AMD Radeon Rx 200 series

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AMD Radeon R5/R7/R9 200 Series
AMD Radeon graphics logo
Release dateOctober 8, 2013
CodenameSouthern Islands
Sea Islands
Volcanic Islands
ArchitectureTeraScale 2
GCN 1st gen
GCN 2nd gen
GCN 3rd gen
Cards
Entry-levelRadeon R5 210
Radeon R5 220
Radeon R5 230
Radeon R5 235
Radeon R5 235X
Mid-rangeRadeon R7 240
Radeon R7 250
Radeon R7 250X
Radeon R7 260
Radeon R7 260X
Radeon R7 265
High-endRadeon R9 270
Radeon R9 270X
Radeon R9 280
Radeon R9 280X
Radeon R9 285
EnthusiastRadeon R9 290
Radeon R9 290X
Radeon R9 295X2
API support
Direct3D
OpenCLOpenCL 2.0 (GCN version) [2]
OpenGLOpenGL 4.5 (4.6 Windows 7+ and Adrenalin 18.4.1+)[3] [4] [5] [6][7]
VulkanVulkan 1.1 (GCN only) [8] [9] [10]
SPIR-V
History
PredecessorRadeon HD 7000 series
Radeon HD 8000 series
SuccessorRadeon R5/R7/R9 300 series

The AMD Radeon R5/R7/R9 200 series is a family of GPUs developed by AMD. These GPUs are manufactured on a 28 nm Gate-Last process through TSMC or Common Platform Alliance.[11]

Release[edit]

The Rx 200 series was announced on September 25, 2013, at the AMD GPU14 Tech Day event.[12] Non-disclosure agreements were lifted on October 15, except for the R9 290X, and pre-orders opened on October 3.[13]

Architecture[edit]

This article is about all products under the AMD Radeon Rx 200 Series brand.

  • A GPU implementing Graphics Core Next 3 (Volcanic Islands) is found on the R9 285 (Tonga Pro) branded products.
  • A GPU implementing Graphics Core Next 2 (Sea Islands) is found on R7 260 (Bonaire), R7 260X (Bonaire XTX), R9 290 (Hawaii Pro), R9 290X (Hawaii XT), and R9 295X2 (Vesuvius) branded products.
  • A GPU implementing Graphics Core Next 1 (Southern Islands) is found on R9 270, 270X, 280, 280X, R7 240, 250, 250X, 265, and R5 240 branded products.
  • A GPU implementing TeraScale 2 (VLIW5) (Northern Islands or Evergreen) is found on R5 235X and "below" branded products.
  • OpenGL 4.x compliance requires supporting FP64 shaders. These are implemented by emulation on some TeraScale (microarchitecture) GPUs.
  • Vulkan 1.0 requires GCN-Architecture. Vulkan 1.1 requires actual 2nd Gen. of GCN or higher.[14]

Multi-monitor support[edit]

The AMD Eyefinity-branded on-die display controllers were introduced in September 2009 in the Radeon HD 5000 Series and have been present in all products since.[15]

AMD TrueAudio[edit]

AMD TrueAudio was introduced with the AMD Radeon Rx 200 Series, but can only be found on the dies of GCN 2/3 products.

Video acceleration[edit]

AMD's SIP core for video acceleration, Unified Video Decoder and Video Coding Engine, are found on all GPUs and supported by AMD Catalyst and by the free and open-source graphics device driver.

Use in cryptocurrency mining[edit]

During 2014 the Radeon R9 200 series GPUs offered a very competitive price for usage in cryptocurrency mining. This led to limited supply and huge price increases of up to 164% over the MSRP in Q4 of 2013 and Q1 of 2014.[16][17] Since Q2 of 2018 availability of AMD GPUs as well as pricing has, in most cases, returned to normal.

