ALWD Citation Manual

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ALWD Citation Manual

The ALWD Citation Manual is a legal citation system for the United States compiled by the Association of Legal Writing Directors. Its first edition was published in 2000. Currently, it is in its fifth edition (2014).

It primarily competes with the Bluebook style, a system developed by the law reviews at Harvard, Yale, The University of Pennsylvania, and Columbia. Citations in the two formats are roughly similar. However, ALWD differs from Bluebook in one key respect.

Under the Bluebook system, the type styles used in citations found in academic legal articles (always footnoted) are very different from those used in citations within court documents (always cited inline). While the ALWD system follows the standard convention of footnotes within academic articles and inline citations in court documents, it rejects Bluebook's insistence on using different type styles in the two classes of documents. The ALWD type style is identical to that used in the Bluebook system for citations within court documents.


Four U.S. jurisdictions have adopted ALWD:

In addition to that, 72 law schools and 47 paralegal schools have fully adopted ALWD. Law journals such as Animal Law, NAELA, and Legal Writing have also adopted ALWD.[4]


  1. ^ "Rules/Addena". Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013. 
  2. ^ "LOCAL BANKRUPTCY RULES FOR THE UNITED STATES BANKRUPTCY COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF MONTANA" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2006. Retrieved April 8, 2006. 
  3. ^ "Local Rules of Procedure: United States District Court for the District of Montana" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2006. Retrieved April 8, 2006. 
  4. ^ "ALWD Citation Manual adoptions". ALWD. Retrieved 2016-04-22.  Law school adoption numbers reported as of December 2002.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

  • The ALWD Citation Manual Aspen Publishers' dedicated ALWD Citation Manual website.
  • Cornell Legal Information Institute, Introduction to Basic Legal Citation, 2006, by Peter Martin.(Discusses differences between the Bluebook and ALWD.)
  • Raktas i Bluebook ir ALWD, [1], 2008, by Tadas Klimas.(Adapts Bluebook and ALWD to Lithuanian texts and sources.)