Ateliers de Construction du Nord de la France was a French locomotive manufacturer, based at Crespin in the Arrondissement of Valenciennes, northern France. Later known as ANF Industrie or ANF the company was acquired by Bombardier Transportation in 1989 and is now part of Bombardier Transport France S.A.S.
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Les Ateliers de Construction du Nord de la France (The Construction Workshops in the North of France) was founded in 1882 as a subsidiary of Franco-Belgian company La Métallurgique.[n 1] The company was established to avoid import tariffs imposed in 1881 in France on goods imported from Belgium.
In 1913 the Trust Métallurgique Belge-Français reorganised; the factories in La Louvière, Belgium (the former Nicaise et Delcuve) were combined with other of the Trust Métallurgique Belge-Français interests in Belgian industry (including La Société la Brugeoise) to form La Société La Brugeoise et Nicaise et Delcuve, and the Ateliers du Nord de la France became an entirely French concern.
During World War One the factory was occupied by the Germans, and its material removed to Germany. Post war the factory was rebuilt and its machinery recovered. By 1928 production had reached pre-war levels and employed around 4000 people. The Great Depression caused a reduction in the workforce to half previous, and a similar decrease in production.
During the Second World War the main ANF plant at Blanc-Misseron initially produced orders for military use, and was later occupied by the German forces. The plant was a target of Allied bombing in 1944 due to its use in keeping the rail network in occupied territory running.
Between 1986 and 1988, the 425 R68 New York City Subway Cars were manufactured by Westinghouse Amrail Company, a joint venture of Westinghouse and Francorail (itself a joint venture of ANF Industrie, Jeumont Schneider, and Alsthom), with ANF Industrie as leader.
In 1987 the Francorail industrial association ended, due to the transfer of Schneider group's railway activities to Alsthom; the resultant isolation of ANF within the railway sector led to its acquisition by Bombardier in 1989. In November 2001 after the acquisition of Adtranz, Bombardier indicated that the plant would be one of three main sites in Europe for bogie manufacture, and a core site for final assembly. Bombardier has made the plant one of its key production sites with over 2000 employees (2010), and claims an investment of over €500 million. The site accounts for around one third of French domestic passenger rail production.
- La Brugeoise et Nivelles, Belgian rolling stock manufacturer, now part of Bombardier Transportation
- Société Franco-Belge, rolling stock manufacture, now part of Alstom with factory located at Raismes, Valenciennes, France
- Piers Connor. "DISTRICT ELECTRIC TRAINS 3 – FROM A TO B" (PDF). lurs.org.uk. London Underground Railway Society (LURS). p. 11.
- Paloma Fernández Pérez (2007). Del metal al motor: innovación y atraso en la historia de la industria metal-mecánica española (in Spanish). Fundacion BBVA. p. 292.
- Odette Hardy-Hémery (1985). Industries, patronat et ouvriers du Valenciennois pendant le premier XXème siècle: développements et restructurations capitalistes a l'âge du charbon et de l'acier (in French) 1. Atelier national de reproduction des thèses, Université Lille III. p. 226.
- Marie-Thérèse Bitsch (1994). La Belgique entre la France et l'Allemagne, 1905-1914 (in French). Publications de la Sorbonne. pp. 232–3.
- René Fruit (1963), La croissance économique du pays de Saint-Amand (Nord) 1668-1914 (in French), A. Colin, footnote 161, p.230
- A forerunner of the Belgian rail vehicle manufacturing company La Brugeoise et Nivelles
- d'Ambrières 2011, §3-4.
- d'Ambrières 2011, §5.
- d'Ambrières 2011, §8.
- d'Ambrières 2011, §24-26.
- Mass Transit 14, 1987: 10
- "NYCTA Gets Last Of R68s", Modern Railroads 43 (12-23), 1988: 16
- d'Ambrières 2011, §30.
- "Bombardier Transportation - A Global Transportation Leader" (PDF). Japan Railway & Transport Review (42). December 2005.
- "Bombardier Sets Course for the Future With New European Passenger-Vehicle Manufacturing Network Strategy", www.thefreelibrary.com (Business Wire), 13 November 2001
- Bombardier Transport en France (PDF) (in French), Bombardier Transportation, pp. 4–6, retrieved 10 January 2012
- Le site de Crespin : la réussite d’un intégrateur ferroviaire (PDF) (in French), Bombardier Transportation, June 2008, archived from the original (PDF) on 19 September 2008
- d'Ambrières, René (2011), "Les Pelabon : entre industrie et patriotisme, ou des ANF aux Mureaux en passant par Londres", Bulletin de la Sabix (in French) 48
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