CrossFire Compatibility[edit]

Because many of the products in the range are rebadged versions of Radeon HD products, they remain compatible with the original versions when used in CrossFire mode. For example, the Radeon HD 7770 and Radeon R7 250X both use the 'Cape Verde XT' chip so have identical specifications and will work in CrossFire mode. This provides a useful upgrade option for anyone who owns an existing Radeon HD card and has a CrossFire compatible motherboard.

Virtual super resolution support[edit]

Starting with the driver release candidate version v14.501-141112a-177751E, officially named as Catalyst Omega, AMD's driver release introduced VSR on the R9 285 and R9 290 series graphics cards. This feature allows users to run games with higher image quality by rendering frames at above native resolution. Each frame is then downsampled to native resolution. This process is an alternative to supersampling which is not supported by all games. Virtual super resolution is similar to Dynamic Super Resolution, a feature available on competing nVidia graphics cards, but trades flexibility for increased performance.[18][19]

OpenCL (API)[edit]

OpenCL accelerates many scientific Software Packages against CPU up to factor 10 or 100 and more. Open CL 1.0 to 1.2 are supported for all Chips with Terascale and GCN Architecture. OpenCL 2.0 is supported with GCN 2nd Gen. or 1.2 and higher) [20] For OpenCL 2.1 and 2.2 only Driver Updates are necessary with OpenCL 2.0 conformant Cards.

Vulkan (API)[edit]

API Vulkan 1.0 is supported for all with GCN Architecture. Vulkan 1.1 (GCN 2nd Gen. or 1.2 and higher) will be supported with actual drivers in 2018.[21]

Desktop models[edit]

Radeon R9 295X2[edit]

The Radeon R9 295X2 was released on April 21, 2014. It is a dual GPU card. Press samples were shipped in a metal case. It is the first reference card to utilize a closed looped liquid cooler.[22][23] At 11.5 teraflops of computing power, the R9 295X2 was the most powerful dual-gpu consumer-oriented card in the world, until it was succeeded by the Radeon Pro Duo on April 26, 2016, which is essentially a combination of two (2) R9 Fury X (Fiji XT) GPUs on a single card.[22] The R9 295x2 has essentially two R9 290x (Hawaii XT) GPUs each with 4GB GDDR5 VRAM. [22]

Radeon R9 290X[edit]

A R9 290X by Sapphire

The Radeon R9 290X, codename "Hawaii XT", was released on October 24, 2013 and features 2816 Stream Processors, 176 TMUs, 64 ROPs, 512-bit wide buses, 44 CUs (compute units) and 8 ACE units. The R9 290X had a launch price of $549.

Radeon R9 290[edit]

The Radeon R9 290 and R9 290X were announced on September 25, 2013.[24][25] The R9 290 is based on AMD's Hawaii Pro chip and R9 290X on Hawaii XT. R9 290 and R9 290X will support AMD TrueAudio, Mantle, Direct3D 11.2, and bridge-free Crossfire technology using XDMA. A limited "Battlefield 4 Edition" pre-order bundle of R9 290X that includes Battlefield 4 was available on October 3, 2013, with reported quantity being 8,000. The R9 290 had a launch price of $399.

Radeon R9 285[edit]

The Radeon R9 285 was announced on August 23, 2014 at AMD's 30 years of graphics celebration and released September 2, 2014. It was the first card to feature AMD's GCN 3 microarchitecture, in the form of a Tonga-series GPU.

Radeon R9 280X[edit]

Radeon R9 280X was announced on September 25, 2013. With a launch price of $299, it is based on the Tahiti XTL chip, being a slightly upgraded, rebranded Radeon HD 7970 GHz Edition.

Radeon R9 280[edit]

Radeon R9 280 was announced on March 4, 2014. With a launch MSRP set at $279, it is based on a rebranded Radeon HD 7950 with an increased clock speed, from 725 MHz to 975 MHz.[26][not in citation given]

Radeon R9 270X[edit]

Radeon R9 270X was announced on September 25, 2013. With a launch price of $199, it is based on the Curaçao XT chip, which was formerly called Pitcairn.[27] It is speculated to be faster than a Radeon HD 7870 GHz edition. Radeon R9 270 has a launch price of $179.

