistant Minority Leader Steve Farley, sponsor of the Arizona bill, argued that corporations have the right to present arguments, but not secretly.
Prior to 2013, access to ALEC model bills was restricted, and its website required a password to access them. On July 13, 2011, the Center for Media and Democracy, in cooperation with The Nation, posted 850 model bills created during a 30-year period, and created a web project, ALEC Exposed, to host these model bills. The leak has been credited with triggering critical coverage about ALEC in both left-wing and mainstream media outlets. ALEC subsequently published its model bills on its website, although the Brookings Institution wrote in 2013 that there was "reason to believe" its list was incomplete.
On October 1, 2012, Common Cause, a liberal political advocacy group, along with the Center for Media and Democracy (CMD), filed a lawsuit under a Wisconsin open records law alleging five Republican lawmakers did not disclose whether they had used personal e-mail accounts for correspondence with ALEC. In one instance, a Wisconsin legislative representative had requested of ALEC in June 2012 that all correspondence be sent to his personal account. According to CMD, the legislators settled the suit in late October 2012, allowing their personal e-mails to be searched for such contacts and paying $2,500 in court costs as part of the settlement.
In 2013, ALEC's North Carolina state chairman Jason Saine described the organization as "a resource for experts you can tap that follow a philosophy that you do from a less government viewpoint", and said, "It's not just some big secretive organization that it's been portrayed."
Corporate influence and allegations of lobbying activity
The level of influence that the ALEC private-sector members hold over its public-sector members has been controversial. According to The New York Times, "special interests effectively turn ALEC's lawmaker members into stealth lobbyists, providing them with talking points, signaling how they should vote, and collaborating on bills affecting hundreds of issues like school vouchers and tobacco taxes." The Guardian has described ALEC as "a dating agency for Republican state legislators and big corporations, bringing them together to frame rightwing legislative agendas in the form of 'model bills'". The Free Lance-Star has reported that ALEC had "matured into one of Big Business's most effective lobbying tools". Bloomberg Businessweek described the organization as a "bill laundry" that "offers companies substantial benefits that seem to have little to do with ideology." Chris Taylor, a Democratic Wisconsin state assemblyman who attended an ALEC conference in 2013, described ALEC as a "well-oiled machine" and said, "In my observation, it was the corporations and the right-wing think tanks driving the agendas. Corporations have as big a say as the legislators in the model legislation that is adopted."
ALEC legislative members generally deny being overly influenced by the organization or its model legislation, and argue that corporate input in the drafting process helps to promote business growth. "ALEC is unique in the sense that it puts legislators and companies together and they create policy collectively," said Scott Pruitt, then an Oklahoma state representative and ALEC task force chair. Vance Wilkins, a former Republican speaker of the Virginia House of Delegates and ALEC member, said in 2002, "Just because business writes a bill doesn't make it bad. We get bills from all angles. And we still have to debate the issue." Whisnant, ALEC's Oregon co-chair, acknowledged in 2012 that corporations sometimes write model bills to promote their own interests and added, "But that doesn't mean I'll support them." Harvey Morgan, another former Virginia delegate and ALEC member, said of ALEC conferences, "You know before you go that the big-business view will prevail, and that's not necessarily bad. I still would like them to be a little more objective."
Alan Rosenthal, a former Rutgers University political science professor and expert on state legislatures and lobbying, said in 2012, "Legislators don't sit down with a quill pen and draft legislation. I think legislators should have the right to turn to wherever they want to get the ideas they prefer... I have some confidence that they're not being flimflammed."
Experts agree that, regardless of its propriety, the ALEC model has been very effective. Bloomberg Politics reported in 2014 that ALEC had "no equal" in accessing conservative policymakers. Rosenthal said of ALEC, "You've had the interest groups having access and sitting on other task forces, but here you've really perfected it... You've not only got them gaining access and interacting with legislators but you have them shaping policy together. It seems to me that's a pretty major advance." Edwin Bender, executive director of the nonpartisan National Institute on Money in State Politics, has said, "What makes ALEC different is its effectiveness in not just bringing the people together but selling a piece of legislation that was written by the industry and for the industry and selling it as a piece of mainstream legislation."
