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|Developed by||Dynastream Innovations Inc.|
ANT is a proprietary open access multicast wireless sensor network technology designed and marketed by ANT Wireless. It features a wireless communications protocol stack that enables semiconductor radios operating in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical allocation of the RF spectrum ("ISM band") to communicate by establishing standard rules for co-existence, data representation, signalling, authentication, and error detection.
ANT-powered nodes are capable of acting as slaves or masters within a wireless sensor network concurrently. This means the nodes can act as transmitters, receivers, or transceivers to route traffic to other nodes. In addition, every node is capable of determining when to transmit based on the activity of its neighbors.
ANT has been primarily targeted at the sports sector, particularly fitness and cycling performance monitoring. The transceivers are embedded in equipment such as heart rate monitors, watches, cycling power meters, cadence meters, and distance and speed monitors to form wireless Personal area networks (PANs) monitoring a user's performance.
ANT can be configured to spend long periods in a low-power “sleep” mode (consuming of the order of microamps of current), wake up briefly to communicate (when consumption rises to a peak of 22mA (at -5dB) during reception and 13.5mA (at -5 dB) during transmission) and return to sleep mode. Average current consumption for low message rates is less than 60 microamps on some devices.
Each ANT channel consists of one or more transmitting nodes and one or more receiving nodes, depending on the network topology. Any node can transmit or receive, so the channels are bi-directional.
ANT accommodates three types of messaging: broadcast, acknowledged, and burst. Broadcast is a one-way communication from one node to another (or many). The receiving node(s) transmit no acknowledgment, but the receiving node may still send messages back to the transmitting node. This technique is suited to sensor applications and is the most economical method of operation.
Acknowledged messaging confirms receipt of data packets. The transmitter is informed of success or failure, although there are no retransmissions. This technique is suited to control applications.
ANT can also be used for burst messaging; this is a multi-message transmission technique using the full data bandwidth and running to completion. The receiving node acknowledges receipt and informs of corrupted packets that the transmitter then re-sends. The packets are sequence numbered for traceability. This technique is suited to data block transfer where the integrity of the data is paramount.
Comparison with Bluetooth, Bluetooth Low Energy, and ZigBee
Versions of the Bluetooth prior to v4.0 were designed for relatively high bit rate data transfers within a small personal area network of no more than eight active nodes. This allows music streaming, rapid file transfer and similar high data rate transfers between devices such as PDAs, cell-phones, and laptops.
In comparison, ANT was designed for much lower bit rate, larger scale sensor network topologies that require very low, coin cell class power consumption at every node, and the data rate is consequently significantly lower than Bluetooth.
Bluetooth SMART, or Bluetooth Low Energy, was introduced as part of Bluetooth V4.0 and is a closer match to the functionality offered by ANT. Like ANT it is intended for low data rate messaging by low power wireless embedded devices operating on a single coin-cell battery from months or years.
Bluetooth SMART supports an unlimited number of nodes through scatternets and broadcasting between devices. A mesh can be implemented on top of the scatternet. A single hop typically has communication range between 50 m to 100 m (330 ft). SMART is the hallmark feature of Bluetooth 4.0. In comparison, ANT uses adaptive isochronous transmission to allow very many ANT devices to communicate concurrently without interference with one another. This allows ANT networks to scale in size to potentially tens of thousands of devices using ANT 'shared channels', 'continuous scanning mode', or 'background scanning'.
|Topologies||Point-to-point, star, free, mesh||Point-to-point, scatternet||Point-to-point, star|
|Range||30 metres at 0 dBm||1–100 metres||10–100 metres||10–100 metres|
|Max data rate||1 Mbit/s||1-3 Mbit/s||1 Mbit/s||250 kbit/s (at 2.4 GHz)|
|Application throughput||~20 kbit/s||0.7-2.1 Mbit/s||305 kbit/s|
|Max nodes in piconet||65533 per shared channel (8 shared channels) ||1 master and 7 active slaves, 200+ inactive||1 master and 7 slaves (but scatternet unlimited)||star - 65536|
|Security||64 bit key||56-128 bit key||AES-128||AES-128|
ANT, ZigBee, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and some cordless phones all use the 2.4 GHz band (as well as 868- and 915 MHz for regional variants in the latter's case), along with proprietary forms of wireless Ethernet and wireless USB.
Wi-Fi/ZigBee and Bluetooth employ Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) schemes respectively to maintain the integrity of the wireless link.
ANT uses an adaptive isochronous network technology to ensure coexistence with other ANT devices. This scheme provides the ability for each transmission to occur in an interference free time slot within the defined frequency band. The radio transmits for less than 150 µs per message, allowing a single channel to be divided into hundreds of time slots. The ANT messaging period (the time between each node transmitting its data) determines how many time slots are available.
ANT's adaptive isochronous scheme doesn't require a master clock. Transmitters start broadcasting at regular intervals but then modify the transmission timing if interference from a neighbor is detected on a particular time slot. This flexibility allows ANT to adapt to hostile conditions but ensures there is no overhead when interference is not present.
If the radio environment is very crowded, ANT can use frequency agility to allow an application microcontroller-controlled "hop" to an alternative 1 MHz channel in the 2.4 GHz band which can then be subdivided into timeslots.
ANT+ is an interoperability function that can be added to the base ANT protocol. This standardization allows for the networking of nearby ANT+ devices to facilitate the open collection and interpretation of sensor data. For example, ANT+ enabled fitness monitoring devices such as heart rate monitors, pedometers, speed monitors, and weight scales can all work together to assemble and track performance metrics.
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- Thomas Aasebø. "Near Field Communication, Bluetooth, ZigBee & ANT+ lecture notes" (PDF).
- Bluetooth SIG
- Dynastream Innovations
- Nordic Semiconductor
- Texas Instruments - ANT connectivity solutions
- Wi-Fi Alliance
- Zigbee Alliance
- Open-source communication tool (antpm)