Radeon R7 260X[edit]

Radeon R7 260X was announced on September 25, 2013. With a launch price of $139, it is based on the Bonaire XTX chip, a faster iteration of Bonaire XT that the Radeon HD 7790 is based on. It will have 2 GB of GDDR5 memory as standard and will also feature TrueAudio, on-chip audio DSP based on Tensilica HiFi EP architecture. The stock card features a boost clock of 1100 MHz. It has 2 Gbs of GDDR5 memory with a 6.5 GHz memory clock over a 128-bit Interface. The 260X will draw around 115 W in typical use.[28][29]

Radeon R7 250[edit]

Radeon R7 250 was announced on September 25, 2013. It has a launch price of $89.[28] The card is based on the Oland core with 384 GCN cores. In February 10, 2014, AMD announced the R7 250X which is based on the Cape Verde GPU with 640 GCN cores and an MSRP of $99.[30]

Chipset table[edit]

Desktop models[edit]

Model
(Codename)
Launch Architecture
(Fab)
Transistors
Die Size
Core Fillrate[a][b][c] Processing power[a][d]
(GFLOPS)
Memory TBP (W) Bus interface Release Price (USD)
Config[e] Clock[a] (MHz) Texture (GT/s) Pixel (GP/s) Single Double Bus type
& width
Size (MiB) Clock (MT/s) Band-
width (GB/s)
Radeon
R5 210[31]
(Cedar)
Unknown Terascale 2
(40 nm)
292×106
59 mm2
80:8:4 400 1.6 3.2 64 N/A DDR3
64-bit
256 900 7.2 19 PCIe 2.1 ×16 OEM
Radeon
R5 220[31]
(Caicos Pro)
Unknown 370×106
67 mm2
80:8:4 625
650
2.5 5 200 N/A DDR3
64-bit
1024 1066 8.53 18 OEM
Radeon
R5 230[32]
(Caicos Pro)
April 3, 2014[33] 160:8:4 625 2.5 5 200 N/A DDR3
64-bit
1024
2048
1066 8.53 19[34] Unknown
Radeon
R5 235[31]
(Caicos XT)
Unknown 160:8:4 775 3.1 6.2 248 N/A DDR3
64-bit
1024 1800 14.4 35[35] OEM
Radeon
R5 235X[31]
(Caicos XT)
Unknown 160:8:4 875 3.5 7.0 280 N/A DDR3
64-bit
1024 1800 14.4 18 OEM
Radeon
R5 240[31]
(Oland)
November 1, 2013[36] GCN 1st gen
(28 nm)
1040×106
90 mm2
320:20:8 730
780
5.84 14.6 467.2
499.2
29.2 DDR3
GDDR5
128-bit
1024
2048
1800
?
28.8
?
50 PCIe 3.0 ×8 OEM
Radeon
R7 240[37]
(Oland Pro)
August 8, 2013 320:20:8 730
780
5.84 14.6 467.2
499.2
29.2 DDR3
GDDR5
128-bit
2048 1800
4500
28.8
72
30 $69
Radeon
R7 250[37]
(Oland XT)
August 8, 2013 384:24:8 1000
(1050)
8 24 768
806.4
48 DDR3
GDDR5
128-bit
1024
2048
1800
4600
73.6 75 $89
Radeon
R7 250E[38]
(Cape Verde Pro)
December 21, 2013 1500×106
123 mm2
512:32:16 800 12.8 25.6 819.2 51.2 GDDR5
128-bit
1024
2048
4500 72 55 PCIe 3.0 ×16 Unknown
Radeon
R7 250X[37]
(Cape Verde XT)
February 10, 2014 640:40:16 1000 16 40 1280 80 GDDR5
128-bit
1024
2048
4500 72 95 $99
Radeon
R7 260[37]
(Bonaire)
December 17, 2013 GCN 2nd gen
(28 nm)
2080×106
160 mm2
768:48:16 1000 16 48 1536 96 GDDR5
128-bit
1024 6000 96 95 $109
Radeon
R7 260X[37]