Allegations of lobbying activity
In April 2012, Common Cause filed a complaint with the Internal Revenue Service objecting to ALEC's tax status as a nonprofit organization and alleged that lobbying accounted for more than 60% of its expenditures. ALEC formally denied lobbying, although Delores Mertz, who had previously served as chairwoman of the ALEC board, said she was "concerned about the lobbying that's going on, especially with [ALEC's] 501(c)3 status". Reporting on the allegations, Bloomberg Businessweek compared ALEC's work to that of lobbyists, noting, "part of ALEC's mission is to present industry-backed legislation as grass-roots work," and that being a nonprofit rather than a lobby group allows deductibility of membership dues and freedom from disclosing the names of legislators who attend its educational seminars or the executives who give presentations to those legislators. William Schluter, vice chairman of the New Jersey Ethics Commission and a former Republican state senator, said of ALEC's activities, "When you get right down to it, this is not different from lobbying. It is lobbying. ...Any kind of large organization that adds to public policy or has initiatives involving public policy should be disclosed—not only their name, but who is backing them." According to Governing magazine, ALEC legislators often have their travel expenses paid as "scholarships" and are "wined and dined and golf-coursed" by private sector members. In July 2013 Common Cause submitted a supplemental brief to the IRS complaining about these practices.
ALEC responded to the original Common Cause complaint by denying it engaged in lobbying, while saying that liberal groups were attacking ALEC because "they don't have a comparable group that is as effective as ALEC in enacting policies into law." As of 2015[update] the IRS investigation remained open.
Statutes in Colorado, South Carolina, and Indiana exempt ALEC, specifically by name, from having to register as a lobbyist and report lobbying expenditures. In 2013 ALEC created a 501(c)(4) organization called the "Jeffersonian Project" that, according to The Guardian, "would allow Alec to be far more overt in its lobbying activities than its current charitable status as a 501(c)(3)".
As of 2011[update], corporation, think tank, and trade group members accounted for almost 99% of ALEC's $7 million budget. Legislators pay $100 in biennial membership dues, or $50 per year, while non-legislators pay $7,000 to $25,000 to join, and more to participate in the task forces. In 2010, NPR reported that tax records showed that corporations had collectively paid as much as $6 million a year to ALEC. ALEC's total revenue in 2011 was $9 million.
In 2010, ALEC received $100,000 each from AT&T, Allergan, and R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company to be named as "president level" sponsors at its annual meeting. Eleven other members, including Pfizer (PFE) and the Institute for Legal Reform, paid $50,000 each to be named as "chairman level" sponsors. As of 2011[update], Altria, the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association, and BP America were also $50,000 chairman level sponsors.
Exxon Mobil's foundation donated $30,000 to ALEC in both 2005 and 2006. Alan Jeffers, an Exxon Mobil spokesman, said the company paid $39,000 in dues in 2010 and sponsored a reception at the annual meeting in San Diego for $25,000. In August 2011, Exxon spent $45,000 to sponsor a workshop on natural gas. According to the Center For Public Integrity, ALEC received $150,000 from Charles and David Koch in 2011. Greenpeace claims that ALEC has received $525,858 from Koch foundations between 2005 and 2011.
Corporate members also pay $3,000 to $10,000 for seats on task forces.
According to a December 2013 article in The Guardian, ALEC faced a funding shortfall after "losing more than a third of its projected income" when some 400 state legislators left its membership, along with more than 60 corporate donors. The organization's 2013 tax return indicated a 13% drop in total revenue from $8.4 million to $7.3 million.
- Council of State Governments
- National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL)
- State Government Affairs Council
- State Innovation Exchange (SiX) (formerly the American Legislative and Issue Campaign), an organization that produces model legislation from a progressive standpoint
- "Charity Rating" (PDF). Guidestar. Also see "Quickview data". GuideStar.
Total Revenue: $8,425,051; Total Expenses: $8,642,647 [FYE December 2012]
- May, Clifford (1987-08-30). "Transportation Chief Attacks Congress on Safety". The New York Times.
- Goodman, Howard (March 23, 2013). "NRA's Behind-the-Scenes Campaign Encouraged 'Stand Your Ground' Adoption". Florida Center for Investigative Reporting.
- Griffin, Marshall (January 14, 2014). "'Right-to-work' bill praised and blasted in House committee hearing". KBIA.
