From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
3D model (JSmol)
Molar mass 717.634 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

ANNINE-6plus is a water soluble voltage sensitive dye (also called potentiometric dyes). This compound was developed at the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry in Germany.[1] It is used to optically measure the changes in transmembrane voltage of excitable cells, including neurons, skeletal and cardiac myocytes.

Voltage sensitivity[edit]

ANNINE-6plus has a fractional fluorescent intensity changeF/F per 100 mV change) of about 30% with single-photon excitation (~488 nm) and >50% with two-photon excitation (~1060 nm).


ANNINE-6plus has been applied in the microscopic imaging of action potentials of cardiomyocyte in perfused mice heart.[2] Using confocal microscopy in conjunction with ANNINE-6plus, single sweep action potentials with high peak signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) have been recorded from single transverse tubule (t-tubule) of a few micrometers in the ventricular cardiomyocyte.


  1. ^ Peter Fromherz; et al. (2008). "ANNINE-6plus, a voltage-sensitive dye with good solubility, strong membrane binding and high sensitivity". European Biophysics Journal. 37 (4): 509–514. doi:10.1007/s00249-007-0210-y. PMC 2755735. PMID 17687549.
  2. ^ Guixue Bu; et al. (2009). "Uniform action potential repolarization within the sarcolemma of in situ ventricular cardiomyocytes". Biophysical Journal. 96 (6): 2532–2546. Bibcode:2009BpJ....96.2532B. doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2008.12.3896. PMC 2907679. PMID 19289075.