(Bonaire XTX)
August 8, 2013 896:56:16 1100 17.6 61.6 1971.2 123.2 GDDR5
128-bit
1024
2048
6500 104 115 $139
Radeon
R7 265[37]
(Pitcairn Pro)
February 13, 2014 GCN 1st gen
(28 nm)
2800×106
212 mm2
1024:64:32 900
925
28.8 57.6 1843.2 115.2 GDDR5
256-bit
2048 5600 179.2 150 $149
Radeon
R9 270[39]
(Pitcairn XT)
November 13, 2013 1280:80:32 900
925
28.8 72 2304
2368
144
148
GDDR5
256-bit
2048 5600 179.2 150 $179
Radeon
R9 270X)[39]
(Pitcairn XT)
August 8, 2013 1280:80:32 1000
1050
32 80 2560
2688
160
168
GDDR5
256-bit
2048
4096
5600 179.2 180 $199
Radeon
R9 280[39]
(Tahiti Pro)
March 4, 2014 4313×106
352 mm2
1792:112:32 827
933
26.5 92.6 2964
3343.9
741
836
GDDR5
384-bit
3072 5000 240 250 $249
Radeon
R9 280X[39]
(Tahiti XTL)[40]
August 8, 2013 2048:128:32 850
1000
27.2–32 109–128 3481.6
4096
870.4
1024
GDDR5
384-bit
3072 6000 288 250 $299
Radeon
R9 285[39]
(Tonga Pro)
September 2, 2014 GCN 3rd gen
(28 nm)
5000×106
359 mm2[41]
1792:112:32 918 29.4 102.8 3290 206.6[42] GDDR5
256-bit
2048 5500 176[f] 190 $249
Radeon
R9 290[39]
(Hawaii Pro)
November 5, 2013 GCN 2nd gen
(28 nm)
6200×106
438 mm2[44]
2560:160:64 up to 947[g] 60.608 151.52 4848.6 606.1 GDDR5
512-bit
4096 5000 320 250[46] $399
Radeon
R9 290X[39]
(Hawaii XT)
October 24, 2013
November 6, 2014[47]
2816:176:64 1000[g] 64 176 5632 704 GDDR5
512-bit
4096
8192
5000 320 250[46] $549
Radeon
R9 295X2[39][48]
(Vesuvius)
April 8, 2014 6200×106
2× 438 mm2
2× 2816:176:64 1018 130.3 358.33 11466.75 1433.34 GDDR5
512-bit
2× 4096 5000 2× 320 500 $1499
Model
(Codename)
Launch Architecture
(Fab)
Transistors
Die Size
Config[e] Clock[a] (MHz) Pixel (GP/s) Texture (GT/s) Single Double Bus type
& width
Size (MiB) Clock (MT/s) Band-
width (GB/s)
TBP (W) Bus interface Release Price (USD)
Core Fillrate[a][b][c] Processing power[a][d]
(GFLOPS)
Memory
  1. ^ a b c d e f Boost values (if available) are stated below the base value in italic.
  2. ^ a b Texture fillrate is calculated as the number of Texture Mapping Units multiplied by the base (or boost) core clock speed.
  3. ^ a b Pixel fillrate is calculated as the number of Render Output Units multiplied by the base (or boost) core clock speed.
  4. ^ a b Precision performance is calculated from the base (or boost) core clock speed based on a FMA operation.
  5. ^ a b Unified Shaders : Texture Mapping Units : Render Output Units
  6. ^ The R9 285 utilizes loss-less colour compression which can increase effective memory performance (relative to GCN 1st gen and 2nd gen cards) in certain situations.[41][43]
  7. ^ a b Base clock of R9 290 and R9 290X will maintain at 947 MHz and 1000 MHz before reaching 95 °C, respectively.[45]


Mobile models[edit]