- Greenblatt, Alan (December 2011). "ALEC Enjoys A New Wave of Influence and Criticism". Governing.
- Pilkington, Ed (November 20, 2013). "Obamacare faces new threat at state level from corporate interest group Alec". The Guardian.
- Hernandez, Sergio (December 1, 2013). "Sex, Lies and HIV: When What You Don't Tell Your Partner Is a Crime". ProPublica.
- Greeley, Brendan (May 3, 2012). "ALEC's Secrets Revealed; Corporations Flee". Bloomberg Businessweek.
- McIntire, Mike (April 21, 2012). "Conservative Nonprofit Acts as a Stealth Business Lobbyist". The New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2012.
- Kraft, Michael E.; Kamieniecki, Sheldon (2007). Business and environmental policy : corporate interests in the American political system. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. p. 276. ISBN 978-0-262-61218-0.
[ALEC] provide[s] direct assistance to state legislators and firms eager to minimize any state government engagement in environmental protection. ALEC's membership base includes nearly one-third of all sitting state legislators and most of its resources are derived from corporations and trade associations. It offers regular conferences and training sessions but is perhaps best known for drafting model bills that can easily be adopted by an individual state and introduced into a legislature.
- Wisconsin: Labor Unions Protest Anti-Union Bill Copied from ALEC. Democracy Now! February 24, 2015.
- Rizzo, Salvador (April 3, 2012). "Some of Christie's biggest bills match model legislation from D.C. group called ALEC". The Star Ledger.
- Greenblatt, Alan (October 2003). "What Makes Alec Smart?". Governing.
- Fitzgerald, Alison (December 1, 2011). "Pssst ... Wanna Buy a Law?". Bloomberg Businessweek.
- Bishop, Bill (2009). The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded American Is Tearing Us Apart. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 203. ISBN 0547525192.
- Rizzo, Salvador (April 1, 2012). "At Arizona gathering, ALEC teaches lawmakers how to turn conservative ideas into law". The Star Ledger.
- Schoenwald, Jonathan M. (2002). A Time for Choosing: The Rise of Modern American Conservatism. Oxford University Press. p. 241. ISBN 0195157265.
- Lichtman, Allan J. (2009). White Protestant Nation: The Rise of the American Conservative Movement. Grove Press. p. 318. ISBN 0802144209.
- Cray, Charlie (August 23, 2011). "The Lewis Powell Memo – Corporate Blueprint to Dominate Democracy". Greenpeace.
- Moyers, Bill (November 2, 2011). "How Wall Street Occupied America]". The Nation.
- Williams, Juan (April 23, 2012). "Trayvon killing puts American Legislative Exchange Council in the spotlight". The Hill.
- Hunt, Thomas C.; Lasley, II, Thomas J., eds. (January 12, 2010). Encyclopedia of Educational Reform and Dissent. Vol. 1. Sage Publications.
- "ALEC's "Institutional Corruption", From Backing Apartheid to Assault on Clean Energy, Public Sector". Democracy Now!. December 11, 2013.
- Ashtari, Shadee (December 5, 2013). "Right Wing Group's Extreme Anti-Gay History Revealed In New Document". The Huffington Post.
- "Duane Parde, president". About NTU: Staff. National Taxpayers Union. 2009. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- Jacobs, Ben (May 4, 2012). "Former Chair Accuses ALEC of Anti-Democrat Bias". The Daily Beast.
- Scola, Nancy (April 14, 2012). "Exposing ALEC: How Conservative-Backed State Laws Are All Connected". The Atlantic.
- Cole, Michelle (May 26, 2012). "ALEC gains foothold in Oregon, with one-fourth of legislators as members". The Oregonian.
- Bedard, Paul (April 4, 2012). "Coke caves in face of Democratic boycott threat". The Washington Examiner. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
- McVeigh, Karen (April 6, 2012). "Coca-Cola and PepsiCo sever ties with group behind stand-your-ground laws". The Guardian. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
- Kroll, Andy. "The Gates Foundation Is Done Funding ALEC". Mother Jones. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
- Kroll, Andy (April 10, 2012). "McDonald's Says It Has Dumped ALEC". Mother Jones.
