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ANDi is the first genetically modified rhesus monkey who was born at Oregon Health Sciences University (OHSU) on October 2, 2000. OHSU named the monkey ANDi because it stands for “inserted DNA” spelled backward.
ANDi was born with an extra glowing gene called green fluorescent protein (GFP). This GFP gene, which is naturally occurring in jellyfish, was taken from a jellyfish and genetically added to ANDi’s DNA sequence through his chromosomes. OHSU used rhesus monkeys because they share 95% of the same genes as humans.
Genetic modification method
During the method in which ANDi was created, two hundred twenty-four eggs were injected with the protein and only 166 or 75% were successfully fertilized. One-hundred-twenty-six or 76% of these fertilized eggs developed to the four-cell-stage embryos. Forty of the fertilized embryos were implanted in 20 surrogate rhesus mothers, each carrying two embryos. Five of the surrogates became pregnant. From these five surrogates, three live births proceeded. In these three monkey births only one infant, ANDi, carried the transgene. Research team leader Gerald Schatten said the technique that created ANDi would become a vital tool for scientists investigating therapies for human diseases.
By being able to genetically modify a monkey, a new breakthrough in technology was formed. ANDi was created in the hope of finding a cure for complicated human diseases such as cancer. Since ANDi was born, scientists want to introduce more significant DNA changes. Scientists are looking to make genetic modifications such as those that would make primates closely mimic human diseases like breast cancer or HIV. Scientists also want to try to study and cure other diseases through trans genetics such as Alzheimer's, AIDS, and diabetes.
Although ANDi is a carrier of the gene it does not appear to be functional - ANDi does not actually glow.
- Chiang, Mona (12 February 2001). "Monkey See, Monkey Glow". Science World: pg. 7. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- Dunnett, Stephen (May 2001). "Reverse transcription of inserted DNA in a monkey gives us ANDi". Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 22 (5): 221. doi:10.1016/s0165-6147(00)01707-7.
- "Glowing future for GM monkey". The Australian: 12.
- Sawicki, Stephen (2001). "Genetic Engineering Results in First Primate Deliberately Mutated". Animals: 2.
- McCall, WilliM. "Meet ANDi the first GM monkey".
- Coghlan, Andy. "GM monkey passes jellyfish gene to offspring". New Scientist. Retrieved 13 December 2013.