Model
(Codename)
Launch Architecture
(Fab)
Core Fillrate[a][b][c] Processing power[a][d]
(GFLOPS)
Memory TDP
Config[e] Clock[a] (MHz) Texture (GT/s) Pixel (GP/s) Bus type
& width
Size (GiB) Clock (MT/s) Band-
width (GB/s)
Radeon
R5 M230
(Jet Pro)
2014 GCN 1st gen
(28 nm)
320:20:8:5 780
855
3.4 17.1 547 DDR3
64-bit
2
4
1000 16 Unknown
Radeon
R5 M255
(Jet Pro)
June 2014 320:20:8:5 925
940
7.5 18.8 601 DDR3
64-bit
2
4
1000 16 Unknown
Radeon
R7 M260
(Topaz)
June 2014 384:24:8:6 620
980
5.7
7.8
17.2
23.5
549.1
752.6
DDR3
64-bit
2
4
1000 32
16
Unknown
Radeon
R7 M260X
(Opal)
June 2014 384:24:8:6 620
715
5.7 17.2 549 GDDR5
128-bit
2
4
1000 64 Unknown
Radeon
R7 M265
(Opal XT)
May 2014 384:24:8:6 725
825
6.6 19.8 633.6 DDR3
64-bit
2
4
1000 16
32
Unknown
Radeon
R9 M265X
(Venus Pro)
May 2014 640:40:16:10 575
625
10 25 800 GDDR5
128-bit
2
4
1125 72 Unknown
Radeon
R9 M270X
(Venus XT)
May 2014 640:40:16:10 725
775
12.4 31 992 GDDR5
128-bit
2
4
1125 72 Unknown
Radeon
R9 M275X
(Venus XTX)
May 2014 640:40:16:10 900
925
14.8 37 1184 GDDR5
128-bit
2
4
1125 72 50 W
Radeon
R9 M280X
(Saturn XT)
February 2015 GCN 2nd gen
(28 nm)
896:56:16:14 1000
1100
17.6 61.6 1792 GDDR5
128-bit
2
4
1500 96 ~75 W
Radeon
R9 M290X
(Neptune XT)
May 2014 GCN 1st gen
(28 nm)
1280:80:32:20 850
900
28.8 72 2176
2304
GDDR5
256-bit
4 1200 153.6 100 W
Radeon
R9 M295X
(Amethyst XT)
2014 GCN 3rd gen
(28 nm)
2048:128:32:32 750
800
25.6 102.4 3276.8 GDDR5
256-bit
4 1375 176 250 W
  1. ^ a b c Boost values (if available) are stated below the base value in italic.
  2. ^ Texture fillrate is calculated as the number of Texture Mapping Units multiplied by the base (or boost) core clock speed.
  3. ^ Pixel fillrate is calculated as the number of Render Output Units multiplied by the base (or boost) core clock speed.
  4. ^ Precision performance is calculated from the base (or boost) core clock speed based on a FMA operation.
  5. ^ Unified Shaders : Texture Mapping Units : Render Output Units


Radeon Feature Matrix[edit]

The following table shows features of Radeon-branded GPU microarchitectures.