- Geller, Martinne; Saba, Jennifer (April 12, 2012). "Reed Elsevier, Wendy's drop conservative group". New York, New York: Reuters. Retrieved February 17, 2015.
- Overby, Peter (April 13, 2012). "Companies Flee Group Behind 'Stand Your Ground'". National Public Radio.
- Jeremy Duda, "American Traffic Solutions leaving ALEC, joining APS", azcapitoltimes.com, April 13, 2012.
- Julian Pecquet, "Blue Cross Blue Shield quits conservative legislative organization ALEC"
- Zielenziger, David (May 31, 2012). "Wal-Mart Leaves ALEC, 22nd Company To Exit Conservative Lobbying Group". International Business Times.
- Abowd, Paul (May 8, 2014). "ALEC exempted from lobbyist status in three separate states". Center for Public Integrity.
- Pilkington, Ed; Goldenberg, Suzanne (December 3, 2013). "ALEC facing funding crisis from donor exodus in wake of Trayvon Martin row". The Guardian.
- Shapiro, Ben (February 1, 2013). "EXCLUSIVE: 'Bullies' Excerpt: How The Left Crucified George Zimmerman". Breitbart.
- Tau, Byron; Palmer, Anna (March 5, 2013). "Center for American Progress adds Carmel Martin – Visa revamp continues – Bloom hangs a shingle – Tackett founds Wexford Strategic Advisors". Politico.
- Chokshi, Niraj (July 8, 2014). "ALEC, the free-market group liberals love to hate, gets a new boss". The Washington Post.
- Bykowicz, Julie (December 6, 2014). "The Corporations, and Dentists, That Still Love ALEC". Bloomberg Politics.
- Codrea-Rado, Anna (December 19, 2014). "Ebay joins Google and others in dumping Alec over climate stance". The Guardian. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
- Fung, Brian (September 22, 2014). "Google: We're parting with the climate change skeptics at ALEC". The Washington Post.
- "Facebook set to become latest tech giant to abandon rightwing lobby group Alec". The Guardian.
- Silicon Valley's Done With American Legislative Exchange Council
- "Yahoo, Yelp, Facebook, Google and Microsoft reconsider their relationship with free-market group ALEC".
- "Silicon Valley Companies Follow Google's Lead By Cutting Ties with ALEC". vice.com. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
- Volz, Dustin; Foran, Clare (September 29, 2014). "Large Oil Company Bolts From ALEC". National Journal. The Atlantic.
- Volz, Dustin (January 28, 2015). National Journal..
- Volz, Dustin (April 8, 2015). National Journal..
- Marois, Michael B. (March 23, 2015). "BP Ends Involvement With American Legislative Exchange Council". Reuters.
- "ALEC documents collection". The Guardian.
- "New Voter Identification Task Force Announced". National Center for Public Policy Research. April 18, 2012. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
- Ryan J. Reilly, "Conservative Group With Abramoff Scandal Ties Picks Up Voter ID Issue Where ALEC Left Off" Talking Points Memo
- Harrison, J.D. (August 7, 2014). "Nation's largest small-business group faces fresh skepticism over new link to ALEC". The Washington Post.
- "ALEC's 2009 IRS Form 990". Scribd.com. 2012-03-01. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
- "Board of Scholars". American Legislative Exchange Council. 2012. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
- Cohen, Rick (November 14, 2013). "Corporate Money in Network of Right-Wing State Policy Think Tanks". Nonprofit Quarterly. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
- Kopan, Tal (November 13, 2013). "Report: Think tanks tied to Kochs". Politico. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
- "SPN & ALEC: A Model Relationship". State Policy Network. Archived from the original on February 17, 2015. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
- Blumenthal, Paul (November 14, 2013). "Meet The Little-Known Network Pushing Ideas For Kochs, ALEC". The Huffington Post.
- Pilkington, Ed; Goldenberg, Suzanne (December 5, 2013). "State conservative groups plan US-wide assault on education, health and tax". The Guardian. London. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
- * Frank, John (May 6, 2013). "Private conservative group ALEC carries sway in legislature". The News & Observer.
- "About ALEC". American Legislative Exchange Council. Archived from the original on 2012-02-05.
- "Who's Really Writing States' Legislation?". Fresh Air, WHYY. NPR. July 21, 2011. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
- Jackman, Molly (December 6, 2013). "ALEC's Influence over Lawmaking in State Legislatures". Brookings Institution.