R100 R200 R300 R400 R500 R600 RV670 R700 Evergreen Northern
Islands
Southern
Islands
Sea
Islands
Volcanic
Islands
Arctic
Islands
Vega
Released Apr 2000 Aug 2001 Sep 2002 May 2004 Oct 2005 May 2007 Nov 2007 Jun 2008 Sep 2009 Oct 2010 Jan 2012 Sep 2013 Jun 2015 Jun 2016 Jun 2017
AMD support Ended Current
Instruction set Not publicly known TeraScale instruction set GCN instruction set
Microarchitecture TeraScale 1 (VLIW5) TeraScale 2 (VLIW5) TeraScale 3 (VLIW4) GCN 1st gen GCN 2nd gen GCN 3rd gen GCN 4th gen GCN 5th gen
Type Fixed pipeline[a] Programmable pixel & vertex pipelines Unified shader model
Direct3D 7.0 8.1 9.0
11 (9_2)
9.0b
11 (9_2)
9.0c
11 (9_3)
10.0
11 (10_0)
10.1
11 (10_1)
11 (11_0) 11 (11_1)
12 (11_1)
11 (12_0)
12 (12_0)
11 (12_1)
12 (12_1)
Shader model N/A 1.4 2.0+ 2.0b 3.0 4.0 4.1 5.0 5.1
6.0
OpenGL 1.3 2.0[b] 3.3 4.4[c] 4.6 with GLSL 4.5 (Linux 4.5+)
Vulkan N/A Linux Mesa 17+
Win 7+: 1.0
1.1
OpenCL N/A Close to Metal 1.1 1.2 2.0 (2.1 in Windows Adrenalin, 1.2 in Linux)
HSA N/A Yes
Power saving ? PowerPlay PowerTune PowerTune & ZeroCore Power
Video decoder ASIC N/A Avivo/UVD UVD+ UVD 2 UVD 2.2 UVD 3 UVD 4 UVD 4.2 UVD 5.0 or 6.0 UVD 6.3 UVD 7[49][d]
Video encoding ASIC N/A VCE 1.0 VCE 2.0 VCE 3.0 or 3.1 VCE 3.4 VCE 4.0[49][d]
TrueAudio N/A Via dedicated DSP Via shaders
FreeSync N/A 1
2
HDCP[e] ? 1.4 1.4
2.2
PlayReady[e] N/A 3.0
Max. displays[f] 1–2 2 2–6
Max. resolution ? 2–6 × 2560×1600 2–6 × 4096×2160 @ 60 Hz 2–6 × 5120×2880 @ 60 Hz 3 × 7680×4320 @ 60 Hz[50]
/drm/radeon[g] Yes N/A
/drm/amdgpu[g] N/A Experimental[51] Yes
  1. ^ The Radeon 100 Series has programmable pixel shaders, but do not fully comply with DirectX 8 or Pixel Shader 1.0. See article on R100's pixel shaders.
  2. ^ These series do not fully comply with OpenGL 2+ as the hardware does not support all types of non power of two (NPOT) textures.
  3. ^ OpenGL 4+ compliance requires supporting FP64 shaders and these are emulated on some TeraScale chips using 32-bit hardware.
  4. ^ a b The UVD and VCE were replaced by the Video Core Next (VCN) ASIC in the Raven Ridge APU implementation of Vega.
  5. ^ a b To play protected video content, it also requires card, operating system, driver, and application support. A compatible HDCP display is also needed for this. HDCP is mandatory for the output of certain audio formats, placing additional constraints on the multimedia setup.
  6. ^ More displays may be supported with native DisplayPort connections, or splitting the maximum resolution between multiple monitors with active converters.
  7. ^ a b DRM (Direct Rendering Manager) is a component of the Linux kernel. Support in this table refers to the most current version.

Graphics device drivers[edit]

AMD's proprietary graphics device driver "Catalyst"[edit]

AMD Catalyst is being developed for Microsoft Windows and Linux. As of July 2014, other operating system are not officially supported. This may be different for the AMD FirePro brand, which is based on identical hardware but features OpenGL-certified graphics device drivers.

AMD Catalyst supports of course all features advertised for the Radeon brand.

Free and open-source graphics device driver "Radeon"[edit]

The free and open-source drivers are primarily developed on Linux and for Linux, but have been ported to other operating systems as well. Each driver is composed out of five parts:

  1. Linux kernel component DRM
  2. Linux kernel component KMS driver: basically the device driver for the display controller
  3. user-space component libDRM
  4. user-space component in Mesa 3D;
  5. a special and distinct 2D graphics device driver for X.Org Server, which if finally about to be replaced by Glamor

The free and open-source "Radeon" graphics driver supports most of the features implemented into the Radeon line of GPUs.[6] Unlike the nouveau project for Nvidia graphics cards, the open-source "Radeon" drivers are not reverse engineered, but based on documentation released by AMD.[52]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "AMD Catalyst™ 15.7.1 Driver for Windows® Release Notes". AMD. Retrieved 2018-04-20.
  2. ^ "AMD OpenCL™ 2.0 Driver". AMD. Retrieved 2018-04-20.
  3. ^ "AMD Radeon Software Crimson Edition 16.3 Release Notes". AMD. Retrieved 2018-04-20.
  4. ^ "AMDGPU-PRO Driver for Linux Release Notes". 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-12-11. Retrieved 2018-04-23.
  5. ^ "Mesamatrix". mesamatrix.net. Retrieved 2018-04-22.
  6. ^ a b "RadeonFeature". X.Org Foundation. Retrieved 2018-04-20.
  7. ^ https://www.geeks3d.com/20180501/amd-adrenalin-18-4-1-graphics-driver-released-opengl-4-6-vulkan-1-1-70/
  8. ^ "Radeon Software Adrenalin Edition 18.3.4 Release Notes". AMD. Retrieved 2018-04-20.
  9. ^ "Radeon™ Software for Linux® with Vulkan® 1.1 support". AMD. Retrieved 2018-04-21.
  10. ^ "AMD Open Source Driver for Vulkan". GPUOpen. Retrieved 2018-04-20.
  11. ^ "AMD Launches Next Generation Volcanic Islands (VI) GPUs in 2014 - Successor to Sea Islands". WCCFtech.
  12. ^ Ryan Smith. "AMD Announces Next Generation Radeon R7 and R9 Video Cards". anandtech.com.
  13. ^ Sebastian Pop (30 September 2013). "Launch Date Revealed for AMD Radeon R9 290X Hawaii Graphics Card". softpedia.
  14. ^ https://www.khronos.org/conformance/adopters/conformant-products#submission_318
  15. ^ "AMD Eyefinity: FAQ". AMD. 2011-05-17. Retrieved 2014-07-02.
  16. ^ Ryan Smith. "Radeon R9 290X Retail Prices Hit $900". anandtech.com.
  17. ^ "AMD graphics card pricing skyrockets due to cryptocurrency mining, could kill AMD's gaming efforts". ExtremeTech.
  18. ^ Smith, Ryan. "The AMD Radeon R9 Fury X Review". Anandtech. Purch. p. 8. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
  19. ^ Kowaliski, Cyril. "Catalyst Omega driver adds more than 20 features, 400 bug fixes". TechReport.com. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  20. ^ https://www.khronos.org/conformance/adopters/conformant-products
  21. ^ https://www.khronos.org/conformance/adopters/conformant-products
  22. ^ a b c AMD Radeon R9 Series Graphics Archived April 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  23. ^ Ryan Smith. "Meet the Radeon R9 295X2: Cooling & Power Delivery - The AMD Radeon R9 295X2 Review". anandtech.com.
  24. ^ "What to expect from GPU14 event in Hawaii". Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  25. ^ "AMD GPU Lineup Announced: R9 and R7 Series". pcper.com.
  26. ^ Ryan Smith. "AMD Announces Radeon R9 280: Radeon HD 7950 w/Boost Returns". anandtech.com.
  27. ^ Woligroski, Don. "AMD Radeon R9 270 Review: Replacing The Radeon HD 7800s". TomsHardware.com. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
  28. ^ a b "AMD Releases R7 Series Graphics Cards With AMD Radeon R7 240, AMD Radeon R7 250 and AMD Radeon R7 260X GPUs". Advanced Micro Devices. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
  29. ^ Ung, Gordon Mah (8 October 2013). "Everything You Wanted to Know About AMD's New TrueAudio Technology". maximumpc. Archived from the original on 11 July 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  30. ^ Ryan Smith. "AMD Announces Radeon R7 250X; Shipping Today". anandtech.com.
  31. ^ a b c d e "Radeon™ R5 Series Graphics Cards | OEM | AMD". www.amd.com. Retrieved 2017-03-13.
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