- Fisher, Marc; Eggen, Dan (April 7, 2012). "'Stand Your Ground' laws coincide with jump in justifiable-homicide cases". The Washington Post.
This sharp turn in American law—expanding the right to defend one's home from attack into a more general right to meet force with force in any public place—began in Florida in 2005 and has spread to more than 30 other states as a result of a campaign by the National Rifle Association and a corporate-backed group called the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), which promotes conservative bills.
- Amy Goodman; Mike Elk (2012-04-18). "ALEC Drops Push for Voter ID, Stand Your Ground Laws After Public Outcry Sparks Corporate Exodus". Democracy Now!. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- Ryan J. Reilly, "ALEC, NRA Pushed 'Stand Your Ground' Legislation At Center Of Trayvon Martin Killing" TPMMuckraker
- Sullivan, Laura (October 28, 2010). "Prison Economics Help Drive Ariz. Immigration Law". NPR.
- Archibold, Randal C. (April 23, 2010). "Arizona Enacts Stringent Law on Immigration". The New York Times.
- Barnes, Robert (June 25, 2012). "Supreme Court upholds key part of Arizona law for now, strikes down other provisions". The Washington Post.
- Will Potter, "'Ag Gag' Bills and Supporters Have Close Ties to ALEC", Green is the New Red, April 26, 2012.
- Oppel Jr., Richard A. (April 6, 2013). "Taping of Farm Cruelty Is Becoming the Crime". The New York Times. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
- Bill Moyers. Ag-Gag Laws Silence Whistleblowers. Moyers & Company, July 10, 2013.
- Beall, Pat (November 22, 2013). "Big business, legislators pushed for stiff sentences". The Palm Beach Post.
- Cheung, Amy (September 2004) "Prison Privatization and the Use of Incarceration" Archived 2007-07-14 at the Wayback Machine.. The Sentencing Project.
- Mike, Elk; Bob, Sloan (2011). "The Hidden History of ALEC and Prison Labor". The Nation.
- "New Exposé Tracks ALEC-Private Prison Industry Effort to Replace Unionized Workers with Prison Labor". Democracy Now!.
- Marie Gottschalk. Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics. Princeton University Press, 2014. p. 61
- Paul Krugman (March 25, 2012). Lobbyists, Guns and Money. The New York Times. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
- Goldenberg, Suzanne; Pilkington, Ed (December 4, 2013). "ALEC calls for penalties on 'freerider' homeowners in assault on clean energy". The Guardian.
- Verma, Sonia (December 13, 2013). "Republican legislative council pushes for Keystone approval". The Globe and Mail.
- ALEC 2013 Annual Meeting Policy Report via The Guardian
- Hamburger, Tom; Warrick, Joby; Mooney, Chris (April 5, 2015). "This conservative group is tired of being accused of climate denial — and is fighting back". The Washington Post.
- Pilkington, Ed (17 February 2016). "Ford becomes latest corporation to sever ties with conservative Alec lobby" – via The Guardian.
- Westervelt, Amy (23 March 2015). "BP joins list of companies fleeing Alec" – via The Guardian.
- Shell to leave ALEC over climate change stance. The Hill, 7 August 2015.
- "Tesla Hosts Lobby Group Shunned by Ford Over Climate Stance". Bloomberg.com. December 1, 2016. Archived from the original on December 2, 2016. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- "Tesla Hosts Lobbying Group Shunned by Ford Over Climate Stance (Mirror)". Bloomberg/Yahoo. December 1, 2016. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- Kushnick, Bruce (July 24, 2012). "ALEC, Tech and the Telecom Wars: Killing America's Telecom Utilities". Huffington Post. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- "Telecommunications & Information Technology Task Force Meeting ALEC States & Nation Policy Summit – Washington, DC" (PDF). Common Cause. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 5, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
- Lefler, Dion (February 1, 2014). "Proposed bill to outlaw community broadband service in Kansas met with opposition". Wichita Eagle. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
- "Cable co. blames "misinformation" for failure of municipal Internet ban".
- Weigel, David (December 17, 2013). "Obamacare Is Over (If You Want It)". Slate.
- "How ALEC Serves As A 'Dating Service' For Politicians And Corporations". NPR. December 10, 2013.
- Rothschild, Scott (December 17, 2013). "Brownback says perception of ALEC influence is 'overblown'". Lawrence Journal-World.
- Wistrom, Brent D. (August 14, 2012). "Economist Arthur Laffer says tax cuts will help Kansas grow". The Wichita Eagle.
- Jones, Tim; Oldham, Jennifer (November 2, 2014). "Brownback Faces Blowback as Kansas Tax Cuts Shutter Classrooms". Bloomberg Businessweek.
- Doward, Jamie (July 14, 2012). "US free market group tries to halt sales of cigarettes in plain packets in UK". The Guardian.
- Collin N. Smith, John D. Kraemer, Andrea C. Johnson & Darren Mays, Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?, Risk Management and Healthcare Policy 2015, 8: 21–30. doi:10.2147/RMHP.S63042.
- Milbank, Dana (December 4, 2013). "ALEC stands its ground". The Washington Post.
- "Why ALEC is so effective". All In with Chris Hayes. January 22, 2014. MSNBC.
- Goodman, Howard (April 18, 2012). "ALEC Under Fire in Florida". Florida Center for Investigative Reporting.
- Rapoport, Abby (February 3, 2012). "In Case You Were Underestimating ALEC's Role". The American Prospect.
- Celock, John (February 10, 2012). "ALEC Accountability Act In Arizona, Wisconsin Would Make Conservative Group Disclose Funding". Huffington Post.
- "Full Show: United States of ALEC". Moyers & Company.
- Kumar, Anita (December 27, 2011). "Ghostwriter at work for Virginia's assembly?". The Washington Post.
- Graves, Lisa (July 15, 2011). "ALEC Exposed: State Legislative Bills Drafted by Secretive Corporate-Lawmaker Coalition". Democracy Now!. New York. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- Nichols, John (July 13, 2011). "ALEC Exposed".
- "Wisconsin: Groups sue over lawmakers' emails, contact with conservative organization ALEC". Associated Press. October 2, 2012.
- Groups sue 5 GOP lawmakers over email records, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, Patrick Marley, October 1, 2012.
- "CMD and Common Cause Prevail in Open Records Lawsuit Against ALEC Legislators in Wisconsin" (Press release). Center for Media and Democracy. October 30, 2012.
- Shaw, Hank (June 10, 2002). "ALEC's friends bill taxpayers: Biggest industries come to control lobbying council". The Free Lance-Star. p. A1.
- VanEgeren, Jessica (August 10, 2013). "What Madison Rep. Chris Taylor learned at the ALEC conference". The Cap Times.
- Chokshi, Niraj (July 9, 2014). "Meet the new head of ALEC, the free-market group of state legislators". The Washington Post.
- Friedman, Matt (July 11, 2013). "Alan Rosenthal, politically influential New Jersey academic, dies". The Star-Ledger.
- Simpson, Ian (November 5, 2013). "Factbox: Candidates, money in Virginia governor's race". Reuters.
- Vekshin, Alison (November 28, 2013). "San Jose Pension Crush Spurs Bid to Ease California Pacts". Bloomberg News.
- Baker, Mike (April 23, 2012). "Advocacy group files IRS complaint against ALEC". Associated Press.
- "Supplemental Submission IRS Whistleblower complaint on ALEC". July 29, 2013. Archived from the original on March 31, 2014.
- Salant, Jonathan (April 23, 2012). "Republican Group Subject of IRS Complaint on Lobbying". Bloomberg Businessweek.
- Keefe, Brendan (July 3, 2015). "A charity for lawmakers? ALEC feeds them bills". WXIA-TV.
- Abowd, Paul (May 8, 2012). "ALEC exempted from lobbyist status in three separate states". Center for Public Integrity.
- Sullivan, Laura (October 29, 1010). "Shaping State Laws With Little Scrutiny". NPR.
- Fitzgerald, Alison (2011-07-21). "Koch, Exxon Mobil Among Corporations Helping Write State Laws". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
- Abowd, Paul. "Koch brothers pour more cash into think tanks, ALEC". January 31, 2013. The Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
- "Koch Industries Climate Denial Front Group American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC)". Greenpeace.
- 2013 Form 990 from GuideStar